8,921 results match your criteria Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.[Journal]


Multivariate analyses reveal biological components related to neuronal signaling and immunity mediating EEG abnormalities in alcohol-dependent individuals from the COGA cohort.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital/IOL, Hartford, CT, 06107.

Background: The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk have only been partially revealed using traditional approaches such as univariate GWAS and linkage-based analyses. We therefore aimed to identify gene clusters related to EEG neurobiological phenotypes distinctive to individuals with AUD using a multivariate approach.

Methods: The current project adopted a bi-multivariate data-driven approach, parallel independent component analysis (para-ICA) to derive and explore significant genotype-phenotype associations in a case-control subset of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14063DOI Listing

Ethanol Exposure Increases miR-140 in Extracellular Vesicles: Implications for Fetal Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Maturation.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA.

Background: Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate most of the neurons of the adult brain in humans, during the mid-first through second trimester period. This critical neurogenic window is particularly vulnerable to prenatal alcohol exposure, which can result in diminished brain growth. Previous studies showed that ethanol exposure does not kill NSCs, but, rather, results in their depletion by influencing cell cycle kinetics and promoting aberrant maturation, in part, by altering NSC expression of key neurogenic miRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14066DOI Listing

Novel Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Upstream Control of the Unfolded Protein Response after Ethanol Feeding in Mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Center for Liver Disease Research, Department of Inflammation and Immunity - Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Introduction: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pluripotent immune regulator, is an emerging mediator in Alcohol-related Liver Disease (ALD). MIF is associated with ALD progression through its chemokine- and cytokine-like activities.

Methods: Mechanistic studies into the role of MIF in ethanol-induced liver injury were performed in Mif mice and in C57BL/6J mice treated with a small molecule MIF antagonist, MIF098, after Gao-Binge (acute-on-chronic) ethanol feeding, an ethanol feeding protocol associated with hepatic neutrophilia and induction of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14065DOI Listing

The genetic relationship between alcohol consumption and aspects of problem drinking in an ascertained sample.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have begun to identify loci related to alcohol consumption, but little is known about whether this genetic propensity overlaps with specific indices of problem drinking in ascertained samples.

Methods: In 6,731 European-Americans who had been exposed to alcohol, we examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a GWAS of weekly alcohol consumption in the UK Biobank predicted variance in 6 alcohol-related phenotypes: alcohol use, maximum drinks within 24 hours (MAXD), total score on the self-rating of effects of ethanol questionnaire (SRE-T), DSM-IV alcohol dependence (DSM4AD), DSM-5 alcohol use disorder symptom counts (DSM5AUDSX), and reduction/cessation of problematic drinking. We also examined the extent to which an SNP (rs1229984) in ADH1B, which is strongly associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence, contributed to the polygenic association with these phenotypes and whether PRS interacted with sex, age, or family history of alcoholism to predict alcohol-related outcomes. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14064DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
3.205 Impact Factor

Critical evaluation of the association between elevated MCV and alcohol-related traffic accidents: a retrospective study on 6244 car crash cases.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Unit of Forensic Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Erythrocyte Mean Corpuscolar Volume (MCV) has been used for decades as a biomarker of chronic alcohol abuse and in the treatment of alcohol dependence. More recently, it has also been adopted to investigate the fitness of subjects to hold the driving license to prevent traffic accidents. So far, however, the studies on the association of MCV with an increased risk of alcohol-associated car accidents are extremely scarce if not totally absent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14046DOI Listing

In-the-moment drinking characteristics: An examination across ADHD history and race.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

Background: Adults with a history of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Black drinkers are at elevated risk for alcohol problems and alcohol use disorder. Processes that increase risk for these distinct populations have not focused on in-the-moment behaviors that occur while drinking. The present study examined in-the-moment drinking characteristics (i. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14050
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14050DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Validation of alcohol flushing questionnaire to identify ALDH2 status in a case-control study of head and neck cancer.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, 1F No 367, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, 70456, Taiwan.

