87,289 results match your criteria Alcoholism clinical and experimental research[Journal]


The Impact of obesity and diabetes mellitus on pancreatic cancer: Molecular mechanisms and clinical perspectives.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Western world has increased dramatically during the recent decades. According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The relationship among obesity, T2DM and PC is complex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15413DOI Listing

Genome-wide meta-analysis of problematic alcohol use in 435,563 individuals yields insights into biology and relationships with other traits.

Nat Neurosci 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Problematic alcohol use (PAU) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although genome-wide association studies have identified PAU risk genes, the genetic architecture of this trait is not fully understood. We conducted a proxy-phenotype meta-analysis of PAU, combining alcohol use disorder and problematic drinking, in 435,563 European-ancestry individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0643-5DOI Listing

The Effects of Low-Risk Drinking ON Neurocognition Among Older Persons Living with HIV as Compared to Those Without HIV.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Heavy alcohol use negatively impacts neurocognition, but some studies report neurocognitive benefits associated with light drinking among HIV-seronegative (HIV-) older persons, suggesting a non-linear or an inverted "J-shaped" association of alcohol consumption on neurocognition. Alcohol use is common among people with HIV (PWH), however, the association between recent "low-risk" alcohol consumption and neurocognition among PWH is poorly understood.

Methods: Participants included 310 PWH and 89 HIV- older (≥50 years) adults who reported alcohol abstinence or "low-risk" drinking, defined per the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14379DOI Listing

Network connectivity predicts language processing in healthy adults.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Brain imaging has been used to predict language skills during development and neuropathology but its accuracy in predicting language performance in healthy adults has been poorly investigated. To address this shortcoming, we studied the ability to predict reading accuracy and single-word comprehension scores from rest- and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets of 424 healthy adults. Using connectome-based predictive modeling, we identified functional brain networks with >400 edges that predicted language scores and were reproducible in independent data sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25042DOI Listing

Alcohol use in adolescents and adult psychopathology and social outcomes: Findings from a 35-year cohort study.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2020 May 23:4867420924091. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

Objective: To examine the consequences of alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol use disorder during adolescence and later adulthood psychopathology and social outcomes.

Methods: A longitudinal, prospective birth cohort study, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, was examined across a 35-year period. We estimated the associations between two measures of adolescent alcohol use (volume of alcohol consumed and symptoms of alcohol use disorder) and two later internalising disorders, externalising psychopathology measured by substance use disorders and psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, adjusting for individual and family factors from childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867420924091DOI Listing

Nutrition and behavioral health disorders: depression and anxiety.

Nutr Rev 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Nutrition Policy Institute, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Berkeley, California, USA.

Suboptimal nutrition has been implicated in the underlying pathology of behavioral health disorders and may impede treatment and recovery. Thus, optimizing nutritional status should be a treatment for these disorders and is likely important for prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe the global burden and features of depression and anxiety, and summarize recent evidence regarding the role of diet and nutrition in the prevention and management of depression and anxiety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa025DOI Listing

PPARγ activation by pioglitazone does not suppress cravings for alcohol, and is associated with a risk of myopathy in treatment seeking alcohol dependent patients: a randomized controlled proof of principle study.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Rationale: Proinflammatory processes have been implicated in alcohol addiction, craving, and relapse, while studies in experimental animals have suggested that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibits proinflammatory signaling. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that medications with PPARγ activity may have therapeutic potential in alcohol dependence.

Objectives: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled mechanistic proof of principle study in alcohol-dependent inpatients to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on alcohol craving. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05540-wDOI Listing

Gestational alcohol exposure disrupts cognitive function and striatal circuits in adult offspring.

Nat Commun 2020 May 22;11(1):2555. Epub 2020 May 22.

Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) is the leading preventable developmental cause of cognitive dysfunction. Even in the absence of binge drinking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy can leave offspring deficient. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16385-4DOI Listing

Effects of the Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5, VU-29, on Maintenance Association between Environmental Cues and Rewarding Properties of Ethanol in Rats.

