87,514 results match your criteria Alcoholism


Impact of low-level viraemia on virological failure among Asian children with perinatally acquired HIV on first-line combination antiretroviral treatment: a multicentre, retrospective cohort study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25550

Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Introduction: The clinical relevance of low-level viraemia (LLV) and virological outcomes among children living with HIV (CLHIV) remains controversial. This study aimed to determine the impact of LLV on virological failure (VF) among Asian CLHIV on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods: CLHIV aged <18 years, who were on first-line cART for ≥12 months, and had virological suppression (two consecutive plasma viral load [pVL] <50 copies/mL) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25550DOI Listing

Safety of Gabapentin Prescribed for Any Indication in a Large Clinical Cohort of 571,718 US Veterans with and without Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Veterans Aging Cohort Study Coordinating Center, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA.

Background: Gabapentin is prescribed for seizures and pain and has efficacy for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) starting at doses of 900 milligrams per day (mg/day). Recent evidence suggests safety concerns associated with gabapentin including adverse neurologic effects. Individuals with hepatitis C (HCV), HIV or AUD may be at increased risk due to comorbidities and potential medication interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14408DOI Listing

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal attenuates 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 activity.

J Cell Biochem 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Hypertension and Vascular Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

Elevated cellular oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are key contributors to impaired cardiac function in diabetes. During chronic inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lipid peroxidation results in the formation of reactive aldehydes, foremost of which is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE). 4HNE forms covalent adducts with proteins, negatively impacting cellular protein function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29814DOI Listing

Design of a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of High Dose Intravenous Thiamine for the Prevention of Delirium in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Contemp Clin Trials 2020 Jun 30:106076. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Delirium is a highly prevalent and preventable neuropsychiatric condition with major health consequences. Thiamine deficiency is a well-established cause of delirium in those with chronic, severe alcoholism, but there remains an underappreciation of its significance in non-alcoholic populations, including patients with cancer. Treatment of suspected thiamine-related mental status changes with high dose intravenous (IV) thiamine has preliminary evidence for improving a variety of cognitive symptoms in oncology inpatient settings but has never been studied for the prevention of delirium in any population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106076DOI Listing

Alcohol Use and Antiretroviral Adherence Among Patients Living with HIV: Is Change in Alcohol Use Associated with Change in Adherence?

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Health Services Research & Development (HSR&D), Center of Innovation for Veteran-Centered Value-Driven Care, Veteran Affairs (VA) Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, S-152, Seattle, WA, 98108, USA.

Alcohol use increases non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Dynamic longitudinal associations are understudied. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) data 2/1/2008-7/31/16 were used to fit linear regression models estimating changes in adherence (% days with ART medication fill) associated with changes in alcohol use based on annual clinically-ascertained AUDIT-C screening scores (range - 12 to + 12, 0 = no change) adjusting for demographics and initial adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02950-xDOI Listing

Longitudinal gut microbiome changes in alcohol use disorder are influenced by abstinence and drinking quantity.

Gut Microbes 2020 Nov;11(6):1608-1631

Office of the Clinical Director, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism , Bethesda, MD, USA.

Many patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) consume alcohol chronically and in large amounts that alter intestinal microbiota, damage the gastrointestinal tract, and thereby injure other organs via malabsorption and intestinal inflammation. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption and subsequent abstinence would change the gut microbiome in adults admitted to a treatment program. Stool and oral specimens, diet data, gastrointestinal assessment scores, anxiety, depression measures and drinking amounts were collected longitudinally for up to 4 weeks in 22 newly abstinent inpatients with AUD who were dichotomized as less heavy drinkers (LHD, <10 drinks/d) and very heavy drinkers (VHD, 10 or more drinks/d). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1758010DOI Listing
November 2020

Machine learning and natural language processing in psychotherapy research: Alliance as example use case.

