9,192 results match your criteria Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.[Journal]


Sexual Aggression Analogues Used in Alcohol Administration Research: Critical Review of their Correspondence to Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Wayne State University, Detroit, United States.

Background: Alcohol administration studies are crucial because causal questions about alcohol's role in human behavior can only be answered through experimental research that randomly assigns participants to drink conditions. The primary goal of this review is to catalogue the characteristics of experimental analogues used in alcohol administration research to assess men's sexual aggression proclivity and evaluate the extent to which they represent the scope of alcohol-involved sexual aggression. Although this review focuses on sexual aggression analogues, the identified methodological issues are relevant to a wide range of alcohol administration studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14388DOI Listing

Alcohol use disorder masks the effects of childhood adversity, lifetime trauma, and chronic stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

From the, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and those who have experienced traumas or chronic stress exhibit dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Whether and how trauma and stress histories interact with AUD to affect HPA axis reactivity has not been assessed.

Methods: In the present study, 26 healthy male controls and 70 abstinent men with AUD were administered a pharmacologic probe [ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH)] and psychosocial stressor to assess HPA axis reactivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14334DOI Listing

Increased responding for alcohol and resistance to aversion in female mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience and Behavior, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA.

Background: More women are being diagnosed with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), are increasing the amount of alcohol they are drinking, and are partaking in risky drinking behaviors. Compulsive drinking which persists despite negative consequences is a hallmark of AUD. Preclinical aversion-resistant models suggest that females may be more vulnerable to the rewarding effects of alcohol such that they show increased compulsivity when drinking is punished with quinine, a bitter tastant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14384DOI Listing

Using Demand Curves to Quantify the Reinforcing Value of Social and Solitary Drinking.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, 400 Innovation Dr, Memphis, TN, 38152, United States.

Background: Young adults typically drink in social settings and report high levels of episodic heavy drinking despite a range of adverse consequences. Behavioral economics posits that this may reflect a reinforcer pathology in which alcohol is overvalued relative to other reinforcers. Theoretically, the value of alcohol is related to both the direct pharmacological effects of alcohol (euphoria, sedation) and to the associated social reinforcement, but to date no studies have differentiated the value of social vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14382DOI Listing

Acute Alcohol Intake Produces Widespread Decreases in Cortical Resting Signal Variability in Healthy Social Drinkers.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Acute alcohol intoxication has wide-ranging neurobehavioral effects on psychomotor, attentional, inhibitory, and memory-related cognitive processes. These effects are mirrored in disruption of neural metabolism, functional activation, and functional network coherence. Metrics of intraregional neural dynamics such as regional signal variability (RSV) and brain entropy (BEN) may capture unique aspects of neural functional capacity in healthy and clinical populations; however, alcohol's influence on these metrics is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14381DOI Listing

Difficulties in daily living experienced by adolescents, transition-aged youth, and adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of problems in their cognitive, affective, and physical functioning following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), in addition to multiple complex difficulties in daily living that impact wellbeing. Using the Canadian National FASD Database, we sought to profile a range of difficulties in daily living, along with risk factors, in a large cross-sectional cohort of adolescents, transition-aged youth, and adults with PAE, of which a subset was ultimately diagnosed with FASD.

Methods: We summarized data for nine current difficulties in daily living reported at the time of diagnostic assessment for 726 individuals with PAE assessed at 26 FASD diagnostic clinics across Canada, including 443 adolescents (12 - 17 years), 135 transition-aged youth (18 - 24 years) and 148 adults (25 - 60 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14385DOI Listing

Ethanol and cannabinoids regulate zebrafish GABAergic neuron development and behavior in a sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor dependent mechanism.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, 27707, USA.

Background: Ethanol has diverse effects on nervous system development, which includes development and survival of GABAergic neurons in a sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-dependent mechanism. Cannabinoids also function as inhibitors of Shh signaling, raising the possibility that ethanol and cannabinoids may interact to broadly disrupt neuronal function during brain development.