Biomolecules 2020 May 20;10(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in various forms of synaptic plasticity, including drugs of abuse. In drug-addicted individuals, associative memories can drive relapse to drug use. The present study investigated the potential of the mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), VU-29 (30 mg/kg, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050793DOI Listing

Selective alterations in endogenous opioid system genes expression in rats selected for high ethanol intake during adolescence.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Apr 28;212:108025. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Università degli Studi di Teramo, Teramo, Italy; Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Historically, the roots of alcoholism have been linked to either environment or heredity. However, the interaction between these factors is still largely unexplored. The evidence supports a link between alcohol consumption and the endogenous opioid system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108025DOI Listing

Repurposing Disulfiram as an Anti-Obesity Drug: Treating and Preventing Obesity in High-Fat-Fed Rats.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 4;13:1473-1480. Epub 2020 May 4.

College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background And Objectives: A drug repurposing strategy is an approach for identifying new therapeutic uses for approved or investigational drugs. Thanks to the moderate cost of repurposing a drug compared to bringing new chemical entity to the market, drug repurposing is rapidly gaining ground. The aim of this work is to study the anti-obesity effect of disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat chronic alcoholism since 1951. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S254267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210036PMC

Middle meningeal artery embolization reduces the post-operative recurrence rate of at-risk chronic subdural hematoma.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Neuroradiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) has emerged as a potential treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs).

Objective: To evaluate the impact on recurrence rate of postsurgical embolization of CSDH in patients with a higher than average risk of recurrence.

Methods: A monocentric retrospective study was performed on retrospectively collected data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016048DOI Listing

Endocannabinoid System and Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Patients With Pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Comorbid Mood Disorders.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 6;14:52. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Pharmacobiology, Center of Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico.

Experimental evidence points out that the activation of the endocannabinoid system induces neuroprotective effects and reduces mood disorders. In the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), studies indicated augmented cannabinoid 1 receptor (CBR) binding, in spite of its low mRNA and protein expressions. Although this situation suggests an enhanced CBR-induced neurotransmission in patients with MTLE, especially those with pharmacoresistant seizures, which present important neuronal damage and high comorbid mood disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218130PMC

Heat-not-burn tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and combustible cigarette use among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide population survey 2017.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 20;20(1):741. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Public Health, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama-shi, Okayama, Japan.

Background: From among the global public health concerns, smoking remains one of the most crucial challenges. Especially for adolescents, the increase in the use of electronic cigarettes is controversial, as its use may lead to established smoking. In Japan, where a unique tobacco regulation system exists, the heat-not-burn tobacco market has been growing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08916-xDOI Listing

Blood Levels to Optimize Antipsychotic Treatment in Clinical Practice: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology and the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Task Force of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie.

J Clin Psychiatry 2020 May 19;81(3). Epub 2020 May 19.

Members of the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Task Force of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie are listed at the end of the article.

Objective: The quantification of antipsychotic levels in blood, also known as therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), is a potentially useful tool of modern personalized therapy that can be applied to augment antipsychotic use and dosing decisions. The application of TDM for antipsychotics can be helpful in numerous challenging clinical scenarios, such as lack of therapeutic response, relapse, or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to antipsychotic treatment. The benefits of TDM may be particularly evident in the treatment of highly vulnerable patient subgroups, such as children, adolescents, pregnant women, and the elderly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.19cs13169DOI Listing

A genome-wide association study of interhemispheric theta EEG coherence: implications for neural connectivity and alcohol use behavior.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry and the Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.

Aberrant connectivity of large-scale brain networks has been observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as well as in those at risk, suggesting deficits in neural communication between brain regions in the liability to develop AUD. Electroencephalographical (EEG) coherence, which measures the degree of synchrony between brain regions, may be a useful measure of connectivity patterns in neural networks for studying the genetics of AUD. In 8810 individuals (6644 of European and 2166 of African ancestry) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a Multi-Trait Analyses of genome-wide association studies (MTAG) on parietal resting-state theta (3-7 Hz) EEG coherence, which previously have been associated with AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0777-6DOI Listing

Cortical Thickness in Alcohol Dependent Patients With Apathy.

Front Psychiatry 2020 5;11:364. Epub 2020 May 5.