J Couns Psychol 2020 Jul;67(4):438-448

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Artificial intelligence generally and machine learning specifically have become deeply woven into the lives and technologies of modern life. Machine learning is dramatically changing scientific research and industry and may also hold promise for addressing limitations encountered in mental health care and psychotherapy. The current paper introduces machine learning and natural language processing as related methodologies that may prove valuable for automating the assessment of meaningful aspects of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000382DOI Listing

Using a developmental perspective to examine the moderating effects of marriage on heavy episodic drinking in a young adult sample enriched for risk.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 Jul 2:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Many studies demonstrate that marriage protects against risky alcohol use and moderates genetic influences on alcohol outcomes; however, previous work has not considered these effects from a developmental perspective or in high-risk individuals. These represent important gaps, as it cannot be assumed that marriage has uniform effects across development or in high-risk samples. We took a longitudinal developmental approach to examine whether marital status was associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), and whether marital status moderated polygenic influences on HED. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420000371DOI Listing

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ reduces alcohol drinking and seeking by modulating multiple mesocorticolimbic regions in rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Unit, University of Camerino, 62032, Camerino, Italy.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is an intracellular transcription factor whose signaling activation by the selective agonist pioglitazone reduces alcohol drinking and alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. The present study utilized the two-bottle choice and operant self-administration procedures to investigate neuroanatomical substrates that mediate the effects of PPARγ agonism on alcohol drinking and seeking in msP rats. Bilateral infusions of pioglitazone (0, 5, and 10 μg/μl) in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) decreased voluntary alcohol drinking and alcohol self-administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0754-4DOI Listing

Membrane cholesterol dependence of cannabinoid modulation of glycine receptor.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute on Aging and Brain Disorders, the First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Cannabinoids exert therapeutic effects on several diseases such as chronic pain and startle disease by targeting glycine receptors (GlyRs). Our previous studies have shown that cannabinoids target a serine residue at position 296 in the third transmembrane helix of the α1/α3 GlyR. This site is located on the outside of the ion channel protein at the lipid interface where the cholesterol concentrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201903093RDOI Listing

Alcoholism mimicking multiple system atrophy: a case report.

Clin Auton Res 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neurology, Internal Medicine, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura, 285-8741, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10286-020-00708-yDOI Listing

Cost-effectiveness analysis of a large jail-based methadone maintenance treatment continuation program in New Mexico.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 28;115:108042. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Health Management and Policy, Miami Herbert Business School, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2030, USA. Electronic address:

The U.S. has the second-highest incarceration rate in the world and spends more than $80 billion annually to house inmates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108042DOI Listing

Cancer Pro-oxidant Therapy Through Copper Redox Cycling: Repurposing Disulfiram and Tetrathiomolybdate.

Authors:
Manuel Rieber

Curr Pharm Des 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

IVIC, Cancer Cell Biology Laboratory, CMBC, Caracas 1020A. Venezuela.

Background: Copper (Cu) is a transition metal active in Fenton redox cycling from reduced Cu+ and H2O2, to oxidized Cu2+ and the hydroxyl radical (∙OH) highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). At homeostatic Cu levels, ROS promote cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and wound repair. To limit ROS toxicity, cells use Cu-dependent chaperone proteins, Cu-binding ceruloplasmin, and Cu-modulated enzymes like superoxide dismutases (SOD) like SOD1 and SOD3 to scavenge excess superoxide anion which favours Cu+ reduction, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, important in aerobic energy production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200628022113DOI Listing

Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) in the Brain and Relevance for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2020 12;14:609. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has long been studied in the liver due to its regulation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and its causal role in familial hypercholesterolemia. Although PCSK9 was first discovered in cerebellar neurons undergoing apoptosis, its function in the central nervous system (CNS) is less clear. PCSK9 has been shown to be involved in neuronal differentiation, LDL receptor family metabolism, apoptosis, and inflammation in the brain, but and studies offer contradictory findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303295PMC

THE ROLE OF CIGARETTE SMOKING AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS DEVELOPMENT AND RECURRENCE.

