84,340 results match your criteria Alcoholism
JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
Importance: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems. Read More
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland.
Rationale: Dopamine levels are controlled in part by transport across the cell membrane by the dopamine transporter (DAT), and recent evidence showed that a polymorphism in the gene encoding DAT is associated with alcoholism. However, research in animal models using DAT knockout mice has yielded conflicting results.
Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of DAT knockdown in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) on voluntary ethanol consumption and preference in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Read More
Anesth Pain Med 2018 Oct 20;8(5):e83069. Epub 2018 Oct 20.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Jeju National School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.
Background: Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disease, defined as diffuse hypertrophy of unencapsulated adipose tissue causing spinal canal compression and progressive neurologic deficits. However, there are few studies on SEL in Korea.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of SEL in Korea. Read More
Anim Genet 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.
Addict Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Fyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that plays an important role not only in normal synaptic functions but also in brain pathologies including alcohol use disorder. We previously reported that repeated cycles of binge drinking and withdrawal activate Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents, and that Fyn signaling in the DMS contributes to rat alcohol intake and relapse. Here, we used AZD0530, a CNS penetrable inhibitor of Src PTKs developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and cancer and tested its efficacy to suppress alcohol-dependent molecular and behavioral effects. Read More
Behav Genet 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
While a standard part of twin modeling, the magnitude of shared environment (c) is rarely examined by comparing estimates obtained using other methods. To clarify these effects on familial resemblance, we estimated c for 20 diverse phenotypes in: (i) monozygotic and dizygotic twins, (ii) all step-siblings, and (iii) reared together and apart half-siblings, ascertained from the Swedish general population. The mean c estimates (± 95% CIs) differed across methods and were higher from twins (0. Read More
Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More
Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University (Daqing Longnan Hospital), Daqing, Heilongjiang 163453, P.R. China.
The neurological disorders and neural pathology brought about by chronic alcoholism are difficult to be reversed. Increasing evidence highlights the protective roles of erythropoietin (EPO) in neurodegenerative diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on the neurological function deficits and neural pathology caused by chronic alcoholism and the regulatory mechanisms. Read More
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):965-969
Department of Morphological Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Romania;
Ethylene glycol is a toxic alcohol that is mainly introduced into an organism through the digestive pathway. Its priority toxic metabolites are glycolic acid and oxalic acid. We present the case of a young person, of the male persuasion, without any personal pathological history, found unconscious and presenting signs of violence. Read More
Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):547-555
Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Background: Impulsivity is considered to be a vulnerability marker for substance use disorders, including alcoholism, in offspring with familial alcoholism. However, it is not adequately explored whether different age groups offspring at high risk for alcoholism differ in their impulsivity. The present study examined trait impulsivity in offspring at high risk for alcoholism, and further examined impulsivity by categorizing these offspring into different age groups. Read More
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 16;14:3143-3150. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Xi'an Central Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004 Shaanxi, People's Republic of China,
Objective: To identify whether the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis has the potential to serve as a biological marker to detect alcohol-induced spontaneous brain activities and distinguish the patients with alcohol dependence from the healthy subjects.
Methods: We utilized the ALFF analysis to report on the alcohol-induced spontaneous brain activities in 29 patients with alcohol dependence (9 female, 20 male) relative to 29 status-matched healthy subjects (11 female, 18 male). Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to test the ability of the ALFF analysis in discriminating the patients with alcohol dependence from the healthy subjects. Read More
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA; Department of Molecular, Developmental and Cell Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA; Institute for Collaborative Biotechnology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
We previously reported that commercially-sourced C57BL/6J (B6) male mice with a history of adult-onset binge-drinking exhibit anxiety-like behavior in early withdrawal, while the negative affective state incubates during protracted withdrawal in adolescent-onset binge-drinking males. As the results of such studies are potentially confounded by age-related differences in reactivity to environmental stress, we employed a 2-bottle-choice DID procedure (20 and 40% alcohol; 20 min habituation to the drinking cage) to examine the effects of binge-drinking on negative affect in male and female, adult and adolescent, B6 mice from our university colony. Unexpectedly, the mice in the initial experiment exhibited very low alcohol intake, with little sign of withdrawal-induced negative affect. Read More
Alcohol 2018 Jul 11;76:11-14. Epub 2018 Jul 11.
