85,155 results match your criteria Alcoholism


Mu opioid receptors in the medial habenula contribute to naloxone aversion.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

McGill University, Faculty of Medicine, Douglas Research Centre, Montreal, Canada.

The medial habenula (MHb) is considered a brain center regulating aversive states. The mu opioid receptor (MOR) has been traditionally studied at the level of nociceptive and mesolimbic circuits, for key roles in pain relief and reward processing. MOR is also densely expressed in MHb, however, MOR function at this brain site is virtually unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0395-7DOI Listing

The silent epidemic of chronic pain in older adults.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Lipid Peroxidation Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA; Intramural Program of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic pain is highly prevalent among older adults where it is associated with significant suffering, disability, social isolation, and greater costs and burden to health care systems. Pharmaceutical treatment of chronic pain in older adults is usually only partially effective and is often limited by side effects including urinary retention, constipation, sedation, cognitive impairment, and increased risk of falls. Since older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials testing treatments for chronic pain, the potential impacts of polypharmacy and frailty on reported outcomes and side effect profiles are largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Process of immunogenic cell death caused by disulfiram as the anti-colorectal cancer candidate.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceuticals Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Guangdong Engineering & Technology Research Center of Topical Precise Drug Delivery System, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medical of State Administration of TCM, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Disulfiram (DSF), a drug widely used to control alcoholism, which has anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. Numerous evidences from mouse experiments indicated that some anti-cancer agents of chemotherapeutic drugs favor the induction of immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD) leading to tumor-specific immune responses. However, whether DSF could induce the colorectal tumor cells death and the mechanism involved in ICD regulatory remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.03.192DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cross-cultural examination of college marijuana culture in five countries: Measurement invariance of the Perceived Importance of Marijuana to the College Experience Scale.

Addict Behav 2019 Apr 4;96:11-17. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions, University of New Mexico, United States of America.

Marijuana internalized norms, measured by the Perceived Importance of Marijuana to the College Experience Scale (PIMCES; 8 items), has been found to be distinct from marijuana descriptive/injunctive norms and to be a unique robust predictor of marijuana-related outcomes among college students, yet the role of these beliefs has not been studied outside the U.S. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the present work examined the level of measurement invariance (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Religious and spiritual struggles, religiousness, and alcohol problems among undergraduates.

J Prev Interv Community 2019 Apr 19:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Bowling Green State University , Bowling Green , OH , USA.

Theoretically, religion/spirituality may protect against alcohol problems or facilitate recovery. However, challenges can arise in religious/spiritual life that may contribute to or complicate alcohol problems. Emerging adults often experience difficult transitions from family environments to independent membership in academic communities straddling the legal drinking age boundary. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10852352.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2019.1603678DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acceptability of Mental Health Facilities and De-addiction Centers in India.

J Exp Neurosci 2019 7;13:1179069519839990. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmacology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), Lucknow, India.

Not much is known about disease prevalence, treatment outcomes, trained manpower, programs, and patients' awareness of diseases from South Asia, compared with the Western world. While other aspects are improving, the quantitative evaluation of awareness of diseases is lagging. Compared with other diseases, the situation for mental health disorders and addiction is worse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179069519839990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454643PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Hippo signaling is intrinsically regulated during cell cycle progression by APC/C.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02215;

The Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in growth control during development and regeneration and its dysregulation is widely implicated in various cancers. To further understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Hippo signaling regulation, we have found that activities of core Hippo signaling components, large tumor suppressor (LATS) kinases and YAP/TAZ transcription factors, oscillate during mitotic cell cycle. We further identified that the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which plays a key role governing eukaryotic cell cycle progression, intrinsically regulates Hippo signaling activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821370116DOI Listing
April 2019
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The adrenergic receptor antagonist carvedilol interacts with serotonin 2A receptors both in vitro and in vivo.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Section on Drug Design and Synthesis, National Institute on Drug Abuse and Chemical Biology Research Branch, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

There is increasing support for the potential clinical use of compounds that interact with serotonin 2A (5-HT) receptors. It is therefore of interest to discover novel compounds that interact with 5-HT receptors. In the present study, we used computational chemistry to identify critical ligand structural features of 5-HT receptor binding and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.04.003DOI Listing

The genetic relationship between alcohol consumption and aspects of problem drinking in an ascertained sample.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have begun to identify loci related to alcohol consumption, but little is known about whether this genetic propensity overlaps with specific indices of problem drinking in ascertained samples.