Acta Clin Croat 2019 Dec;58(4):590-594

1Jordanovac University Department for Lung Diseases, Zagreb University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; School of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia; 3Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

During a two-year period (2001-2003), 464 patients were treated for tuberculosis at Jordanovac Department for Lung Diseases in Croatia. Besides pulmonary tuberculosis in 97.7% of patients, patients were also treated for tuberculous pleurisy (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20471/acc.2019.58.04.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314290PMC
December 2019

Effect of parental alcohol abuse severity and child abuse and neglect on child behavioural disorders in Kerala.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 25;107:104608. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Dharmagiri Jeevas Social Centre, Kannur, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Background: Parental alcoholism and child abuse and neglect are significant mental health concerns for children living in alcoholic families. Near complete dependence of children of alcoholic parents for care and support aggravate risk for neglect and abuse in alcoholic families. Neglectful and abusive, and thus less optimal familial environments for child rearing tend to results in behavioural problems in children of alcoholics in terms of internalizing and externalizing disorders is rather limited in Indian context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104608DOI Listing

Effect of Xingnaojing injection for the treatment of acute alcoholism: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(26):e20785

Department of Emergency.

Background: This study will assess the effect of Xingnaojing injection (XNJI) for the treatment of acute alcoholism (AAH).

Methods: The bibliographic literature sources will be systematically searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wan fang Database, and VIP Science Technology Periodical Database. All above electronic databases will be sought from inception to the April 1, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020785DOI Listing

Evaluation of risk factors for development of anti-tubercular therapy induced hepatotoxicity - A prospective study.

Curr Drug Saf 2020 06 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of General Medicine, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. India.

Background: Incidence of antitubercular therapy (ATT) induced hepatotoxicity is higher in India when compared to Western countries. As occurrence of ATT induced hepatotoxocity is unpredictable, serial intensive monitoring of hepatic function is now being recommended by the American Thoracic Society in individuals at high risk. This study was done to evaluate the risk factors for development of ATT induced hepatotoxicity in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574886315666200626164554DOI Listing

[Involvement of TOLL-like receptors in the neuroimmunology of alcoholism].

Biomed Khim 2020 May;66(3):208-215

Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kirov Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Alcohol use is a global socially significant problem that remains one of the leading risk factors for disability and premature death. One of the main pathological characteristics of alcoholism is the loss of cognitive control over the amount of consumed alcohol. Growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of neuroimmune communication occurring in the brain during prolonged alcoholization are one of the main mechanisms responsible for the development of this pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18097/PBMC20206603208DOI Listing

Development of Persistent Opioid Use After Cardiac Surgery.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: The overuse of opioids for acute pain management has led to an epidemic of persistent opioid use.

Objective: To determine the proportion of opioid-naive patients who develop persistent opioid use after cardiac surgery and investigate the association between the initial amount of opioids prescribed at discharge and the likelihood of developing new persistent opioid use.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from a national administrative claims database from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2016 and included 35 817 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (25 673 [71. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301303PMC

Sensation seeking, impulsivity, and aggression moderate sex effects on adolescent laboratory binging.

Psychol Addict Behav 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy.

Sex, comprising biological and gender-related distinctions, is a known risk factor for alcohol use disorders. Moreover, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and aggression have been found to predict binge drinking and to reflect behavioral disinhibition. We tested effects of these disinhibited traits on binging during intravenous alcohol self-administration (ivASA), a method that eliminates sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000651DOI Listing

A Mixed Methods Study: Sex Differences in Experiences of Stigma Associated with Alcoholism and Alcohol Use Disorders Among Injury Patients in Tanzania.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, United States.

Background: Each year, alcohol use causes 3.3 million deaths globally and accounts for nearly 30% of injuries treated at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) in Moshi, Tanzania. Prior research found significant stigma towards patients reporting alcohol use in general and among healthcare providers for this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14402DOI Listing

Age differences in brain structural and metabolic responses to binge ethanol exposure in fisher 344 rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.