Discipline of Pathology, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:
Both pathological and neuroimaging studies have shown that chronic alcohol abuse causes generalized white matter, but limited gray matter, volume loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals. However, a recent pathological study, employing a manual technique to determine regional volumes, found no significant effects of smoking on either global or selected regional gray matter volumes in smokers or smoking alcoholics. Read More
Pregnancy Hypertens 2018 Oct 21;14:125-130. Epub 2018 Sep 21.
Translational Obstetrics Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mercy Hospital for Women, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia; Mercy Perinatal, Mercy Hospital for Women, Victoria, Australia.
Preeclampsia is associated with intermittent placental hypoxia, inflammation and the release of antiangiogenic factors, namely sFLT-1 and sEng. These factors cause maternal endothelial dysfunction and the manifestation of clinical disease. Disulfiram is a dehydrogenase inhibitor used to treat alcoholism and has been suggested as a proteasome inhibitor. Read More
Harm Reduct J 2018 Dec 7;15(1):61. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100165, 1225 Center Drive, Room 3146, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0165, USA.
Background: Though marijuana use has previously been associated with risky alcohol use, studies often do not delineate between the effect of recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this study, we examined the association between recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use to manage HIV symptoms (i.e. Read More
Osteoporos Int 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Rheumatology Department, INSERM 1153, CHU Paris Cochin, Paris Descartes University, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014, Paris, France.
We performed a study to identify potential causes and risk factors of vertebral fracture cascade. Vertebral fracture cascade is a severe clinical event in patients with bone fragility. Only half of patients have an identified cause of secondary osteoporosis. Read More
Prev Med 2018 Nov 30;118:336-343. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Epidemiology and Biometry Branch, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
Moderate alcohol consumption has been related to lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the literature. To examine whether alcohol drinking during the past 12 months and heaviest drinking period were differentially associated with the risk of CHD, we designed a case-control study using a population-based health survey of U.S. Read More
J Community Psychol 2019 Jan 10;47(1):93-103. Epub 2018 Jul 10.
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Despite significant declines in the use of cigarettes, a significant proportion of adults smoke. This study explores the association between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by age. The 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was administered to adults in 50 states and District of Columbia (n = 437,195). Read More
Hepatology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Laboratory of Physiologic Studies, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892.
Endocannabinoids promote energy conservation in obesity, whereas cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB R) blockade reverses body weight gain and insulin resistance and increases energy expenditure. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the catabolic effects of CB R blockade in the liver. Exposure of primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells to the CB R agonist ACEA inhibited the expression of Sirt1 and Rictor, a component of mTORC2, and suppressed insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation at ser473. Read More
Bio Protoc 2018 Oct;8(20)
Department of Biology, William Paterson University of New Jersey, Wayne, USA.
The alcohol preference model is one of the most widely used animal models relevant to alcoholism. Stressors increase alcohol consumption. Here we present a protocol for a rapid and useful tool to test alcohol preference and stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice. Read More
Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line treatment for ADHD and is also misused as a purported cognitive enhancer, yet its effects on brain function are still poorly understood. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that MPH altered cortico-striatal resting functional connectivity (RFC). Here we investigated the effects of MPH in thalamic connectivity since the thalamus modulates striato-cortical signaling. Read More
Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Laboratory on the Neurobiology of Compulsive Behaviors, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Intramural Research Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Vulnerability for cocaine abuse in humans is associated with low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the striatum. The mechanisms driving this vulnerability are poorly understood. In this study, we found that downregulating D2R expression selectively in striatal indirect-pathway neurons triggers a multitude of changes in D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing direct-pathway neurons, which comprise the other main subpopulation of striatal projection neurons. Read More
J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Family Medicine and Biobehavioral Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth Campus, 231 SMed, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.
North American Indigenous (i.e., American Indian and Canadian First Nations) youth experience inequities in rates of substance abuse and dependence. Read More
Soc Hist Med 2018 Nov 23;31(4):774-795. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
School of History, Arts Two, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, UK.
In the 1880 s and 1890 s the operations of the St James's Home for Female Inebriates in Kennington, London, attracted the attention of both the Charity Organisation Society and the popular press when the proprietors of the Home were accused of mistreating women in their care. Such mistreatment, it was suggested, had been allowed to continue for many years due to the cloak of secrecy that surrounded the Home. Both medical and popular conceptions of the inebriate had functioned to legitimise institutionalisation as necessary for cure and-by implying a degree of moral culpability that aligned inebriate women with 'fallen women' more generally-to sanction the secrecy of such treatment. Read More
Med Arch 2018 Oct;72(4):303-305
Department of Internal Medicine, Amalia Fleming General Hospital, Athens, 15127, Greece.