Methods: Zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of ethanol and/or cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) agonist concentrations at specific developmental stages, in the absence or presence of morpholino oligonucleotides that disrupt shh expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14383DOI Listing

Does Alcohol Initiation in Early-To-Middle Adolescence Predict Changes in Reward Motivation? Evidence of Sex Differences.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

From the, Youth Emotion Lab, (KLM, SFG, TMC), George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Background: Reward motivation has been cross-sectionally correlated with adolescent alcohol use, but the temporal nature of this relationship remains unclear. This project sought to determine whether adolescent alcohol initiation longitudinally predicted changes in reward motivation and behavioral inhibition from early to middle adolescence, and explored the role of adolescent sex in this prediction.

Methods: A total of 180 11- to 14-year-olds were recruited and then followed for 3 years to age 14 to 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14349DOI Listing

Effects of Prazosin on Provoked Alcohol Craving and Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Response to Stress in Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, United States.

Background: Chronic alcohol results in changes to stress biology and autonomic arousal contributing to acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms, neuroendocrine tolerance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses, high stress-induced craving, and risk of alcohol relapse. Thus, stress coping and recovery from alcohol during early abstinence may be jeopardized by such stress system dysfunction. Significant preclinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic disruption may contribute to these alcohol-related stress arousal changes and that alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, such as prazosin, may normalize these stress system adaptations and reduce alcohol intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14378DOI Listing

The Effects of Low-Risk Drinking ON Neurocognition Among Older Persons Living with HIV as Compared to Those Without HIV.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Heavy alcohol use negatively impacts neurocognition, but some studies report neurocognitive benefits associated with light drinking among HIV-seronegative (HIV-) older persons, suggesting a non-linear or an inverted "J-shaped" association of alcohol consumption on neurocognition. Alcohol use is common among people with HIV (PWH), however, the association between recent "low-risk" alcohol consumption and neurocognition among PWH is poorly understood.

Methods: Participants included 310 PWH and 89 HIV- older (≥50 years) adults who reported alcohol abstinence or "low-risk" drinking, defined per the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14379DOI Listing

Comprehensive Assessment of Alcohol Consumption in People Living with HIV (PLWH): The New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

From the Comprehensive Alcohol-HIV/AIDS Research Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Background: High frequency of alcohol use among people living with HIV (PLWH) warrants careful assessment and screening to better understand its impact on HIV disease progression and development of comorbidities. Due to the limitations of the tools used to measure alcohol use, the links to health consequences are not fully understood.

Methods: We completed a cross-sectional analysis to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption using multiple alcohol assessment tools and their correlation and consistency in a cohort of PLWH (N = 365) enrolled in the New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV (NOAH) Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14336DOI Listing

Phosphatidylethanol Levels in Postpartum Women and Their Newborns in Uruguay and Brazil.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, (EO, MF), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: There is increasing interest in the development of newborn screening tests to identify children at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in order to provide these children with early intervention. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has emerged as a potential universal newborn screening candidate.

Methods: The aim of this report was to present the results of a study designed to compare PEth levels in 1,140 postpartum women and their newborn infants in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14339DOI Listing

Effect of ethanol on Munc13-1 C1 in membrane: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Pharmacological & Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

Background: Ethanol has a significant effect on synaptic plasticity. Munc13-1 is an essential presynaptic active zone protein involved in priming the synaptic vesicle and releasing neurotransmitter in the brain. It is a peripheral membrane protein and binds to the activator, diacylglycerol (DAG)/phorbol ester at its membrane-targeting C1 domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14363DOI Listing

Effects of orexin-2 receptor antagonist on sleep and event-related oscillations in female rats exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, United States.

Background: Alcohol use is on the rise among women in the United States which is especially concerning since women who drink have a higher risk of alcohol-related problems. Orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonists may have some therapeutic value for alcohol-induced insomnia, however the use of this class of drugs following female adolescent binge drinking is limited. The current study will address whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) in female rats can result in lasting changes in sleep pathology and whether orexin-targeted treatment can alleviate these deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14361DOI Listing

Evaluation of Very Integrated Program (VIP): Health promotion for patients with alcohol and drug addiction - A Randomized Trial.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Clinical Health Promotion Centre, WHO-CC, Region Skåne and Dept of Health Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Compared to the general population, patients with alcohol and drug addiction have an increased risk of additional hazardous lifestyles and suffer from more chronic diseases, adding to their already significantly higher morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of the Very Integrated Program (VIP) on treatment and health outcomes for patients diagnosed with alcohol and drug addiction.