Methods: In 6,731 European-Americans who had been exposed to alcohol, we examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a GWAS of weekly alcohol consumption in the UK Biobank predicted variance in 6 alcohol-related phenotypes: alcohol use, maximum drinks within 24 hours (MAXD), total score on the self-rating of effects of ethanol questionnaire (SRE-T), DSM-IV alcohol dependence (DSM4AD), DSM-5 alcohol use disorder symptom counts (DSM5AUDSX), and reduction/cessation of problematic drinking. We also examined the extent to which an SNP (rs1229984) in ADH1B, which is strongly associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence, contributed to the polygenic association with these phenotypes and whether PRS interacted with sex, age, or family history of alcoholism to predict alcohol-related outcomes. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14064DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
3.205 Impact Factor

Increased [³H]quisqualic acid binding density in the dorsal striatum and anterior insula of alcoholics: A post-mortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 8;287:63-69. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-70029 Kuopio, Finland.

The function of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 is involved in the hyperglutamatergic state caused by chronic alcohol. Preclinical studies suggest that group I mGluR modulation could serve as a novel treatment of alcoholism. Considering the wide role of glutamatergic neurochemistry in addiction, group I mGluR binding was studied in brain areas involved in decision-making, learning and memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Oxytocin blocks enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol dependence and blocks alcohol effects on GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 16;17(4):e2006421. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Neurobiology of Addiction Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Oxytocin administration has been reported to decrease consumption, withdrawal, and drug-seeking associated with several drugs of abuse and thus represents a promising pharmacological approach to treat drug addiction. We used an established rat model of alcohol dependence to investigate oxytocin's effects on dependence-induced alcohol drinking, enhanced motivation for alcohol, and altered GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Intraperitoneal oxytocin administration blocked escalated alcohol drinking and the enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol-dependent but not nondependent rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006421DOI Listing
April 2019
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Assessing the collective utility of multiple analyses on clinical alcohol use disorder data.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Minnesota - Department of Psychiatry, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the potential of combining graph learning methods with latent variable estimation methods for mining clinically useful information from observational clinical data sets.

Materials And Methods: The data set contained self-reported measures of psychopathology symptoms from a clinical sample receiving treatment for alcohol use disorder. We used the traditional graph learning methods: Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, and Friedman's hill climbing algorithm; traditional latent variable estimation method factor analysis; recently developed graph learning method Greedy Fast Causal Inference; and recently developed latent variable estimation method Find One Factor Clusters. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jamia/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocz034DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Retrospective analysis of a gabapentin high dose taper compared to lorazepam in acute inpatient alcohol withdrawal.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2019 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

a Department of Pharmacy Services , Hartford Hospital , Hartford , CT , USA.

Background: Benzodiazepines have remained the standard of care for alcohol withdrawal syndrome; however, they have numerous unfavorable physiologic effects. Gabapentin has limited data to support a benefit in reducing benzodiazepine usage in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Objectives: Evaluate the association of an institutional guideline and order set for alcohol withdrawal that incorporates high dose gabapentin tapers in acutely withdrawing patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2019.1602136DOI Listing
April 2019
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Neural correlates of intertemporal choice in aggressive behavior.