Peking University Huilongguan Clinical Medical School, Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: Many studies reported structural brain changes in patients with alcohol dependence (PADs). However, no studies identified structural correlates of apathy that might aggravate alcohol misuse. Here, we explored regional differences in cortical thickness in PADs relative to healthy controls (HCs), and examined the potential correlation of regional thickness with the severity of apathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214693PMC

A Machine Learning Approach to Identification of Unhealthy Drinking.

J Am Board Fam Med 2020 May-Jun;33(3):397-406

From University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (LNB, BL, GLR); University of Vermont, College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Burlington (SRW).

Introduction: Unhealthy drinking is prevalent in the United States, and yet it is underidentified and undertreated. Identifying unhealthy drinkers can be time-consuming and uncomfortable for primary care providers. An automated rule for identification would focus attention on patients most likely to need care and, therefore, increase efficiency and effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2020.03.190421DOI Listing
November 2019

Adolescent alcohol use disrupts functional neurodevelopment in sensation seeking girls.

Addict Biol 2020 May 19:e12914. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Exogenous causes, such as alcohol use, and endogenous factors, such as temperament and sex, can modulate developmental trajectories of adolescent neurofunctional maturation. We examined how these factors affect sexual dimorphism in brain functional networks in youth drinking below diagnostic threshold for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Based on the 3-year, annually acquired, longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 526 adolescents (12-21 years at baseline) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort, developmental trajectories of 23 intrinsic functional networks (IFNs) were analyzed for (1) sexual dimorphism in 259 participants who were no-to-low drinkers throughout this period; (2) sex-alcohol interactions in two age- and sex-matched NCANDA subgroups (N = 76 each), half no-to-low, and half moderate-to-heavy drinkers; and (3) moderating effects of gender-specific alcohol dose effects and a multifactorial impulsivity measure on IFN connectivity in all NCANDA participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12914DOI Listing

Parkin deficiency accentuates chronic alcohol intake-induced tissue injury and autophagy defects in brain, liver and skeletal muscle.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai 200032, China.

Alcoholism leads to organ injury including mitochondrial defect and apoptosis with evidence favoring a role for autophagy dysregulation in alcoholic damage. Parkin represents an autosomal recessive inherited gene for Parkinson's disease and an important member of selective autophagy for mitochondria. The association between Parkinson's disease and alcoholic injury remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmaa041DOI Listing

Effect of ethanol on Munc13-1 C1 in membrane: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Pharmacological & Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

Background: Ethanol has a significant effect on synaptic plasticity. Munc13-1 is an essential presynaptic active zone protein involved in priming the synaptic vesicle and releasing neurotransmitter in the brain. It is a peripheral membrane protein and binds to the activator, diacylglycerol (DAG)/phorbol ester at its membrane-targeting C1 domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14363DOI Listing

Prevalence of Sexual Disorders in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated Factors.

Sex Med 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

SIIES - health research and education, Bogotá, Colombia.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive pathology, present in between 0.5% and 1% of adults. Sexual disorders (SDs) occur in between 31% and 70% of all patients with RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2020.04.003DOI Listing

Melatonin and alcohol-related disorders.

Chronobiol Int 2020 May 18:1-23. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Słupsk, Poland.

This review concerns the current knowledge of melatonin and alcohol-related disorders. Chronobiological effects of ethanol are related to melatonin suppression and in relation to inflammation, stress, free radical scavenging, autophagy and cancer risk. It is postulated that both alcohol- and inflammation-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) alters cell membrane properties leading to tissue dysfunction and, subsequent further ROS production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1761372DOI Listing

Wernicke`s encephalopathy manifesting with diplopia after ileojejunostomy: report of a pediatric case with Hirschsprung disease.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(2):310-314