An overarching goal of our research has been to develop a valid animal model of alcoholism with similar imaging phenotypes as those observed in humans with the ultimate objective of assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological agents. In contrast to our findings in humans with alcohol use disorders (AUD), our animal model experiments have not demonstrated enduring brain pathology despite chronic, high ethanol (EtOH) exposure protocols. Relative to healthy controls, older individuals with AUD demonstrate accelerating brain tissue loss with advanced age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0744-6DOI Listing

Effects of gene variation and childhood trauma on the clinical and circuit-level phenotype of functional movement disorders.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Human Motor Control Section, Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute on Nuerological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Functional movement disorders (FMDs), part of the wide spectrum of functional neurological disorders (conversion disorders), are common and often associated with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, little is known about their neurobiological underpinnings, particularly with regard to the contribution of genetic factors. Because FMD and stress-related disorders share a common core of biobehavioural manifestations, we investigated whether variants in stress-related genes also contributed, directly and interactively with childhood trauma, to the clinical and circuit-level phenotypes of FMD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-322636DOI Listing

Reduced alcohol drinking following patterned feeding: Role of palatability and acute contingent availability.

Physiol Behav 2020 Jun 20;224:113020. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Endocrine and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans 70125, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that intermittent high-fat diet access reduces alcohol drinking in rats. However, it was unclear if caloric overload, palatability, or diet itself triggered reduced alcohol drinking. It is also unknown if a similar paradigm could reduce relapse-like alcohol drinking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113020DOI Listing

Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Phosphorus, Selenium, Zinc, and Chromium Levels in Alcohol Use Disorder: A Review.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Macronutrients and trace elements are important components of living tissues that have different metabolic properties and functions. Trace elements participate in the regulation of immunity through humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle spasms, membrane potential regulation as well as mitochondrial activity and enzymatic reactions. Excessive alcohol consumption disrupts the concentrations of crucial trace elements, also increasing the risk of enhanced oxidative stress and alcohol-related liver diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061901DOI Listing

Lipocalin-2: A novel diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Biomark 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Viral hepatitis, alcoholism and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are the most common risk factors. Despite the advances in HCC screening and treatment options, HCC still has a high mortality rate and a high rate of recurrence after treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-190084DOI Listing

Dysregulation in Plasma 3 Fatty Acids Concentration and Serum Zinc in Heavy Alcohol-Drinking HCV Patients.

Adv Virol 2020 9;2020:7835875. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients comorbid with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HCV + AUD) could have progressively severe clinical sequels of liver injury and inflammation. Serum zinc and several polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) get dysregulated in AUD as well as HCV. However, the extent of dysregulation of PUFAs and zinc deficiency and their interaction in HCV + AUD as a comorbid pathology has not been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7835875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301182PMC

An overview of ghrelin -acyltransferase inhibitors: a literature and patent review for 2010-2019.

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2020 Jun 21:1-13. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry and BioInspired Syracuse, Syracuse University , Syracuse, NY, USA.

Introduction: The peptide hormone ghrelin regulates physiological processes associated with energy homeostasis such as appetite, insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, and adiposity. Ghrelin has also been implicated in a growing number of neurological pathways involved in stress response and addiction behavior. For ghrelin to bind the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) and activate signaling, the hormone must first be octanoylated on a specific serine side chain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2020.1776263DOI Listing

Brain Network Segregation and Glucose Energy Utilization: Relevance for Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Function.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The human brain is organized into segregated networks with strong within-network connections and relatively weaker between-network connections. This "small-world" organization may be essential for maintaining an energetically efficient system, crucial to the brain which consumes 20% of the body's energy. Brain network segregation and glucose energy utilization both change throughout the lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa167DOI Listing

Astrocytes and alcohol: cortical astrocytes regulate alcohol consumption and intoxication.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0737-5DOI Listing

Reply to Cohen and Murnion.

Pain 2020 Jul;161(7):1683

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001891DOI Listing

Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Complement in Patients with Alcohol-associated Hepatitis.