Aggress Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Marketing and Supply Chain, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

People often have to make decisions between immediate rewards and more long-term goals. Such intertemporal judgments are often investigated in the context of monetary choice or drug use, yet not in regard to aggressive behavior. We combined a novel intertemporal aggression paradigm with functional neuroimaging to examine the role of temporal delay in aggressive behavior and the neural correlates thereof. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ab.21838
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21838DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Tailgating Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate the Effects of Positive Alcohol Outcome Expectancies on Game Day Drinking.

J Prim Prev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 126 Heyne Building, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

Although a growing body of evidence suggests protective behavioral strategies are associated with lower alcohol use among college students, we know little about what contributes to students' decisions to use these strategies. Alcohol outcome expectancies have been associated with alcohol use among college students, and may contribute to their decisions to use protective behavioral strategies while drinking in contexts associated with an elevated risk for heavy alcohol use. University football game tailgating is one high-risk context that has received limited empirical attention with respect to identifying risk and protective factors for use. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10935-019-00548-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10935-019-00548-1DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Glycoproteomic identification of novel plasma biomarkers for oral cancer.

J Food Drug Anal 2019 Apr 8;27(2):483-493. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Oral cancer with high incidence rates is occurring in many countries including in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. Smoking, alcoholism, and betel nut chewing are considered to be the main risk factors for oral cancer. Further, deaths from oral cancer have increased year by year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2018.12.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comparison of the prevalence, severity, and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in HIV-infected and uninfected people.

BMC Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 15;19(1):52. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Hepatic steatosis is prevalent in Western countries, but few studies have evaluated whether the frequency and severity of steatosis are greater in the setting of HIV infection. We compared the prevalence and severity of hepatic steatosis between HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected persons and identified factors associated with greater steatosis severity within both groups.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among participants without cardiovascular disease who participated in a substudy of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-019-0969-1DOI Listing

OPRM1 rs1799971 - COMT rs4680 - FAAH rs324420 genes interact with placebo procedures to induce hypoalgesia.

Pain 2019 May 6. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Pain and Translational Symptom Science, School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.

Genetics studies on the placebo hypoalgesic effect highlight a promising link between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dopamine, opioid, and endocannabinoid genes and placebo hypoalgesia. However, epistasis and replication studies are missing. In this study, we expanded upon previous findings related to the three SNPs in the opioid receptor mu subunit (OPRM1 rs1799971), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT rs4680), and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH rs324420) genes associated with placebo hypoalgesia and tested the effect of a three-way interaction on placebo hypoalgesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001578DOI Listing
May 2019
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The Effectiveness of Mobile Phone-Based Text Messaging to Intervene with Problem Drinking in Youth and Younger Adult Population: A Meta-Analysis.

Telemed J E Health 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

1 National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Mobile phone-based text messages have been used to address alcohol use disorder in younger populations by promoting abstinence, decreased alcohol intake, and moderation.

Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of mobile phone text messaging to address problem drinking by youth and younger adults.

Results: Authors systematically searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, APA PsycNET, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials for literature published in the past 8 years (2010-2018). Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/tmj.2018.0307
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0307DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Types of cannabis and tobacco/nicotine co-use and associated outcomes in young adulthood.

Psychol Addict Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

RAND Corporation.

Cannabis and tobacco/nicotine use are highly comorbid. Given expanding access to cannabis through legalization for recreational use, it is important to understand how patterns of cannabis and tobacco/nicotine co-use are associated with young adult outcomes. A predominantly California-based sample of 2,429 young adults (mean age = 20. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/adb0000464
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000464DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Identification of a Functional Non-coding Variant in the GABA Receptor α2 Subunit of the C57BL/6J Mouse Reference Genome: Major Implications for Neuroscience Research.