Introduction: Oxcarbazepine is a carbamazepine pre-drug with less drug interactions. Its adverse effects, including hyponatremia, somnolence and ataxia, are dose dependent. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug most commonly used to manage psychoses and symptoms of irritability and aggressive behavior. Read More
Addict Sci Clin Pract 2018 Dec 4;13(1):24. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Box C272, RC2, 9th Floor, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.
Purpose: Patients with alcohol misuse are less likely to receive preventive health services but more likely to utilize emergency health services. However, the association between alcohol misuse and outpatient follow-up after hospitalization is unknown and may depend on whether a patient experiences a critical illness. We sought to determine whether alcohol misuse was associated with lower rates of outpatient follow-up after hospital discharge and whether the magnitude of this association differed in patients who experienced a critical illness. Read More
Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. Electronic address:
Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. Read More
World J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;24(44):5034-5045
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 50006, Taiwan.
Aim: To explore the risk factors of developing chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and develop a prediction score for CP.
Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, we obtained large, population-based data of 5971 eligible patients diagnosed with AP from 2000 to 2013. After excluding patients with obstructive pancreatitis and biliary pancreatitis and those with a follow-up period of less than 1 year, we conducted a multivariate analysis using the data of 3739 patients to identify the risk factors of CP and subsequently develop a scoring system that could predict the development of CP in patients with AP. Read More
Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 24;194:430-437. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Laboratory of Neuroimaging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA; National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Electronic address:
Numerous studies have documented cognitive impairments in multiple domains in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), including perceptuomotor, executive, and visuospatial functions. Although the neural underpinnings of cognitive deficits in AUD have been studied extensively, the neural basis of attention deficits in AUD remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated neural responses to a visual attention task (VAT) in 19 recently abstinent patients with AUD and 23 healthy control participants (HC) using functional MRI (fMRI). Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Psychology (RML, DJP), Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: Bystander training programs aim to encourage third-party witnesses to intervene in high-risk sexual situations; however, these programs rarely focus on training bystanders to effectively intervene when intoxicated. This is not surprising due to the limited evidence on the proximal effects of alcohol on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. To this end, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of men's self-reported intent to help strangers and acute alcohol intoxication on the likelihood and speed of sexual aggression intervention. Read More
Prev Sci 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Biobehavioral Health & Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
College women experience more consequences (e.g., blacking out, unprotected/unwanted sex) on days when they engage in their heaviest drinking. Read More
Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California.
To track iron accumulation and location in the brain across adolescence, we repurposed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired in 513 adolescents and validated iron estimates with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in 104 of these subjects. DTI and fMRI data were acquired longitudinally over 1 year in 245 male and 268 female, no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents (12-21 years at baseline) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. Brain region average signal values were calculated for susceptibility to nonheme iron deposition: pallidum, putamen, dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra. Read More
Adm Policy Ment Health 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Pragmatic clinical trials of mental health services are increasingly being developed to establish comparative effectiveness, influence sustainable implementation, and address real world policy decisions. However, use of time and resource intensive qualitative methods in pragmatic trials may be inconsistent with the aims of efficiency and cost minimization. This paper introduces a qualitative method known as Rapid Assessment Procedure-Informed Clinical Ethnography (RAPICE) that combines the techniques of Rapid Assessment Procedures with clinical ethnography. Read More
Brain Sci 2018 Nov 28;8(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
The present study examined differences in operant responses in adult male and female rats during distinct phases of addiction. Males and females demonstrated escalation in methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, i. Read More
Addict Biol 2018 Nov;23(6):1204-1206
Instituto IBIMA, Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Salud Mental, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.
J Gen Intern Med 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.
Background: Unhealthy alcohol use is a major worldwide health problem. Yet few studies have assessed provider adherence to the alcohol-related care recommended in clinical practice guidelines, nor links between adherence to recommended care and outcomes.
Objectives: To describe quality of care for unhealthy alcohol use and its impacts on drinking behavior RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of quality of alcohol care for the population of patients screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use in a large Veterans Affairs health system. Read More
Front Psychiatry 2018 13;9:585. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
For any professional, it is of crucial importance to know not only how coping styles and strategies are present in an individual, but to know about its role to the treatment of alcohol abuse. Moreover, new approaches have emerged in this area in terms of relapse prevention and the counseling by phone can be an alternative. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Coping Behaviors Inventory (CBI) and to test its invariance across groups face-to-face and phone counseling in Brazil. Read More
Front Pharmacol 2018 13;9:1306. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, United States.
