89,681 results match your criteria Alcoholism

Hair Flag Sign: Macroscopic and Trichoscopic Feature of Hair Regrowth in Alopecia Areata.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González," Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.

Souissi et al. recently described the trichoscopic flag sign in regrowing hair in alopecia areata (AA). We would like to communicate a case presenting with simultaneous macroscopic and trichoscopic hair flag sign as features of hair regrowth in AA. Read More

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[Neurocognitive complications of alcoholism].

Rev Prat 2021 Jan;71(1):e29-e30

"AP-HP, hôpital de La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Institut de la mémoire et de la maladie d'Alzheimer, centre de mémoire, de recherche et de ressources, centre de référence pour la maladie d'Alzheimer du sujet jeune et les démences rares, centre d'excellence en maladie neurodégénérative, département de neurologie, 75013 Paris, France" - Institut du cerveau, ICM, 75013 Paris, France - Inserm, U 1127, 75013 Paris, France - CNRS, UMR 7225, 75013 Paris, France - Sorbonne Université, 75013 Paris, France.

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January 2021

Suppression of pyramidal neuron G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channel signaling impairs prelimbic cortical function and underlies stress-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility in male, but not female, mice.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Imbalance in prefrontal cortical (PFC) pyramidal neuron excitation:inhibition is thought to underlie symptomologies shared across stress-related disorders and neuropsychiatric disease, including dysregulation of emotion and cognitive function. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K (GIRK/Kir3) channels mediate excitability of medial PFC pyramidal neurons, however, the functional role of these channels in mPFC-dependent regulation of affect, cognition, and cortical dynamics is unknown. We used a viral-cre approach in male and female mice harboring a "floxed" version of the kcnj3 (Girk1) gene, to disrupt GIRK1-containing channel expression in pyramidal neurons within the prelimbic cortex (PrL). Read More

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Site selective C-H functionalization of Mitragyna alkaloids reveals a molecular switch for tuning opioid receptor signaling efficacy.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 22;12(1):3858. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Mitragynine (MG) is the most abundant alkaloid component of the psychoactive plant material "kratom", which according to numerous anecdotal reports shows efficacy in self-medication for pain syndromes, depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. We have developed a synthetic method for selective functionalization of the unexplored C11 position of the MG scaffold (C6 position in indole numbering) via the use of an indole-ethylene glycol adduct and subsequent iridium-catalyzed borylation. Through this work we discover that C11 represents a key locant for fine-tuning opioid receptor signaling efficacy. Read More

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Evaluating treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and other drug use disorders using meta-analysis of individual patient data: Design and methodology of a virtual clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 19:106479. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, VT, USA; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.

This paper describes Project Harmony, a Virtual Clinical Trial (VCT) funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) to harmonize and analyze data from over 40 independent psychological, pharmacologic and/or combined pharmacological treatment studies for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid alcohol and other drug use disorders (PTSD/AOD). The study attends to three distinct analysis challenges: (1) variation in measurement of PTSD/AOD across studies, time, populations and reporters, (2) cross-study variation in treatment effect sizes and (3) non-randomized, cross-study variation in the classification of treatments (despite within-study randomization of treatment arms). To address these challenges, the study combines meta-analysis of individual patient data (MIPD), integrative data analysis (IDA) and propensity score weighting (PSW) to integrate raw data from these clinical trials. Read More

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Indicative Factors for 48 or More Hours of Mechanical Ventilation to Optimize the Use of Orotracheal Tubes with Supra-cuff Suction Devices: a Retrospective Study.

SN Compr Clin Med 2021 Jun 16:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Multiprofessional Residency Program in Adult Intensive Health in Physiotherapy, São Francisco University, Jardim São José, Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, 12916-900 Brazil.

The objective of this study is to verify the risk factors for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for ≥48h, aiming at the best indication of orotracheal tubes (OTTs) with supra-cuff suction devices. This retrospective and observational study was carried out at the Adult Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital during a 2-year period. Patients undergoing orotracheal intubation were enrolled. Read More

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Functional Selectivity of a Biased Cannabinoid-1 Receptor (CBR) Antagonist.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Jun 8;4(3):1175-1187. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Physiologic Studies and Section on Cellular Biophotonics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9304, United States.

Seven-transmembrane receptors signal via G-protein- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways. We describe a peripheral CBR antagonist (MRI-1891) highly biased toward inhibiting CBR-induced β-arrestin-2 (βArr2) recruitment over G-protein activation. In obese wild-type and βArr2-knockout (KO) mice, MRI-1891 treatment reduces food intake and body weight without eliciting anxiety even at a high dose causing partial brain CBR occupancy. Read More

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Frequent Headache by Adolescent Self-Report.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Apr 16;121:51-55. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The association between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and increased headache in adults has been well characterized. Childhood adversity and its effect on headache in children have not been as robustly investigated. This study examines the relationship of self-reported ACEs to frequent headache in an adolescent cohort. Read More

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Andrew K. Burroughs: a research hepatologist extraordinaire.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Jun 17:100361. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Center of studies on alcoholism and addictions, University Health Sciences Center, University of Guadalajara, Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico. Electronic address:

Andrew K (Andy) Burroughs passed away in March 2014 at the early age of 60 years. Andy was one of the last of the great all round giants of hepatology. He was a consummate physician, clinical investigator and educator. Read More

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Alcohol-Related Dementia: Rethink How Much You Drink.