Background: Carriers of the ALDH2*2 allele have impaired alcohol metabolism and are more susceptible to the development of alcohol-related cancers, including head and neck cancer (HNC). Screening for ALDH2*2 allele may identify high risk individuals for alcohol health education. Although genotyping of ALDH2 is the most accurate way to identify ALDH2 deficiency, it may not be practical due to the cost and requirement for genotyping service. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14049DOI Listing
April 2019
3.205 Impact Factor

Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Reduce Heavy Drinking: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Mind Research Network.

Background: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have independently shown benefits for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD). Recent work suggests tDCS may enhance mindfulness. The combination of MBRP with tDCS may provide synergistic benefits and may target both behavioral and neurobiological dysfunction in AUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14053DOI Listing

Alterations in White Matter Microstructure and Connectivity in Young Adults with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown differences in volume and structure in the brains of individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Most research has focused on neuropathological effects of alcohol that appear after years of chronic alcohol misuse. However, few studies have investigated white matter (WM) microstructure and diffusion MRI-based (DWI) connectivity during early stages of AUD. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14048DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Crossed eye/hand laterality and left-eyedness predict a positive 24-month outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany.

Background: Available predictors of hospital readmission following withdrawal in alcohol-dependent patients are limited. However, such parameters are needed to optimize individualized treatment strategies. This study investigated whether crossed eye/hand laterality, eyedness, and handedness may predict outcomes in alcohol dependence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14051DOI Listing

Are low to moderate average alcohol consumption and isolated episodes of binge drinking in early pregnancy associated with facial features related to fetal alcohol syndrome in five-year-old children?

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Departments of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) typically is observed among individuals with high prenatal alcohol exposures (PAE), but exposure histories obtained in clinical diagnostic settings are often inaccurate. The present analysis used the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study (LDPS) to assess the potential effects of low to moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on facial features associated with FAS among children five years of age.

Methods: The analysis is a prospective follow-up study of 670 women and their children sampled from the LDPS cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14047DOI Listing
April 2019
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Brief Motivational Interventions Are Associated with Reductions in Alcohol-Induced Blackouts Among Heavy Drinking College Students.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology , University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Alcohol-induced blackouts, a form of anterograde amnesia that restricts the encoding of short-term memories into long-term ones, are among the most severe alcohol-related consequences. College students are at high risk of experiencing alcohol-induced blackouts, and there is a need to determine whether alcohol interventions can effectively reduce blackouts in this population. The current study uses data from 3 randomized clinical trials to examine the effect of various intervention approaches on alcohol-induced blackouts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14019DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acute ethanol produces ataxia and induces Fmr1 expression via histone modifications in the rat cerebellum.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry.

Background: The cerebellum is fundamental for motor coordination and therefore crucial in ethanol-induced ataxia. Ethanol contributes to cerebellar pathophysiology. Fragile-X Mental Retardation protein (FMRP) is a complex regulator of RNA and synaptic plasticity implicated in Fragile-X Tremor and Ataxia Syndrome, a phenotype featuring increased Fmr1 mRNA expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14044DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Positions in the NMDA Receptor GluN2C Subunit M3 and M4 Domains Regulate Alcohol Sensitivity and Receptor Kinetics.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, 53201-1881.

Background: Alcohol alters synaptic transmission in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channel, is an important synaptic target of alcohol in the brain. We and others have previously identified four alcohol-sensitive positions in the third and fourth membrane-associated (M) domains, designated M3 and M4 , of the GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14042DOI Listing

Decreased Macrophage Autophagy Promotes Liver Injury and Inflammation from Alcohol.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Background: One mechanism underlying the development of alcoholic liver disease is over activation of the innate immune response. Recent investigations indicate that the lysosomal pathway of autophagy down regulates the inflammatory state of hepatic macrophages, suggesting that macrophage autophagy may regulate innate immunity in alcoholic liver disease. The function of macrophage autophagy in the development of alcoholic liver disease was examined in studies employing mice with a myeloid-specific decrease in autophagy. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14041
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14041DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A review of the neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Center for Behavioral Teratology and Department of Psychology, San Diego State University.