Front Genet 2019 29;10:188. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Genetics, Genomics and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

GABA type-A (GABA-A) receptors containing the α2 subunit (GABRA2) are expressed in most brain regions and are critical in modulating inhibitory synaptic function. Genetic variation at the locus has been implicated in epilepsy, affective and psychiatric disorders, alcoholism and drug abuse. expression varies as a function of genotype and is modulated by sequence variants in several brain structures and populations, including F2 crosses originating from C57BL/6J (B6J) and the BXD recombinant inbred family derived from B6J and DBA/2J. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449455PMC

Cognitive Control as a 5-HT-Based Domain That Is Disrupted in Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychol 2019 29;10:691. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

The Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Heterogeneity within Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has hampered identification of biological markers (e.g., intermediate phenotypes, IPs) that might increase risk for the disorder or reflect closer links to the genes underlying the disease process. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00691
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450211PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

[Alcohol: the great national denial].

Authors:
Jean Deleuze

Rev Prat 2019 Feb;69(2)

Rédacteur en chef.

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February 2019
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Novel Machine Learning Identifies Brain Patterns Distinguishing Diagnostic Membership of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Alcoholism, and Their Comorbidity of Individuals.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Center for Biomedical Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California. Electronic address:

The incidence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is twice that of the rest of the population. This study documents complex radiologically identified, neuroanatomical effects of AUD+HIV comorbidity by identifying structural brain systems that predicted diagnosis on an individual basis. Applying novel machine learning analysis to 549 participants (199 control subjects, 222 with AUD, 68 with HIV, 60 with AUD+HIV), 298 magnetic resonance imaging brain measurements were automatically reduced to small subsets per group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.02.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Mental health issues among indigenous communities and the role of traditional medicine.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2019 Apr 12:20764019840060. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

1 Cattolica University A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Mental health in indigenous communities is a relevant issue for the World Health Organization (WHO). These communities are supposed to live in a pure, clean and intact environment. Their real condition is far different from the imaginary; they are vulnerable populations living in difficult areas, exposed to pollution, located far from the health services, exposed to several market operations conducted to extract natural resources, facing criminal groups or illegal exploitation of land resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764019840060DOI Listing
April 2019
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Analysis of Gender Differences in the Impact of Taxation and Taxation Structure on Cigarette Consumption in 17 ITC Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 10;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Oklahoma Tobacco Research Center, Stephenson Cancer Center, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center; Oklahoma, OK 73104, USA.

Although increasing taxes has been established as the most effective tobacco control policy, it is not clear whether these policies reduce cigarette consumption equally among women and men. In this study, we examine whether the association between taxation/taxation structure and cigarette consumption differs by gender. The data is from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Projects in 17 countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071275DOI Listing
April 2019
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Brief Motivational Interventions Are Associated with Reductions in Alcohol-Induced Blackouts Among Heavy Drinking College Students.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology , University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Alcohol-induced blackouts, a form of anterograde amnesia that restricts the encoding of short-term memories into long-term ones, are among the most severe alcohol-related consequences. College students are at high risk of experiencing alcohol-induced blackouts, and there is a need to determine whether alcohol interventions can effectively reduce blackouts in this population. The current study uses data from 3 randomized clinical trials to examine the effect of various intervention approaches on alcohol-induced blackouts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14019DOI Listing
April 2019
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HIV Disease Severity is Sensitive to Temporal Changes in Alcohol Use: A National Study of VA Patients with HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Health Services Research & Development (HSR&D), Center of Innovation for Veteran-Centered Value-Driven Care, Veteran Affairs (VA ) Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA.

Background: Alcohol use influences HIV disease severity via multiple mechanisms. Whether HIV disease severity is sensitive to changes in alcohol use among people with HIV (PWH) is understudied.

Setting: National Veterans Health Administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002049DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effects of Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Drinking on Thiamine Concentrations, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Crossed High Alcohol Preferring Mice.

Neurotox Res 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Chronic alcohol drinking can damage the central nervous system via many mechanisms. One of these may involve a deficiency of an essential nutrient, thiamine, as a result of chronic alcohol exposure. Although thiamine deficiency (TD) has often been linked to the neuropathology of alcohol-related brain damage, the underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-019-00032-yDOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Hepatotoxicity risk factors and acetaminophen dose adjustment, do prescribers give this issue adequate consideration? A French university hospital study.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology Centre, Pharmacology Department, CHU Rennes, 2, rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35000, Rennes, France.