Sr Care Pharm 2021 Jul;36(7):324-330

People have consumed alcohol for centuries. Most clinicians who work with people who have dementia acknowledge that alcohol may cause or exacerbate dementia's symptoms. Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) has been recognized since the 1960s, but clinicians rarely use this diagnosis. Read More

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Characteristics of post-mortem beta-hydroxybutyrate-positivet cases - A retrospective study on age, sex and BMI in 1407 forensic autopsies.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jun 12;325:110878. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Drug Research, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Post-mortem biochemistry, including the analysis of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), is increasingly employed in forensic medicine, especially in conditions such as diabetes and chronic alcoholism. However, not much is known about the associations between age, body mass index (BMI), and sex and BHB concentrations in ketoacidotic conditions.

Aim: To retrospectively study the association between age, BMI and sex in several conditions, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), and elevated post-mortem BHB concentrations. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic Correlates of Once-Monthly Paliperidone Palmitate-Related Adverse Drug Reactions.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Alexianer Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate associations between pharmacokinetic correlates and once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M)-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

Methods: Plasma concentrations and dose-adjusted plasma concentrations ('concentration-by-dose' [C/D]) of paliperidone from a naturalistic therapeutic drug monitoring database of PP1M-treated patients were compared between patients with ADRs, classified according to the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side-effect rating scales categories, and patients without ADRs. Analyses included non-parametric tests and a logistic regression model with a significance level set at 0. Read More

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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: Clinical, Neuroimaging Characteristics, and Outcomes in a Series of 18 Cases.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:9944632. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematopathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To investigate the etiology, clinical as well as neuroimaging characteristics, and outcomes after proper treatment in a series of 18 patients with osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Methods: Medical records, including video records, of 18 patients with osmotic demyelination syndrome were retrospectively examined. Demographic and clinical information, imaging results, plans of management, and outcomes during the follow-up period were collected and analyzed. Read More

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Gene Variants Associated With a Higher Risk for Alcohol Dependence in Multiethnic Populations.

Front Psychiatry 2021 31;12:665257. Epub 2021 May 31.

Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Genetics influence the vulnerability to alcohol use disorders, and among the implicated genes, three previous studies have provided evidences for the involvement of in alcohol dependence (AD). expression is broadly dysregulated in postmortem brain from AD humans, as well as in the brain of mice with alcohol dependent-like behaviors and in a zebrafish model of alcohol preference. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of variants in the gene with AD in multiethnic populations from South and North America. Read More

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Emergency department presentation of opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Aug 3;127:108343. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Family and Community Medicine, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., K Building, 2nd Floor, Suite 400, Dallas, TX 75390-9194, USA. Electronic address:

Mixing alcohol and opioid prescription medications can have serious health consequences. This study examines demographic and geographic differences in opioid use disorders (OUD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in emergency department (ED) presentations in the state of Texas. Using all diagnosis codes, the study examined discharge records for ED visits related to AUD and OUD in Texas for 2017. Read More

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Bone Loss and Radiographic Damage Profile in Rheumatoid Arthritis Moroccan Patients.

J Bone Metab 2021 May 31;28(2):151-159. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Rheumatology, Mohammed VI University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mohammed I University, Oujda, Morocco.

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a known cause of joint destruction and systemic bone loss. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the bone damage and bone loss profiles of established RA patients.

Methods: We designed a cross-sectional study on a cohort of established RA patients. Read More

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Maternal posttraumatic stress and FKBP5 Genotype interact to predict trauma-related symptoms in preschool-age offspring.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 26;292:212-216. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Children of parents with posttraumatic stress (PTS) face heightened risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems, regardless of whether they experience a traumatic event themselves. The current study investigates whether child FKBP5, a stress relevant gene shown to interact with child trauma exposure to increase risk for PTS, also moderates the well-established link between maternal PTS and child symptoms.

Methods: Data are derived from a longitudinal lab-based study for which 205 dyads of trauma-exposed mothers and their preschool-age children from a sample enriched for violence exposure provided DNA samples and completed measures of maternal and child trauma-related symptoms. Read More

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Impact of intensity of behavioral treatment, with or without medication treatment, for opioid use disorder on HIV outcomes in persons with HIV.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 29;132:108509. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Persons with HIV (PWH) and opioid use disorder (OUD) can have poor health outcomes. We assessed whether intensity of behavioral treatment for OUD (BOUD) with and without medication for OUD (MOUD) is associated with improved HIV clinical outcomes.

Methods: We used Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) data from 2008 to 2017 to identify PWH and OUD with ≥1 BOUD episode. Read More

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Methodology for altering omega-3 EPA+DHA and omega-6 linoleic acid as controlled variables in a dietary trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 12;40(6):3859-3867. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Increasing dietary intake of n-3 EPA+DHA and lowering dietary n-6 LA is under investigation as a therapeutic diet for improving chronic pain syndromes as well as other health outcomes. Herein we describe the diet methodology used to modulate intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in a free living migraine headache population and report on nutrient intake, BMI and diet acceptability achieved at week 16 of the intensive diet intervention and week 22 follow-up time-point.