Hepatology 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Background & Aims: Given the lack of effective therapies and high mortality in acute alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), it is important to develop rationally-designed biomarkers for effective disease management. Complement, a critical component of the innate immune system, contributes to uncontrolled inflammatory responses leading to liver injury, but is also involved in hepatic regeneration. Here we investigated if a panel of complement proteins and activation products would provide useful biomarkers for severity of AH and aid in predicting 90 days mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31419DOI Listing

p53 destabilizing protein skews asymmetric division and enhances NOTCH activation to direct self-renewal of TICs.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 17;11(1):3084. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Tumor-initiating stem-like cells (TICs) are defective in maintaining asymmetric cell division and responsible for tumor recurrence. Cell-fate-determinant molecule NUMB-interacting protein (TBC1D15) is overexpressed and contributes to p53 degradation in TICs. Here we identify TBC1D15-mediated oncogenic mechanisms and tested the tumorigenic roles of TBC1D15 in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16616-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299990PMC

Using polygenic scores for identifying individuals at increased risk of substance use disorders in clinical and population samples.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 Jun 18;10(1):196. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Genome-wide, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have emerged as a useful way to characterize genetic liability. There is growing evidence that PRS may prove useful for early identification of those at increased risk for certain diseases. The current potential of PRS for alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an open question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00865-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303212PMC
June 2020
4.360 Impact Factor

Acute Pancreatitis Imaging in MDCT: State of the Art of Usual and Unusual Local Complications. 2012 Atlanta Classification Revisited.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Departamento Imagenología, Clínica Dávila, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de los Andes y Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease in which most common etiologies are biliary lithiasis and alcoholism. Acute pancreatitis can be classified into 2 groups according to its morphologic features: interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing acute pancreatitis. The prognosis of this group of diseases and its complications varies significantly and contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the imaging study of choice for the diagnosis and detection of complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2020.04.002DOI Listing

Tobacco/nicotine and marijuana co-use motives in young adults: Associations with substance use behaviors one year later.

Psychol Addict Behav 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

RAND Corporation.

Co-administration of tobacco/nicotine and marijuana (e.g., using both products on the same occasion by mixing them in the same delivery device) is a risky, yet common, form of co-use among young adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000638DOI Listing

Validation of a nicotine vapor self-administration model in rats with relevance to electronic cigarette use.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The debate about electronic cigarettes is dividing healthcare professionals, policymakers, manufacturers, and communities. A key limitation in our understanding of the cause and consequences of vaping is the lack of animal models of nicotine vapor self-administration. Here, we developed a novel model of voluntary electronic cigarette use in rats using operant behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0734-8DOI Listing

Chronic-plus-binge alcohol intake induces production of proinflammatory mtDNA-enriched extracellular vesicles and steatohepatitis via ASK1-p38MAPKα-dependent mechanisms.

JCI Insight 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, United States of America.

Alcoholic liver disease is a spectrum of liver disorders with histopathological changes ranging from simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data suggest that chronic-plus-binge ethanol intake induces steatohepatitis by promoting hepatocytes to release proinflammatory mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the stress kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in chronic-plus-binge ethanol-induced steatohepatitis and mtDNA-enriched EV release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.136496DOI Listing

Phosphatidylethanol Levels, As a Marker of Alcohol Consumption, Are Associated With Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2020 Jul 16;51(7):2148-2152. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Skellefteå Research Unit (K.J., L.J., J.-H.J., M.M.L.), Umeå University, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: Previous observational studies have shown a moderately increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with high self-reported alcohol consumption. However, self-reported data tend to underestimate alcohol consumption. Phosphatidylethanol is a specific biomarker reflecting alcohol intake during the last month and correlates with the amount of alcohol consumed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029630DOI Listing

Occupancy of the kappa opioid receptor by naltrexone predicts reduction in drinking and craving.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

The efficacy of naltrexone to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) is modest. A better understanding of the neurobiology underlying naltrexone effects could optimize treatments. We evaluated the occupancy of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) by naltrexone measured with [C]-LY2795050 positron emission tomography (PET) as a predictor of response to naltrexone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0811-8DOI Listing
June 2020
14.496 Impact Factor

A case-based learning exercise to increase students' understanding of the pharmacist's role in public health interventions for individual patients.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2020 Jul 8;12(7):817-826. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy 1 University of New Mexico, MSC 09 5360, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a public health (PH) micro-level case-based learning exercise increased pharmacy students' self-perceived understanding and confidence in their role as PH pharmacists.