In utero alcohol exposure can disrupt the development of the fetal brain and result in a wide-range of neurobehavioral outcomes collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This paper provides a comprehensive review of the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, including domains of general intelligence, executive functioning, language development, learning and memory, adaptive functioning, academic performance, and concurrent psychopathology. In addition, the current status of the neurobehavioral profile of FASD and its potential as a diagnostic tool will be discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14040DOI Listing

Nicotine produces a high-approach, low-avoidance phenotype in response to alcohol-associated cues in male rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Background: Nicotine and alcohol use are highly comorbid. Modulation of drug-paired extrinsic and intrinsic cues likely play a role in this interaction, as cues can acquire motivational properties and augment drug seeking. The motivational properties of cues can be measured through Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which cues either elicit approach following pairing with the reinforcing properties of alcohol, or elicit avoidance following pairing with the aversive consequences of alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14043DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Maintenance of World Health Organization Risk Drinking Level Reductions and Posttreatment Functioning Following a Large Alcohol Use Disorder Clinical Trial.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

Background: Reductions in the World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels have been proposed as an alternative primary outcome for alcohol clinical trials. Yet, little is known about whether reductions in WHO risk drinking levels can be maintained over time. The current study examined whether reductions in WHO risk drinking levels were maintained for up to 1 year following treatment, and whether reductions over time were associated with improvements in functioning. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14018DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Erratum.

Authors:

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 21;43(4):767. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14023DOI Listing

Performance of the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) Questionnaire Across Sexes and Generations.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

University of California, San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, 8950 Villa La Jolla Dr, Suite B-218, La Jolla, California, United States, 92037.

Background: Low responses (low LRs) to alcohol established using the Self Report of Effects of alcohol (SRE) questionnaire are genetically-influenced phenotypes related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems. To date, most studies using SREs focused on scores for the number of drinks needed for effects the first five times drinking (SRE-5), and few evaluated scores that also included the prior 3-months and heaviest drinking periods (SRE-T). This paper evaluates characteristics of SRE-5 and SRE-T within and across generations. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14038DOI Listing
April 2019
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PCSK9 Is Increased In Cerebrospinal Fluid Of Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Recent studies have shown that alcohol use affects the regulation and expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9). While a major role of PCSK9 in hepatic function and lipid regulation has been clearly established, other pleiotropic effects remain poorly understood. Existing research suggests a positive association between PCSK9 expression in the brain and psychopathology, with increased levels of PCSK9 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with dementia and epigenetic modifications of PCSK9 associated with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14039DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Relationship Between Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Estimates and Alcohol Problems at 5-Year Follow-Up: The Role of Level of Response.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Psychiatry , University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background: Acute alcohol consumption is associated with temporarily increased regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). The extent of this increase appears to be moderated by individual differences in the level of response (LR) to alcohol's subjective effects. The low LR phenotype is a known risk factor for the development of alcohol problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13998DOI Listing

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Alcohol Dependent Veterans: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Cpl. Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Insomnia is highly prevalent in individuals recovering from Alcohol Dependence (AD) and increases their risk of relapse. Two studies evaluating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) have demonstrated its efficacy in non-Veterans recovering from AD. The aim of this study was to extend these findings in an 8-week trial of CBT-I in Veterans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14030DOI Listing
March 2019
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Prolonged exposure to alcohol vapor causes change in cardiovascular function in female but not in male rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Pharmacology Laboratory, Paulista Medicine School, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, Leal Prado Building, Botucatu 862 Street, 04024-002, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Alcohol abuse is a health concern worldwide. Studies have associated alcohol abuse with cardiovascular impairments. In this study, we investigated differences in the effects of chronic alcohol vapor exposure on cardiovascular function between male and female rats by using the alcohol vapor chamber method to induce alcohol addiction-like behaviors in rats. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14035DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Combination of clinically utilized kappa opioid receptor agonist nalfurafine with low-dose naltrexone reduces excessive alcohol drinking in male and female mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, NY.