Methods: A total of 178 participants were randomized and began one of three diet interventions: 1) a high n-3 PUFA, average n-6 PUFA (H3) diet targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and 7% of energy (en%) from n-6 linoleic acid (LA), 2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3L6) targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and <1. Read More

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Discontinued alcohol consumption elicits withdrawal symptoms in honeybees.

Biol Lett 2021 06 16;17(6):20210182. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland.

The honeybee continues to be developed as a model species in many research areas, including studies related to the effects of alcohol. Here, we investigate whether workers display one of the key features of alcoholism, namely withdrawal symptoms. We show that workers fed for a prolonged time on food spiked with ethanol, after discontinuation of access to such food, exhibited a marked increase in the consumption of ethanol and a slight increase in mortality. Read More

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Psychostimulant Use Disorder, an Unmet Therapeutic Goal: Can Modafinil Narrow the Gap?

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:656475. Epub 2021 May 26.

Medication Development Program, Molecular Targets and Medication Discovery Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The number of individuals affected by psychostimulant use disorder (PSUD) has increased rapidly over the last few decades resulting in economic, emotional, and physical burdens on our society. Further compounding this issue is the current lack of clinically approved medications to treat this disorder. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a common target of psychostimulant actions related to their use and dependence, and the recent availability of atypical DAT inhibitors as a potential therapeutic option has garnered popularity in this research field. Read More

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The role of thrifty genes in the origin of alcoholism: A narrative review and hypothesis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Nephrology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, CO, USA.

In this narrative review, we present the hypothesis that key mutations in two genes, occurring 15 and 10 million years ago, were individually and then collectively adaptive for ancestral humans during periods of starvation, but are maladaptive in modern civilization (i.e., "thrifty genes"), with the consequence that these genes not only increase our risk today for obesity, but also for alcoholism. Read More

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Mapping Pathways by Which Genetic Risk Influences Adolescent Externalizing Behavior: The Interplay Between Externalizing Polygenic Risk Scores, Parental Knowledge, and Peer Substance Use.

Behav Genet 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 842018, 806 W Franklin St, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA.

Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene-environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent externalizing behavior across two time-points in a high-risk longitudinal sample of 1,200 adolescents (764 European and 436 African ancestry; M = 12.99) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Read More

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Dopamine dysfunction in stimulant use disorders: mechanistic comparisons and implications for treatment.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Dopamine system deficiencies and associated behavioral phenotypes may be a critical barrier to success in treating stimulant use disorders. Similarities in dopamine dysfunction between cocaine and methamphetamine use disorder but also key differences may impact treatment efficacy and outcome. This review will first compare the epidemiology of cocaine and methamphetamine use disorder. Read More

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The role of perceived discrimination in predicting changes in health behaviours among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The Urban Health Collaborative, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: This study examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with health behaviours over time and whether associations of discrimination with behaviours varied by attribution of discrimination.

Methods: Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs for the associations of discrimination (everyday, lifetime, stress from lifetime discrimination) with health behaviours (cigarette smoking, alcohol use) over time among 3050 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study from visit 1 (2000-2004) to visit 3 (2009-2013). Smoking status was classified as persistent current, persistent former, persistent never, current to former and former/never to current smokers. Read More

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Attitudes Scale on Alcohol, Alcoholism, and Persons with Alcohol Use Disorders.

J Addict Nurs 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Divane de Vargas, PhD, BSN, MSN, FIAAN, School of Nursing, São Paulo University, Brazil. Madeline A. Naegle, PhD, CNS-PMH, BC, FAAN, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York.

Background: The Attitudes Scale on Alcohol, Alcoholism, and Persons with alcohol use disorders ("Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Persons with alcohol use disorders" [EAFAA]) is an instrument designed to measure attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism, and persons with alcohol use disorders. It has been validated in Portuguese and Spanish.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the American English version of the EAFAA (EAFAA-AEV). Read More

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Alcohol Use Disorder: TheRole of Medication in Recovery.

Alcohol Res 2021 3;41(1):07. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, Department of Molecular Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California. Center for Human Development, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

The misuse of alcohol in the United States continues to take a large toll on society, resulting in the deaths of about 88,000 Americans per year. Moreover, it is estimated that nearly 14.6 million Americans currently meet diagnostic criteria for current alcohol use disorder (AUD). Read More

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Somatostatin neurons control an alcohol binge drinking prelimbic microcircuit in mice.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Somatostatin (SST) neurons have been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, but their role in substance use disorders, including alcohol use disorder (AUD), is not fully characterized. Here, we found that repeated cycles of alcohol binge drinking via the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) model led to hypoactivity of SST neurons in the prelimbic (PL) cortex by diminishing their action potential firing capacity and excitatory/inhibitory transmission dynamic. We examined their role in regulating alcohol consumption via bidirectional chemogenetic manipulation. Read More

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