Methods: Parallel randomized clinical trial with intervention as add-on to addiction care as usual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14364DOI Listing

Impact of long-term alcohol consumption and relapse on genome-wide DNA methylation changes in alcohol-dependent subjects: a longitudinal study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Genetic factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Significant and widespread differences in methylation levels of multiple regions within the genome have been reported between AUD patients and healthy controls in large epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs). Also, within patient populations, methylation changes over time (both during and after withdrawal) have been identified as sensitive indicators for disease activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14354DOI Listing

Alcohol Cue-Induced Ventral Striatum Activity Predicts Subsequent Alcohol Self-Administration.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

From the, Department of Psychology, (ACL, RG, ENG, AV, LRM, SD, EB, LAR), University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States.

Background: Human laboratory paradigms are a pillar in medication development for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Neuroimaging paradigms, in which individuals are exposed to cues that elicit neural correlates of alcohol craving (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14342DOI Listing

Articles of Public Interest.

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Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May;44(5):1017

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14350DOI Listing

Effects of Alcohol Cue Reactivity on Subsequent Treatment Outcomes Among Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder: A Multisite Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Varenicline.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 3. Epub 2020 May 3.

From the, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, (RMJ, SSO, HTP, RW, DEF, MLR, JBF, THC, SBM, RZL), Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Background: The alcohol cue reactivity paradigm is increasingly used to screen medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other substance use disorders. Yet, its prospective association with craving and naturalistic drinking outcomes in clinical trials remains unknown. This study embedded repeated human laboratory assessments of alcohol cue reactivity within the context of a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of varenicline tartrate (Chantix ), a partial agonist of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, on alcohol craving among treatment-seeking heavy drinkers with AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14352DOI Listing

Examining the Relationship Between Self-Reported Drinking and In-Laboratory Drinking and Craving: Is There Concordance?

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 30;44(5):1151-1157. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: In-laboratory drinking sessions that allow direct assessment of drinking and craving are an emerging method for testing novel pharmacotherapy compounds and behavioral interventions for alcohol use disorders. Despite wide implementation, limited evidence supports the concordance between drinking in the laboratory and in a natural setting. This study examined the relationship between self-reports of drinking prior to and drinking and craving during an alcohol drinking paradigm (ADP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14329DOI Listing

The Role of Relationship Changes in College Students' Heavy Episodic Drinking.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

The University of Texas at Austin, (KF), Austin, Texas, USA.

Objective: The beginning of college is a period in which increased alcohol use often coincides with greater involvement in romantic relationships. Existing literature yields inconsistent findings regarding the influence of relationship types on drinking behavior, perhaps because these studies have not accounted for recent changes in the way college students engage in dating/sexual relationships.

Methods: The present study sought to address this issue using a longitudinal study design by examining the effects of both relationship type and sexual activity on heavy episodic drinking (HED) among 1,847 college students over the course of the first 3 semesters of college. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14347DOI Listing

Brucine N-Oxide Reduces Ethanol Intake and Preference in Alcohol-Preferring Male Fawn-Hooded Rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, (J-hL), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Alcohol use disorder places a heavy burden on global public health systems and thus is in urgent need of improved pharmacotherapies. Previously, our group has demonstrated that 30 mg/kg of the indole alkaloid brucine significantly attenuates alcohol-drinking behavior; however, the high toxicity, poor water solubility, short half-life, and limited therapeutic window of brucine restrain its clinical application as an antialcoholism medication. We subsequently hypothesized that the oxide of brucine (brucine N-oxide) would produce a similar behavioral effect without the risk profile associated with brucine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14344DOI Listing

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β/ζ and Alcohol Use Disorder: A Commentary.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

From the, Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14346DOI Listing

Changes in Hemodynamic Response Function Resulting From Chronic Alcohol Consumption.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 27;44(5):1099-1111. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Functional MRI (fMRI) task-related analyses rely on an estimate of the brain's hemodynamic response function (HRF) to model the brain's response to events. Although changes in the HRF have been found after acute alcohol administration, the effects of heavy chronic alcohol consumption on the HRF have not been explored, and the potential benefits or pitfalls of estimating each individual's HRF on fMRI analyses of chronic alcohol use disorder (AUD) are not known.