Background: Nalfurafine is the first clinically approved kappa-opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist as an anti-pruritus drug with few side effects in humans (e.g., sedation, depression and dysphoria). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14033DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Protective Effects of Facilitated Removal of Blood Alcohol and Acetaldehyde against Liver Injury in Animal Models Fed Alcohol and Anti-HIV Drugs.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: We previously developed enzyme nanoparticles (ENP) of alcohol metabolism. This study was to evaluate protective effects of facilitated removal of blood alcohol and/or acetaldehyde on anti-HIV drugs and alcohol-induced liver injuries.

Methods: ENP were prepared for degrading alcohol completely (ENP1) or partially into acetaldehyde (ENP2), which were applied to mice of acute binge or chronic-binge alcohol feeding in the presence of antivirals (ritonavir and lopinavir). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14034DOI Listing
March 2019
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Changes in drinking patterns, attitudes towards and knowledge about alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a population of pregnant Danish women.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev Ringvej 75, Herlev, Denmark.

Background: In 1997, The Danish Health Authority recommended that "it is safest not to drink alcohol when you are pregnant," and in 1999 expanded recommendations. There are only a few studies evaluating the possible change of average alcohol consumption following changes in national recommendations, and no studies have been found comparing the changes in pregnant women's attitudes towards alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the changes in drinking pattern, knowledge about, and attitudes towards alcohol consumption during pregnancy before and after the change of national recommendations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14031DOI Listing
March 2019
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Relation Between Oppositional/Conduct Behaviors and Executive Function Among Youth with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Behavioral Teratology and Department of Psychology, San Diego State University.

Background: Youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure have high rates of behavioral concerns and psychopathology, including increased oppositional and conduct behaviors. The relation between those concerns and executive function (EF) deficits is unknown. We investigated the association of oppositional and conduct behavior and EF in adolescents to inform targeted intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14036DOI Listing
March 2019
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HIV Infection, HCV Co-Infection, and Alcohol Use: Associations with Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912.

Background: HIV infection and heavy drinking independently promote microbial translocation and inflammation. However, it is not known how alcohol use may affect these processes in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study tested the hypothesis that alcohol exacerbates innate immune dysfunction in PLWH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14032DOI Listing
March 2019
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Hepatic inactivation of the type 2 deiodinase confers resistance to alcoholic liver steatosis.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes& Metabolism, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: A mouse with hepatocyte-specific deiodinase type II (Dio2) inactivation (Alb-D2KO) is resistant to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia due to perinatal epigenetic modifications in the liver. This phenotype is linked to low levels of Zfp125, a hepatic transcriptional repressor that promotes liver steatosis by inhibiting genes involved in packaging and secretion of VLDL.

Methods: Here we used chronic and binge ethanol (ETOH) in mice to cause liver steatosis. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14027DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Intergenerational effects of alcohol: a review of paternal preconception ethanol exposure studies and epigenetic mechanisms in the male germline.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Biomedical Science Tower 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 15261.

While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disease, efforts to elucidate that heritability by examining genetic variation (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been insufficient to fully account for familial AUD risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14029DOI Listing

Precuneus: A Key on the Road to Translation.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Psychiatry , Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14026DOI Listing

Myelin Water Fraction Imaging of the Brain in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering , University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to alterations of cerebral white matter, including volume and nonspecific diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of microstructure in humans. Some animal models of PAE have demonstrated myelination deficiencies, but myelin levels have not yet been evaluated in individuals with PAE. Multiecho T MRI offers a quantitative method to estimate myelin water fraction (MWF; related to myelin content) noninvasively, which was used here to evaluate brain myelination in children with PAE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14024DOI Listing

A Prospective Study of Alcohol Use Patterns and Short-Term Weight Change in College Freshmen.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health , University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Background: The transition to college is a developmentally sensitive time in which freshmen are at high risk for engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing changes in weight and body composition. The study tested prospective associations among drinking patterns (weekly drinks, heavy drinking occasions/month) and alcohol calorie intake on weight and waist circumference change over the first year of college.