Departments of Pediatric Neurology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Wernicke`s encephalopathy (WE) is a coenzyme-induced disease with acute neuropsychiatric symptoms leading to high mortality and morbidity due to thiamine deficiency. WE is mostly caused by alcoholism in adult populations; however, it is often associated with gastrointestinal surgical procedures, recurrent vomiting, chronic diarrhea, cancer and chemotherapy treatment, systemic diseases, drugs, magnesium deficiency, and malnutrition in children. Although these predisposing factors are considered to be uncommon in children, they are actually highly frequent and can be fatal if not treated promptly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.02.019DOI Listing
January 2020

cAMP-Fyn signaling in the dorsomedial striatum direct pathway drives excessive alcohol use.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Fyn kinase in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents has a central role in mechanisms underlying excessive alcohol intake. The DMS comprises medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that project directly (dMSNs) or indirectly (iMSNs) to the substantia nigra. Here, we examined the cell-type specificity of Fyn's actions on alcohol use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0712-1DOI Listing

Ferritin and liver fibrosis among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2020 May 4;61:126542. Epub 2020 May 4.

Servicio de Medicina Interna. Hospital Universitario de Canarias. Universidad de La Laguna. Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: In chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection there is increased iron absorption leading to iron overload, a fact that may promote ferritin synthesis. Theoretically, increased ferritin should promote ongoing liver fibrosis but disparate results have been described.

Objective: We analyze the behavior of iron metabolism- related variables, comparing them with fibrosis and inflammatory activity in liver biopsy in HCV infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126542DOI Listing

Allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in alcohol use disorder: Insights from preclinical investigations.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 2;88:193-232. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, US National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, United States.

Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are family C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system. Owing to recent advances in development of subtype-selective allosteric modulators of mGlu receptors, individual members of the mGlu receptor family have been proposed as targets for treating a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders. In this chapter, we highlight preclinical evidence that allosteric modulators of mGlu receptors could be useful for reducing alcohol consumption and preventing relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.02.002DOI Listing

Disulfiram Treatment Normalizes Body Weight in Obese Mice.

Cell Metab 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Experimental Gerontology Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity is a top public health concern, and a molecule that safely treats obesity is urgently needed. Disulfiram (known commercially as Antabuse), an FDA-approved treatment for chronic alcohol addiction, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and helps protect against certain types of cancer. Here, we show that in mice disulfiram treatment prevented body weight gain and abrogated the adverse impact of an obesogenic diet on insulin responsiveness while mitigating liver steatosis and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.019DOI Listing

Corona Viruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future.

Chem Senses 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Temple University, Philadelphia (PA), USA.

A wealth of rapidly evolving reports suggests that olfaction and taste disturbances may be manifestations of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. While otolaryngological societies worldwide have started to consider chemosensory evaluation as a screening tool for COVID-19 infection, the true nature of the relationship between the changes in chemosensory ability and COVID-19 is unclear. Our goal with this review is to provide a brief overview of published and archived literature, as well as the anecdotal reports and social trends related to this topic up to April 29, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa031DOI Listing

Transcriptomic profiling of long non-coding RNAs in non-virus associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Center For Digestive Diseases, People's Hospital of Baoan District, The 8th People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518101, Guangdong, China.

Due to falling prevalence of viral hepatitis (VH), obesity, alcoholism and related liver diseases have become increasingly frequent and important as causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression in VH-negative HCC remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in pathogenesis of human diseases, including HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-020-00915-4DOI Listing

Engineered three-dimensional scaffolds for enhanced bone regeneration in osteonecrosis.

Bioact Mater 2020 Sep 17;5(3):584-601. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun, 130022, PR China.

Osteonecrosis, which is typically induced by trauma, glucocorticoid abuse, or alcoholism, is one of the most severe diseases in clinical orthopedics. Osteonecrosis often leads to joint destruction, and arthroplasty is eventually required. Enhancement of bone regeneration is a critical management strategy employed in osteonecrosis therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210379PMC
September 2020

Associations Between Medical Conditions and Alcohol Consumption Levels in an Adult Primary Care Population.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e204687. Epub 2020 May 1.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of several medical conditions, but few nonveteran, population-based studies have assessed levels of alcohol use across medical conditions.