Methods: Participants with AUD and controls (CTL) received structural, functional, and vascular scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233451PMC

Chronic Binge Alcohol Exposure During Pregnancy Alters mTOR System in Rat Fetal Hippocampus.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

From the, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Gestational alcohol exposure can contribute to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), an array of cognitive, behavioral, and physical developmental impairments. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in regulating protein synthesis in response to neuronal activity, thereby modulating synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation in the brain. Based on our previous quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic studies, we hypothesized that gestational chronic binge alcohol exposure alters mTOR signaling and downstream pathways in the fetal hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14348DOI Listing

The Demographic and Neurocognitive Profile of Clients Diagnosed With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in PATCHES Paediatrics Clinics Across Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

The University of Western Australia, (SC, KYT, CFP, JPF), Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a diagnosis relating to neurocognitive impairments associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. A key aspect of improving FASD diagnostic processes and management is understanding the demographic and neurocognitive profile of those living with FASD. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and neurocognitive profile of the first 199 individuals diagnosed with FASD in PATCHES Paediatrics clinics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14345DOI Listing

Parental Family History of Alcohol Use Disorder and Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Children From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Youth whose parents have alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at higher risk for earlier initiation and greater magnitude of alcohol use, and have a higher likelihood of developing an AUD than their peers without parental history of AUD. This increased risk may be partly attributable to altered development of inhibitory control and related neural circuitry. This study examined neural activation during a motor response inhibition Stop Signal Task (SST) in substance-naïve youth aged 9 to 10 years with and without parental family history of AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14343DOI Listing

Association of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Offspring Depression: A Negative Control Analysis of Maternal and Partner Consumption.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 21;44(5):1132-1140. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

From the, UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, (KEE, MRM), School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Previous research has suggested that intrauterine alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in offspring. However, few studies have investigated its association with offspring internalizing disorders in late adolescence.

Methods: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the associations of maternal drinking in pregnancy with offspring depression at age 18 and 24 (n = 13,480). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14324DOI Listing

Aberrations in Incentive Learning and Responding to Heroin in Male Rats After Adolescent or Adult Chronic Binge-Like Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, (EB, DM, RR), Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, New York, USA.

Background And Purpose: Binge drinking is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults despite its adverse consequences on the brain and behavior. One area that remains poorly understood concerns the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on incentive learning.

Methods: Here, we examined the effects of CIE exposure during different developmental stages on conditioned approach and conditioned reward learning in rats experiencing acute or protracted withdrawal from alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14341DOI Listing

Stability of At-risk Alcohol Use Screening Results in a General Population Sample.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Section Social Medicine and Prevention, (AS, UJ, CM, SB), Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Background: In combination with systematic routine screening, brief alcohol interventions have the potential to promote population health. Little is known on the optimal screening interval. Therefore, this study pursued 2 research questions: (i) How stable are screening results for at-risk drinking over 12 months? (ii) Can the transition from low-risk to at-risk drinking be predicted by gender, age, school education, employment, or past week alcohol use?

Methods: A sample of 831 adults (55% female; mean age = 30. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14340DOI Listing

Ethanol Inhibits Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteochondral Lineage Differentiation Due in Part to an Activation of Forkhead Box Protein O-Specific Signaling.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

From the, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, (FS, JME, PMR, JJC), Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

Background: During bone fracture repair, resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into chondrocytes, to form a cartilaginous fracture callus, and osteoblasts, to ossify the collagen matrix. Our laboratory previously reported that alcohol administration led to decreased cartilage formation within the fracture callus of rodents and this effect was mitigated by postfracture antioxidant treatment. Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) transcription factors are activated in response to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and alcohol has been shown to increase ROS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14337DOI Listing

Articles of Public Interest.

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Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr;44(4):763

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14333DOI Listing

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Midwestern City: Child Characteristics, Maternal Risk Traits, and Prevalence.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 15;44(4):919-938. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To determine the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their mothers in a Midwestern city.