Methods: College freshmen (N = 103) were randomly selected from a pool of eligible students to participate at the beginning of the academic year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14025DOI Listing

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of Delivering Alcohol Use Cognitive Interventions via Crowdsourcing.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology , University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Inhibitory control training and working memory training are 2 cognitive interventions that have been considered for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Existing studies have typically relied on small samples that preclude the evaluation of small effects. Crowdsourcing is a sampling method that can address these limitations by effectively and efficiently recruiting large samples with varying health histories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13987DOI Listing

Assessing Campus Alcohol Policies: Measuring Accessibility, Clarity, and Effectiveness.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Behavioral and Community Health , Center on Young Adult Health and Development, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, Maryland.

Background: Excessive alcohol consumption poses significant hazards to health and safety on college campuses. While substantial research exists regarding effective policies for preventing alcohol-related problems in the communities surrounding campuses, on-campus alcohol policies have received far less attention.

Methods: Official campus alcohol policies (CAPs) were retrieved from the websites of the 15 member schools of the Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems, a voluntary statewide collaborative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14017DOI Listing

The Effect of Contextual Risk Factors on the Effectiveness of Brief Personality-Targeted Interventions for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: A range of school-based prevention programs has been developed and used to prevent, delay, or reduce alcohol use among adolescents. Most of these programs have been evaluated at the community-level impact. However, the effect of contextual risk factors has rarely been considered in the evaluation of these programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14016DOI Listing
March 2019
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GABA Receptor Subtypes and the Abuse-Related Effects of Ethanol in Rhesus Monkeys: Experiments with Selective Positive Allosteric Modulators.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Background: Previous studies have investigated α1GABA and α5GABA receptor mechanisms in the behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) in monkeys. However, genetic studies in humans and preclinical studies with mutant mice suggest a role for α2GABA and/or α3GABA receptors in the effects of EtOH. The development of novel positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with functional selectivity (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14000DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Predictors and Costs of 30-Day Readmissions After Index Hospitalizations for Alcohol-Related Disorders in U.S. Adults.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Health Services Research and Administration, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Background: In 2015, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program mandated financial penalties to hospitals with greater rates of readmissions for certain conditions. Alcohol-related disorders (ARD) are the fourth leading cause of 30-day readmissions. Yet, there is a dearth of national-level research to identify high-risk patient populations and predictors of 30-day readmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14021DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Severity of Substance Use Disorder: Utility as an Outcome in Clinical Settings.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Research Center for Natural Resources , Health and the Environment (RENSMA), University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain.

Background: Some authors have pointed out the usefulness of the levels of substance use disorder (SUD) as a treatment outcome. However, in order to use this variable as an outcome measure, its impact needs to be addressed within a clinical context. The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of SUD levels as a measure for detecting reliable changes and to make a comparison between the changes in SUD levels detected when using the number of criteria fulfilled and when using the reliable change index (RCI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14020DOI Listing

Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Examinations of Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Alcohol Use Disorder With and Without Korsakoff's Syndrome.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

U1077, CHU de Caen , GIP Cyceron, Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine, Normandy Univ, UNICAEN, PSL Université, EPHE, INSERM, Caen, France.

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients without Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) report a variable self-rated sleep quality. Their ability to accurately judge their sleep quality may be related to their alcohol-related cognitive deficits and brain damage. KS patients, who present severe brain dysfunction, may be cognitively unable to judge their sleep quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13997DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The Interplay Between Subjective Response to Alcohol, Craving, and Alcohol Self-Administration in the Human Laboratory.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Despite a rich literature on human laboratory paradigms of subjective response (SR) to alcohol, craving for alcohol, and alcohol self-administration, few studies have examined the interplay across these 3 constructs. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the interplay between SR, craving, and self-administration in the human laboratory.