Methods: Three PH micro-level case-based learning exercises in community pharmacy settings were developed and integrated into the third professional year PH course. Students enrolled in the PH course from January 2012 - May 2015 completed a pre- and post-activity survey consisting of 22 statements with Likert scale responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.02.004DOI Listing

Suppression of active phase voluntary wheel running in male rats by unilateral chronic constriction injury: Enduring therapeutic effects of a brief treatment of morphine combined with TLR4 or P2X7 antagonists.

J Neurosci Res 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Laboratories of Neuroimmunology, Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The present series of studies examine the impact of systemically administered therapeutics on peripheral nerve injury (males; unilateral sciatic chronic constriction injury [CCI])-induced suppression of voluntary wheel running, across weeks after dosing cessation. Following CCI, active phase running distance and speed are suppressed throughout the 7-week observation period. A brief course of morphine, however, increased active phase running distance and speed throughout this same period, an effect apparent only in sham rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24645DOI Listing

Touchscreen-based assessment of risky-choice in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 10;393:112748. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Behavioral and Genomic Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Addictions are characterized by choices made to satisfy the addiction despite the risk it could produce an adverse consequence. Here, we developed a murine version of a 'risky decision-making' task (RDT), in which mice could respond on a touchscreen panel to obtain either a large milkshake reward associated with varying probability of footshock, or a smaller amount of the same reward that was never punished. Results showed that (the following font is incorrectly smaller/subscripted) mice shifted choice from the large to small reward stimulus as shock probability increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112748DOI Listing

Pain interference and catastrophizing are not associated with polysubstance use among treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorders and chronic pain.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2020 Jun 12:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction, McLean Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School , Belmont, MA, USA.

Background: People with substance use disorders (SUD) and co-occurring chronic pain report the use of myriad substances, which is concerning due to the heightened risk of overdose associated with polysubstance use. Identifying malleable factors associated with polysubstance use in this population can inform interventions. In this study, we examined whether two pain processes - pain interference and pain catastrophizing - were associated with polysubstance use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2020.1757687DOI Listing

First COVID-19 mortality case in Taiwan with bacterial co-infection by national surveillance of critically ill patients with influenza-negative pneumonia.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan; Infection Control Team, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A 63-year-old diabetic smoker with alcoholism was the first mortality case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Taiwan. As concurrently infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae and subsequently with Klebsiella aerogenes, he was exposed by a national survey of patients with critically influenza-negative pneumonia. We recommend COVID-19 screening for patients with severe flu-like syndrome and protecting health-care workers from being infected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239019PMC

Predictors of High Resource Consumption in Alcohol Intoxicated Patients in the Emergency Department.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 9;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

previous studies have reported that the incidence of alcohol-related visits to emergency departments (ED) has increased, but little is known about how the necessary resources per visit have changed, or about the predictors and reasons for resource consumption. a retrospective analysis was performed of all consultations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of acute alcohol intoxication admitted to the ED of Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, between 1 June 2012, and 31 May 2017. Clinical characteristics and resource consumption were extracted and analysed over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312041PMC

Risk of Alcohol Use Disorder After Sleeve Gastrectomy.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

İstanbul Bariatrics, Obesity and Advanced Laparoscopy Center, İstanbul, Turkey.

Several studies demonstrated increased alcohol intake after gastric bypass but not for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder after LSG. LSG patients with at least 1-year follow-up who completed the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) preoperatively, and at their control visit, were the subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0306DOI Listing