Methods: Case-control samples were drawn from 2 separate first-grade cohorts (combined N = 4,047) in every city school using different methods. In Cohort Sample 1, all consented small children (≤25th centile on height, weight, and/or head circumference) entered the study along with a random sample from all enrolled students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166178PMC
April 2020
3.205 Impact Factor

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Southeastern County of the United States: Child Characteristics and Maternal Risk Traits.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 15;44(4):939-959. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To detail the characteristic traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and maternal risk factors in a southeastern U.S. County. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169982PMC

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Rocky Mountain Region City: Child Characteristics, Maternal Risk Traits, and Prevalence.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 15;44(4):900-918. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To document prevalence and traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and maternal risk factors in a Rocky Mountain city.

Methods: Variations on active case ascertainment methods were used in 2 first-grade cohorts in all city schools. The consent rate was 59. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166196PMC

Inhibition of HSP90 and Activation of HSF1 Diminish Macrophage NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity in Alcohol-Associated Liver Injury.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

From the, Department of Medicine, (AC, DB, AL, PM), University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Background: Activation of NLRP3 in liver macrophages contributes to alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). Molecular chaperone heat shock protein (HSP) 90 facilitates NLRP3 inflammasome activity during infections and inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that HSP90 is induced in ALD and regulates proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14338DOI Listing

Experiences of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Their Families: A Critical Review.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Evidence suggests that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience challenges across many areas of their daily lives and often require interprofessional supports. Recent studies have emphasized the need for an integrated system of care for children with FASD, incorporating medical, allied health, and education services, to facilitate open communication and support for the complex needs that many children experience. To develop such a system of care, it is important to first understand the impact of FASD on children's functioning during daily activities in different environmental contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14335DOI Listing

Dihydromyricetin Protects the Liver via Changes in Lipid Metabolism and Enhanced Ethanol Metabolism.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 8;44(5):1046-1060. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

From the, Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Excess alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) consumption is a significant cause of chronic liver disease, accounting for nearly half of the cirrhosis-associated deaths in the United States. EtOH-induced liver toxicity is linked to EtOH metabolism and its associated increase in proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and the subsequent activation of Kupffer cells. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a bioflavonoid isolated from Hovenia dulcis, can reduce EtOH intoxication and potentially protect against chemical-induced liver injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211127PMC

A Systematic Review of the Effects of Perinatal Alcohol Exposure and Perinatal Marijuana Exposure on Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 4. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

From the, Division of Medical Sciences, (HMOR, MRL, TMS, BRC), University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Marijuana and alcohol are both substances that, when used during pregnancy, may have profound effects on the developing fetus. There is evidence to suggest that both drugs have the capacity to affect working memory, one function of the hippocampal formation; however, there is a paucity of data on how perinatal exposure to alcohol or cannabis impacts the process of adult neurogenesis.

Methods: This systematic review examines immunohistochemical data from adult rat and mouse models that assess perinatal alcohol or perinatal marijuana exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14332DOI Listing

Persistent Hyperactivation of Endothelial Cells in Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 21;44(5):1075-1087. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Background: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe inflammatory liver disease that develops in some heavy drinkers. AH patients have intense hepatic infiltration of leukocytes. Up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) upon endothelial cell (EC) activation plays an important role in leukocyte transendothelial migration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255105PMC
May 2020
3.205 Impact Factor

Does Cannabis Use Predict More Severe Types of Alcohol Consequences? Longitudinal Associations in a 3-Year Study of College Students.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 1;44(5):1141-1150. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, (GAE, JPR), University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.

Background: Prior research shows that negative drinking outcomes among young adults may be exacerbated by cannabis use. However, to date, there have been few longitudinal studies of associations between cannabis use and negative alcohol-related consequences. This study examined longitudinal within-person associations between cannabis use and several domains of negative alcohol consequences among young adults and explored the moderating role of sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211109PMC

Daily Ethanol Drinking Followed by an Abstinence Period Impairs Bone Marrow Niche and Mitochondrial Function of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells in Rhesus Macaques.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 21;44(5):1088-1098. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Neuroscience, (NN, KAG), Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Background: Unhealthy consumption of alcohol is a major public health crisis with strong associations between immunological dysfunctions, high vulnerability to infectious disease, anemia, and an increase in the risk of hematological malignancies. However, there is a lack of studies addressing alcohol-induced changes in bone marrow (BM) and hematopoiesis as fundamental aspects of immune system function.