Methods: Data were culled from a medication study (NCT02026011) in which heavy drinking participants of East Asian ancestry completed 2 double-blinded and counterbalanced experimental sessions. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/acer.14001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14001DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Chronic Ethanol Exposure and Withdrawal Impair Synaptic GABA Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Deep-Layer Prefrontal Cortex.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry , School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) acts as an integrative hub for the processing of cortical and subcortical input into meaningful efferent signaling, permitting complex associative behaviors. PFC dysfunction is consistently observed with ethanol (EtOH) dependence and is a core component of the pathology of alcohol use disorders in current models of addiction. While intracortical gamma-aminobutryric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission is understood to be essential for maintaining coordinated network activity within the cortex, relatively little is known regarding functional GABAergic adaptations in PFC during EtOH dependence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14015DOI Listing
March 2019
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Voluntary Ethanol Intake Produces Subregion-Specific Neuroadaptations in Striatal and Cortical Areas of Wistar Rats.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Addiction Biology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Addiction has been conceptualized as a shift from controlled recreational use toward compulsive and habitual drug-taking behavior. Although the brain reward system is vital for alcohol reward and reinforcement, other neuronal circuits may be involved in controlling long-term alcohol-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. The aim of this study was to outline alcohol-induced neuroplasticity in defined cortical and striatal subregions, previously implicated in alcohol use disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14014DOI Listing

Naltrexone Acutely Enhances Connectivity Between the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and a Left Frontoparietal Network.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD), reduces alcohol craving and intake. Despite known pharmacological properties, little is known regarding the effects of naltrexone on neural circuit function. Thus, a data-driven examination of the neural effects of naltrexone in human subjects may offer novel insight into its treatment mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13999DOI Listing
March 2019
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Brain Imaging-Guided Analysis Reveals DNA Methylation Profiles Correlated with Insular Surface Area and Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 4;43(4):628-639. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York.

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a wide-spread, heritable brain disease, but few studies have linked genetic variants or epigenetic factors to brain structures related to AUD in humans, due to many factors including the high-dimensional nature of imaging and genomic data.

Methods: To provide potential insights into the links among epigenetic regulation, brain structure, and AUD, we have performed an integrative analysis of brain structural imaging and blood DNA methylome data from 52 AUD and 58 healthy control (HC) subjects collected in the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample.

Results: We first found that AUD subjects had significantly larger insular surface area than HC in both left and right hemispheres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443499PMC
April 2019
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The Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Outcomes Among Concurrent Users: A Motivational Model of Substance Use.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 4;43(4):732-740. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Background: College students with more social anxiety symptoms are particularly vulnerable to problematic alcohol and marijuana use given their susceptibility for elevated anxiety symptoms in social settings combined with the normative nature of substance use. Existing research has established substance use as coping motivated for these students when examining alcohol and marijuana use problems separately. The next step is to determine whether students with more social anxiety who use both substances do so for similar or different reasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443437PMC
April 2019
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Risks Associated with Mid level Cannabis Use Among People Treated for Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 4;43(4):690-694. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Alcohol Research Group, Emeryville, California.

Background: The relationships between cannabis use frequency with alcohol use, alcohol-related harms, and persistent alcohol use disorder (AUD) in a general population subsample of individuals previously treated for AUD were examined.

Methods: Secondary analyses of the 2005, 2010, and 2015 U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13973DOI Listing
April 2019
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Willing to Work But Not to Wait: Individuals with Greater Alcohol Use Disorder Show Increased Delay Discounting Across Commodities and Less Effort Discounting for Alcohol.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Addiction Recovery Research Center, Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC, Roanoke, Virginia.

Background: Delay discounting refers to the devaluation of a reward given increasing delays to delivery. Similarly, effort discounting refers to the devaluation of a reward given increasing effort required to obtain it. Individuals with substance use disorder show higher rates of delay discounting, exacerbating short-term positive reinforcement at the expense of long-term consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13996DOI Listing
February 2019

Longitudinal Findings from a Randomized Clinical Trial of Varenicline for Alcohol Use Disorder with Comorbid Cigarette Smoking.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychiatry , Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: This study is the first to examine longitudinal posttreatment outcomes of a placebo-controlled trial of varenicline for alcohol use disorder (AUD) with comorbid cigarette smoking.

Methods: Participants were 131 adults (n = 39 female) seeking alcohol treatment in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, 16-week multisite trial of varenicline combined with medical management (MM). Timeline follow-back assessments of alcohol and smoking behavior were conducted at the end of treatment (4 months), with follow-ups at 6, 9, and 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13994DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads