BMC Med Res Methodol 2022 Jun 24;22(1):177. Epub 2022 Jun 24.
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine (MC5723), 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305-5723, USA.
Background: Accurate measurement of trajectories in longitudinal studies, considered the gold standard method for tracking functional growth during adolescence, decline in aging, and change after head injury, is subject to confounding by testing experience.
Methods: We measured change in cognitive and motor abilities over four test sessions (baseline and three annual assessments) in 154 male and 165 female participants (baseline age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. At each of the four test sessions, these participants were given a test battery using computerized administration and traditional pencil and paper tests that yielded accuracy and speed measures for multiple component cognitive (Abstraction, Attention, Emotion, Episodic memory, Working memory, and General Ability) and motor (Ataxia and Speed) functions. Read More