Objective: To examine associations between medical conditions and alcohol consumption levels in a population-based sample of primary care patients using electronic health record data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used separate multinomial logistic regression models to estimate adjusted associations between 26 medical conditions and alcohol consumption levels in a sample of 2 720 231 adult primary care patients screened for unhealthy drinking between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, then only among those reporting alcohol use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221504PMC

Neuropsychosocial markers of binge drinking in young adults.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Laboratory of Neuroimaging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Binge drinking is associated with disease and death, and developing tools to identify risky drinkers could mitigate its damage. Brain processes underlie risky drinking, so we examined whether neural and psychosocial markers could identify binge drinkers. Reward is the most widely studied neural process in addiction, but processes such as emotion, social cognition, and self-regulation are also involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0771-zDOI Listing

Epigenome-wide association study and multi-tissue replication of individuals with alcohol use disorder: evidence for abnormal glucocorticoid signaling pathway gene regulation.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Royal's Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic debilitating disorder with limited treatment options and poorly defined pathophysiology. There are substantial genetic and epigenetic components; however, the underlying mechanisms contributing to AUD remain largely unknown. We conducted the largest DNA methylation epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) analyses currently available for AUD (total N = 625) and employed a top hit replication (N = 4798) using a cross-tissue/cross-phenotypic approach with the goal of identifying novel epigenetic targets relevant to AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0734-4DOI Listing

Attributes of HIV infection over decades (1982-2018): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Understanding the risk factors for HIV infection is the foundation of successful preventive strategies, which must bundle sociocultural, behavioural and biomedical interventions to halt disease transmission. We aimed in this study to provide a pooled estimation of HIV risk factors and trace changes across decades in order to drive consensus and accurate assessment of disease transmission risk. We comprehensively searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Ovid, EBSCO, Google Scholar and the Egyptian Universities Library Consortium from October to December 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13621DOI Listing

Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(5):e0232740. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232740PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217430PMC

Effects of multiple detoxifications on withdrawal symptoms, psychiatric distress and alcohol-craving in patients with an alcohol use disorder.

Behav Med 2020 May 12:1-15. Epub 2020 May 12.

Arkin/Mentrum/Jellinek, Amsterdam, AV, The Netherlands.

Previous studies have shown an association between the number of withdrawal attempts and increased severity of withdrawal symptoms in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). An underlying allostatic neuroadaptive response may negatively affect the withdrawal pathology after alcohol discontinuation. The objective of the present research is to examine the intensification of psychiatric distress, craving, and post-detoxification drinking outcomes, which may result from these neurobehavioral alternations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2020.1760777DOI Listing

Discovery of a NAPE-PLD inhibitor that modulates emotional behavior in mice.

Nat Chem Biol 2020 Jun 11;16(6):667-675. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Molecular Physiology, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.

N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), which include the endocannabinoid anandamide, represent an important family of signaling lipids in the brain. The lack of chemical probes that modulate NAE biosynthesis in living systems hamper the understanding of the biological role of these lipids. Using a high-throughput screen, chemical proteomics and targeted lipidomics, we report here the discovery and characterization of LEI-401 as a CNS-active N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) inhibitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-020-0528-7DOI Listing
June 2020
12.996 Impact Factor

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A Case Series in Liaison Psychiatry.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2020 May 7;22(3). Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Prof. Dr. Fernando da Fonseca Hospital, Amadora, Portugal.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a life-threatening and underdiagnosed neuropsychiatric condition caused by thiamine deficiency that comprises Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome. Although mainly associated with chronic alcoholism, WKS can arise from other circumstances. This report describes a series of cases of WKS that were clinically evaluated by liaison psychiatrists on a nonpsychiatric inpatient unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.19br02538DOI Listing

Shared Regulatory Pathways Reveal Novel Genetic Correlations Between Grip Strength and Neuromuscular Disorders.

Front Genet 2020 24;11:393. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Muscle weakness is a common consequence of both aging (sarcopenia) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Whilst genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified genetic variants associated with grip strength (GS; measure of muscle strength/weakness) and NMDs, including multiple sclerosis (MS), myasthenia gravis (MG) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it is not known whether there are common mechanisms between these phenotypes. To examine this, we have integrated GS and NMD associated genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in a multimorbid analysis that leverages high-throughput chromatin interaction (Hi-C) data and expression quantitative trait loci data to identify target genes (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194178PMC

Comprehensive review of Wernicke encephalopathy: pathophysiology, clinical symptoms and imaging findings.