Withdrawal from binge-drinking increases negative affect, coinciding with increased expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) within the shell of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh). Supporting a causal-effect relationship, systemic treatment with the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MTEP [3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine] is anxiolytic in binge-drinking adult and adolescent mice. Here, we employed neuropharmacological approaches to examine the functional relevance of AcbSh mGlu5 for behavioral indices of alcohol withdrawal-induced hyper-anxiety. Read More
Curr Biol 2018 Dec 25;28(23):3840-3849.e6. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
The State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, China. Electronic address:
No other species attracts more international resources, public attention, and protracted controversies over its intraspecific taxonomy than the tiger (Panthera tigris) [1, 2]. Today, fewer than 4,000 free-ranging tigers survive, covering only 7% of their historical range, and debates persist over whether they comprise six, five, or two subspecies [3-6]. The lack of consensus over the number of tiger subspecies has partially hindered the global effort to recover the species from the brink of extinction, as both captive breeding and landscape intervention of wild populations increasingly require an explicit delineation of the conservation management units . Read More
Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA.
Introduction And Aims: Sexual identity disparities in smoking behaviours are well established; however, there is limited research on whether these disparities have diminished as the social and political landscape has changed for lesbian, gay and bisexual people. Thus, we examined changes in prevalence and sexual identity disparities in three smoking behaviours among Canadian adolescents from 1998 to 2013.
Design And Methods: Data are from the provincially representative British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N = 99 373). Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Nov 26;8(1):17379. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Section on Transmitter Signaling, Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892-9411, USA.
Activation of short-chain free fatty acid receptors 3 (FFAR3) has been suggested to promote sympathetic outflow in postganglionic sympathetic neurons or hamper it by a negative coupling to N-type calcium (Ca2.2) channels. Heterogeneity of FFAR3 expression in sympathetic neurons, however, renders single neurons studies extremely time-consuming in wild-type mice. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent copy number variant (CNV) with high penetrance for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Study of individuals with 22q11DS therefore may offer key insights into neural mechanisms underlying such complex illnesses. Read More
Cells 2018 Nov 24;7(12). Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Research Service, VA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE and Departments of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105, USA.
Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver. Here, we explore the composition of hepatic LDs in a rat model of AFLD. Five to seven weeks of alcohol consumption led to significant increases in hepatic triglyceride mass, along with increases in LD number and size. Read More
Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Neuroscience Program, Center for Health Sciences, Bioscience Division, SRI International.
Objective: Individuals with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy can expect to reach average life span, making them susceptible to combined disease and aging effects on cognitive and motor functions. Slowed processing speed in HIV is a concern for cognitive and everyday functioning and is sensitive to declines in aging. We hypothesized that information processing (IP) deficits, over and above that expected with normal aging, would occur in older HIV patients similar to those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with both conditions affecting frontostriatal pathways. Read More
Psychiatr Rehabil J 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Initiative for Research and Education to Advance Community Health, Washington State University.
Objective: This study describes the perspectives of outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI) and alcohol dependence on their participation in a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol use.
Methods: Thirty-five adults with SMI and alcohol dependence participated in a randomized trial of CM for alcohol use, where they were rewarded with prizes contingent on abstinence from alcohol. All participants were interviewed regarding their participation in CM with a consistent structure that included nine open-ended questions. Read More
Addiction 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.
Background And Aims: Few studies have explored how polygenic propensity to cannabis use unfolds across development, and no studies have yet examined this question in the context of environmental contributions such as peer cannabis use. Outlining the factors that contribute to progression from cannabis initiation to problem use over time may ultimately provide insights into mechanisms for targeted interventions. We sought to examine the relationships between polygenic liability for cannabis use, cannabis use trajectories across ages 12-30, and perceived peer cannabis use at ages 12-17. Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
Department of Psychiatry , Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Background: Depression, anxiety, and alcohol misuse predict adverse social, academic, and emotional outcomes, and their relations to one another increase during adolescence-particularly in girls. However, evidence on the directions of these relations is mixed. Longitudinal models of internalizing problem-alcohol use links may identify promising prevention targets. Read More