Background: The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen is recognised worldwide. Unfavourable prognoses relating to overdose include liver transplantation and/or death. Several hepatotoxicity risk factors (HRFs) should motivate the adjustment of acetaminophen daily intake (to < 4 g/day): advanced age, weight < 50 kg, malnutrition, chronic alcoholism, chronic hepatitis B and C and HIV infection, severe chronic renal failure and hepatocellular insufficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-019-02674-5DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effects of stimulation of mu opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors on alcohol drinking in rhesus monkeys.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) persists as a devastating public health problem; widely effective pharmacological treatments are needed. Evidence from rodent models suggests that stimulating brain receptors for the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) can decrease ethanol drinking. We characterized the effects of the mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist buprenorphine and the buprenorphine analog (2S)-2-[(5R,6R,7R,14S)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5-epoxy-6,14-ethano-3-hydroxy-6 methoxymorphinan-7-yl]-3,3-dimethylpentan-2-ol (BU08028), which stimulates MOP and NOP receptors, in a translational nonhuman primate model of AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0390-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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[Symptom assessment and chemical coping detection: the assessment of the cancer patient's symptoms between consumption, use and abuse.]

Recenti Prog Med 2019 Mar;110(3):115-117

Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Sant'Andrea, Roma - Oncologia Medica B, Policlinico Umberto I , Roma.

Substance abuse is frequently under-diagnosed among cancer patients. Alcoholism is a problem afflicting about 18% of the general population. This percentage is higher in hospitalized patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1701/3132.31137DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Voluntary oral consumption of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol by adolescent rats impairs reward-predictive cue behaviors in adulthood.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Few preclinical approaches are available to study the health impact of voluntary consumption of edibles containing the psychoactive drug Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We developed and validated such approach by measuring voluntary oral consumption of THC-containing gelatin by rats and used it to study if and how THC consumption during adolescence impacts adult behavior. We found that adolescent rats of both sexes consumed enough THC to trigger acute hypothermia, analgesic, and locomotor responses, and that 15 days of access to THC-gelatin in adolescence resulted in the down-regulation of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CBRs) in adulthood in a sex and brain area specific manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0387-7DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

MicroRNA-223 ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cancer by targeting multiple inflammatory and oncogenic genes in hepatocytes.

Hepatology 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis to more severe forms of liver injury including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In humans, only 20-40% of patients with fatty liver progress to NASH, and mice fed a high-fed diet (HFD) develop fatty liver but are resistant to NASH development. To understand how simple steatosis progresses to NASH, we examined hepatic expression of anti-inflammatory microRNA-223 (miR-223) and found that this miRNA was highly elevated in hepatocytes in HFD-fed mice and in human NASH samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30645DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Chronic alcohol consumption changes blood marker profile and bone density in rats with apical periodontitis.

J Investig Clin Dent 2019 Apr 8:e12418. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Endodontics, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba, Brazil.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate apical periodontitis (AP) development in rats under a chronic alcohol diet by calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase blood levels in addition to histological and radiographic analyses.

Methods: Thirty-two rats were arranged into four groups: (a) group 1: without apical periodontitis and on a regular diet; (b) group 2: AP and on a regular diet; (c) group 3: alcoholic diet without apical periodontitis; and (d) group 4: alcoholic diet and apical periodontitis. Alcoholic solution at 20% was given throughout the 8-week experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jicd.12418DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Inhibitory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in male and female mice following morphine withdrawal.