Methods: To address the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and the BM niche, we used an established rhesus macaque model of voluntary alcohol drinking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14328DOI Listing

Early Ethanol Exposure Inhibits the Differentiation of Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 21;44(5):1112-1122. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may damage the developing central nervous system of the fetus and lead to brain structural and functional deficits in the children, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Previously, using a third trimester-equivalent mouse model, ethanol (EtOH)-induced behavioral deficits (including spatial learning and memory dysfunction) in the mice were detected on postnatal day (PD) 35. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229810PMC

Reduced Hippocampal Volumes Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Spatial Navigation on a Virtual Water Maze Task in Children.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Apr 20;44(4):844-855. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been linked to poorer performance on the Morris water maze (MWM), a test of spatial navigation in rodents that is dependent on hippocampal functioning. We recently confirmed these findings in children with PAE on a human analog of the MWM, the virtual water maze (VWM). Previous studies have shown that the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to PAE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166198PMC

Characterizing Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Spectrum of Outcomes.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Mar 15. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Departments of Pediatrics and Family Medicine and Public Health, (CDC), University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.

Background: The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are conceptualized as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) as the most severe. Many find it more difficult to characterize behavioral and cognitive effects of exposure on the central nervous system when physical signs are not present. In the current study, an operational definition of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) was examined to determine its usefulness in discrimination of children classified as ARND based on behavior (ARND/B) and cognition (ARND/C) from children in 4 contrast groups: (i) children exposed to study-defined "risky drinking"; (ii) children with any reported PAE; (iii) children classified as "Higher Risk" for developmental problems; and (iv) children classified as "Lower Risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14325DOI Listing

Articles of Public Interest.

Authors:

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Mar;44(3):585

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14316DOI Listing

Differential Activation of Unconventional T Cells, Including iNKT Cells, in Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 10;44(5):1061-1074. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

From the, Division of Gastroenterology, (IdM, IgM, BS, VK), Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background: Liver is enriched in several innate-like unconventional T cells, but their role in alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is not fully understood. Studies in several acute alcohol feeding models but not in chronic alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) model have shown that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play a pathogenic role in ALD. Here, we investigated the activation of iNKT cells in an intragastric (iG) infusion model of chronic ASH as well as the frequency and cytokine phenotype of 3 different unconventional T cells: iNKT, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and CD8 CD161 Vα7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211132PMC

Targeting the Glucocorticoid Receptor Reduces Binge-Like Drinking in High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) Mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 27;44(5):1025-1036. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Portland Alcohol Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Background: Chronic alcohol exposure can alter glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in some brain areas that promotes escalated and compulsive-like alcohol intake. GR antagonism can prevent dependence-induced escalation in drinking, but very little is known about the role of GR in regulating high-risk nondependent alcohol intake. Here, we investigate the role of GR in regulating binge-like drinking and aversive responses to alcohol in the High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice, which have been selectively bred for high blood ethanol (EtOH) concentrations (BECs) in the Drinking in the Dark (DID) test, and in their founder line, the HS/NPT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211124PMC

Inhibition of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β/ζ Reduces Alcohol Intake in Rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 27;44(5):1037-1045. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, (RF-C, GH), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, Alcorcón, Spain.

Background: Pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are cytokines that are up-regulated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after alcohol administration and have been shown to reduce alcohol intake and reward. Both cytokines are endogenous inhibitors of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ (a.k. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14321DOI Listing

Effect of Single-Dose, Oral Enzymatic Porcine Placental Extract on Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol and Liver Function in Rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 May 11;44(5):1018-1024. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

From the, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to treat a number of liver diseases. Porcine placenta is relatively safe and has been reported to have similar immune effects to HPE and used as its alternative. This study evaluates the effect of enzymatic porcine placental extract (EPPE, Uni-Placenta®) on alcohol pharmacokinetics in rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14319DOI Listing