Jpn J Radiol 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

The Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, UH B2, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe and life-threatening illness resulting from vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency. The prevalence of WE has been estimated from 0.4 to 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-00989-3DOI Listing

Leptin predicts cortical and subcortical gray matter volume recovery in alcohol dependent patients: A longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

Horm Behav 2020 May 11;124:104749. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Germany; Feuerlein Center on Translational Addiction Medicine (FCTS), University of Heidelberg, Germany.

The neuroprotective effects of leptin and its role in addictive disorders has been highlighted by several recent studies. However, its potential effects on morphological alterations in alcohol dependence are yet to be investigated. Associations between leptin and the longitudinal courses of gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) were investigated in N = 62 alcohol-dependent patients that underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging after a mean abstinence of 12 (baseline) and 27 days (follow-up) respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104749DOI Listing

Distinct fate, dynamics and niches of renal macrophages of bone marrow or embryonic origins.

Nat Commun 2020 May 8;11(1):2280. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA, 70433, USA.

Renal macrophages (RMs) participate in tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair. RMs consist of embryo-derived (EMRMs) and bone marrow-derived RMs (BMRMs), but the fate, dynamics, replenishment, functions and metabolic states of these two RM populations remain unclear. Here we investigate and characterize RMs at different ages by conditionally labeling and ablating RMs populations in several transgenic lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16158-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210253PMC
May 2020
10.742 Impact Factor

Burden of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: an intersectional analysis of gender, poverty, stigma, and public policy.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 8;20(1):645. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Community Medicine, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, KK Nagar, Chennai, 600078, India.

Background: Caregivers of children with cerebral palsy suffer from a substantial psychosocial burden. However, there is a scarcity of documentation of the various sources of burden in low- and middle-income settings.

Methods: We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews among mothers of children with cerebral palsy attending a physiotherapy facility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08808-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206712PMC

Effect of Zinc Supplementation vs Placebo on Mortality Risk and HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Positive Adults With Heavy Alcohol Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e204330. Epub 2020 May 1.

Clinical Addiction Research and Education (CARE) Unit, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Zinc supplementation can reduce alcohol-related microbial translocation and inflammation.

Objective: To assess whether zinc supplementation reduces markers of mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, reduces levels of inflammation and microbial translocation, and slows HIV disease progression in people with heavy alcohol use who are living with HIV/AIDS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study is a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of zinc supplementation among participants recruited from 2013 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210486PMC

Patients' Educational Program Could Improve Azathioprine Adherence in Crohn's Disease Maintenance Therapy.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2020 20;2020:6848293. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To determine the risk factors of nonadherence to azathioprine (AZA) maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease (CD) and to evaluate the influence of patients' educational program on adherence to AZA maintenance therapy.

Methods: Patients receiving AZA as maintenance therapy for CD were enrolled. Demographic data, clinical data, and usage information were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6848293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189306PMC

In vitro effects of Pueraria extract on ethanol-exposed microglia and neurons.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 May 4;127:110163. Epub 2020 May 4.

Research Base of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350122, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Predominant health impacts from alcoholism are chronic neurologic deficits and hepatic dysfunction. Pueraria extract (PE) is a solution obtained from the dried root of Pueraria lobate and can reverse alcohol-induced hepatic damage. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of PE on ethanol-induced injury in microglia and neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110163DOI Listing
May 2020
2.023 Impact Factor

Peripheral polyneuropathy after acute methanol poisoning: Six-year prospective cohort study.

Neurotoxicology 2020 May 5;79:67-74. Epub 2020 May 5.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Occupational Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Methanol is a widely used industrial short-chain aliphatic alcohol with known neurotoxic properties. Mass poisoning outbreaks due to the consumption of methanol-adulterated alcoholic drinks present a challenge to healthcare providers due to the high mortality and serious central nervous system (CNS) damage in survivors. However, the impact of methanol exposure on the peripheral nervous system is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2020.04.010DOI Listing