Addict Biol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, UNC Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The United States is experiencing an opioid crisis imposing enormous fiscal and societal costs and driving the staggering overdose death rate. While prescription opioid analgesics are essential for treating acute pain, cessation of use in individuals with a physical dependence induces an aversive withdrawal syndrome that promotes continued drug use to alleviate/avoid these symptoms. Additionally, repeated bouts of withdrawal often lead to an increased propensity for relapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12748DOI Listing
April 2019
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Respective influence of current alcohol consumption and duration of heavy drinking on brain morphological alterations in alcohol use disorder.

Addict Biol 2019 Apr 9:e12751. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Neuroscience, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Numerous studies have explored the morphological differences of the brain between subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and control subjects, but very few have investigated the impact of the duration of alcohol use disorder (DAD) and current level of alcohol consumption (CAC) within AUD subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared the morphological MRI of 44 controls and 66 AUD subjects, recruited at the end of a detoxification program. Additional analyses within the AUD group determined which specific alterations were respectively associated with DAD and CAC using: (1) Bonferroni-corrected multivariable linear regressions to explore the DAD/CAC impact on brain volumes and (2) a general linear model (GLM module of FreeSurfer's Qdec) and Monte Carlo simulation to correct for multiple comparisons (P < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12751DOI Listing
April 2019
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Targeting the β2-integrin LFA-1, reduces adverse neuroimmune actions in neuropathic susceptibility caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 Apr 8;7(1):54. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC08 4740, Albuquerque, NM, 87131-0001, USA.

Recently, moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was shown to be a risk factor for peripheral neuropathy following minor nerve injury. This effect coincides with elevated spinal cord astrocyte activation and ex vivo immune cell reactivity assessed by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) -1β protein expression. Additionally, the β2-integrin adhesion molecule, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a factor that influences the expression of the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine network is upregulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0701-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454692PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Serum iron, Magnesium, Copper, and Manganese Levels in Alcoholism: A Systematic Review.

Molecules 2019 Apr 7;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The aim of this paper was to review recent literature (from 2000 onwards) and summarize the newest findings on fluctuations in the concentration of some essential macro- and microelements in those patients with a history of chronic alcohol abuse. The focus was mainly on four elements which the authors found of particular interest: Iron, magnesium, copper, and manganese. After independently reviewing over 50 articles, the results were consistent with regard to iron and magnesium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071361DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fructose Promotes Leaky Gut, Endotoxemia and Liver Fibrosis through CYP2E1-Mediated Oxidative and Nitrative Stress.

Hepatology 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Section of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Fructose intake is known to induce obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to evaluate the effects of fructose drinking on gut leakiness, endotoxemia, and NAFLD and study the underlying mechanisms in rats, mice, and T84 colon cells. The levels of ileum junctional proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence analyses. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hep.30652
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30652DOI Listing
April 2019
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Nicotine produces a high-approach, low-avoidance phenotype in response to alcohol-associated cues in male rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Background: Nicotine and alcohol use are highly comorbid. Modulation of drug-paired extrinsic and intrinsic cues likely play a role in this interaction, as cues can acquire motivational properties and augment drug seeking. The motivational properties of cues can be measured through Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which cues either elicit approach following pairing with the reinforcing properties of alcohol, or elicit avoidance following pairing with the aversive consequences of alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14043DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cognitive and Motor Impairment Severity Related to Signs of Subclinical Wernicke's Encephalopathy in HIV Infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Background: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a neurological condition resulting from thiamine deficiency. Although commonly associated with alcoholism, non-alcoholic WE has been described in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, but subclinical WE may be underdiagnosed. The current study questioned whether presence of subclinical WE signs underlies cognitive and motor deficits in HIV individuals as observed in alcoholism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002043DOI Listing
April 2019
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The epigenetic modulation of alcohol/ethanol and cannabis exposure/co-exposure during different stages.

Open Biol 2019 Jan;9(1):180115

2 Biomedical Sciences Program, Zewail City of Science and Technology , Giza , Egypt.

Studies have reported the significant economic impact of smoking cannabis and drinking alcohol In the USA. It was estimated that the costs of cannabis-related treatment, hospitalization and loss of work-related pay have amounted to $200 billion. (Andersen AM, Dogan MV, Beach SRH, Philibert RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsob.180115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367141PMC
January 2019
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The training game SALIENCE for the therapy of alcohol use disorder.

Health Informatics J 2019 Apr 8:1460458219839612. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

University of Mannheim, Germany.

The feasibility study was aimed to develop a web-based gaming tool for the therapy of alcohol use disorder to offer patients a cue-exposure-based extinction and decision training, enhanced with virtual reality. To increase the training effect, patients playfully experience situations that resemble critical real-life situations. For implementing the game, a combination of HTML5 and JavaScript was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1460458219839612DOI Listing
April 2019
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Design feasibility of an automated, machine-learning based feedback system for motivational interviewing.

Psychotherapy (Chic) 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Public Health.

Direct observation of psychotherapy and providing performance-based feedback is the gold-standard approach for training psychotherapists. At present, this requires experts and training human coding teams, which is slow, expensive, and labor intensive. Machine learning and speech signal processing technologies provide a way to scale up feedback in psychotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000221DOI Listing
April 2019
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Beyond the aggregate score: Using multilevel modeling to examine trajectories of laboratory-measured aggression.

Authors:
David S Chester

Aggress Behav 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Aggression is often measured in the laboratory as an iterative "tit-for-tat" sequence, in which two aggressors repeatedly inflict retaliatory harm upon each other. Aggression researchers typically quantify aggression by aggregating across participants' aggressive behavior on such iterative encounters. However, this "aggregate approach" cannot capture trajectories of aggression across the iterative encounters and needlessly eliminates rich information in the form of within-participant variability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21837DOI Listing
April 2019
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Periaqueductal Gray Sheds Light on Dark Areas of Psychopathology.

Trends Neurosci 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA; National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) integrate negative emotions with the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems to facilitate responses to threat. Modern functional track tracing in animals and optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques show that the PAG is a rich substrate for the integration of active and passive responses to threat. In humans, the same regions of the PAG that give rise to adaptive anger/fight, fear/panic, depression/shutdown, pain, and predatory behaviors in response to challenging situations or overwhelming threats can become activated pathologically, resulting in symptoms that resemble those of psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2019.03.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Subacute Encephalopathy With Seizures in Alcoholics Syndrome: A Subtype of Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus.

Epilepsy Curr 2019 Mar-Apr;19(2):77-82

4 Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

A recent assessment of the classification of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) has incorporated the specific electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns on a syndromic basis. Such a clinical EEG syndromic approach may enable more accurate and expedited diagnosis of particular subtypes of NCSE so as to improve therapy. Herein, we review the characteristics of subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics syndrome, a subtype of focal NCSE occurring in chronic alcoholism with specific features, including encephalopathy, lateralized periodic discharges on the EEG, chronic microvascular ischemia on neuroimaging studies, and possible recurrence when chronic antiseizure treatment is stopped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535759719835676DOI Listing
April 2019
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Income Inequality, HIV Stigma, and Preventing HIV Disease Progression in Rural Communities.

Prev Sci 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Antiretroviral therapies (ART) suppress HIV replication, thereby preventing HIV disease progression and potentially preventing HIV transmission. However, there remain significant health disparities among people living with HIV, particularly for women living in impoverished rural areas. A significant contributing factor to HIV-related disparities is a stigma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01013-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Extracellular Vesicles: Intercellular Mediators in Alcohol-Induced Pathologies.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Room 456, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Though alcoholic liver injury plays the primary role in direct alcohol-related morbidity, alcohol consumption is also interlinked with many other diseases in extra-hepatic tissues/organs. The mechanism of alcoholic tissue injury is well documented, however the mechanisms that affect extra-hepatic tissues have not yet been well defined. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been identified as key components of alcohol-induced extra-hepatic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-019-09848-zDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
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