912,690 results match your criteria Alcohol and Alcoholism [Journal]


The Efficacy of Tiapride and Carbamazepine Combination Therapy in Reducing Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Head of Department, Professor of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Danuvius Klinik GmbH, Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm, Technischen Universität München, Bavaria, Germany.

The combination of tiapride (TIA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) as an alternative treatment option to benzodiazepines and clomethiazole has been investigated by several investigations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to further explore the efficacy of this combination in order to render more definite answers whether this combination can be recommendable in the clinical practice. We systematically searched electronic databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus for human studies. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Investigating associations between caffeinated beverage consumption and later alcohol consumption among early adolescents.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 23;90:362-368. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Camden 311 North 5th Street, Camden NJ 08102, United States. Electronic address:

Previous research has demonstrated that caffeinated beverage consumption predicts alcohol consumption among early adolescents. This study aimed to investigate this association in two ways: (1) by examining if this association remained significant once other established risk factors for alcohol were adjusted for statistically; and (2) by considering three possible moderators of this association: gender, sensation-seeking, and parental monitoring. Data from the Camden Youth Development Study, a longitudinal, community-based study of middle-school students, were used. Read More

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November 2018

Hybrid colloidal suspensions tailored as gels to remove radioactive bitumen stains.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:660-665. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CEA, DEN, Univ Montpellier, DE2D, SEAD, Laboratoire des Procédés Supercritiqueset de Décontamination, Marcoule, F-30207Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France. Electronic address:

Vacuumable gels have been developed in the nuclear industry to decontaminate solid surfaces with little or no mechanical operations and without producing any liquid effluents. These gels can be spread on the contaminated surface and rapidly trap the radio-contaminants by sorption after corroding the substrate down to several tens of microns if necessary. The gel then dries and eventually fractures into a non-powdery solid that is easily removable by brushing or vacuum cleaning. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence of future arrests in adults involved in the criminal justice system with opioid use disorder receiving extended release naltrexone compared to treatment as usual.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 3;194:482-486. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Academic Affairs, Baystate Medical Center, 3601 Main St., Springfield, MA 01199, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Criminal justice involved (CJS) populations with opioid use disorder (OUD) have high rates of relapse, future arrests, and death upon release. While medication for OUD (MOUD) reduces opioid relapse, concerns regarding diversion and stigma limit treatment in CJS populations. Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX), as an opioid antagonist, may be more acceptable to CJS administrators. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Wuzhi capsule (Schisandra Sphenanthera extract) attenuates liver steatosis and inflammation during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 3;110:285-293. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Organ Transplantation, ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Wuzhi (WZ) capsule contains an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. The efficacy of WZ in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not yet been elucidated. The present study assessed the effects of WZ on NAFLD. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
2.023 Impact Factor

Preparation and characterization of poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds modified with cell-loaded fibrin gel.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Middle East Technical University (METU), BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Ankara 06800, Turkey; Middle East Technical University (METU), Graduate Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Ankara 06800, Turkey; Middle East Technical University (METU), Department of Chemistry, Ankara 06800, Turkey. Electronic address:

Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is one of the most commonly used polymers in the production of tissue engineered scaffolds for hard tissue treatments. Incorporation of cells into these scaffolds significantly enhances the healing rate of the tissue. In this study, PCL scaffolds were prepared by wet spinning technique and modified by addition of fibrinogen in order to form a fibrin network between the PCL fibers. Read More

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December 2018
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Physicochemical and functional properties of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) polysaccharides extracted under optimal conditions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran. Electronic address:

This research aimed to optimize the polysaccharides extraction of oleaster fruit and then to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of extracted polysaccharides. Temperature, water to dry matter ratio, time, and alcohol ratio were considered as variables. Purity of extracted polysaccharides was considered as the response. Read More

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December 2018

Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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December 2018
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Violence and aggression in young women: The importance of psychopathy and neurobiological function.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Departments of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, United States.

Psychopathy is one of the most researched risk factors for violence. Yet, research in women is sparse. The present study aimed to test if the link between the four-facet structure of psychopathy and interpersonal violence and aggression was moderated by neurobiological function (indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Read More

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December 2018

Activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) by ALDA-1 reduces both the acquisition and maintenance of ethanol intake in rats: A dual mechanism?

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Program of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

A number of pre-clinical studies have shown that brain-generated acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, exerts reinforcing effects that promote the acquisition of ethanol intake, while chronic intake maintenance appears to be mediated by alcohol-induced brain neuroinflammation/oxidative stress. Recently, it was described that N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (ALDA-1) activates aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde to acetate. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ALDA-1 on both the acquisition and the maintenance of alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring UChB rats. Read More

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December 2018

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Factors of local recurrence and organ preservation with transoral laser microsurgery in laryngeal carcinomas; CHAID decision-tree analysis.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Otolaryngology Department, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Indications of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) are conditioned by the risk of local relapse.

Objective: To evaluate prognostic factors of local relapse and local control with TLM (LC-TLM).

Methods: Local relapse and LC-TLM were evaluated in 1119 patients. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnosing the double burden of malnutrition using estimated deviation values in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208525. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of International Health and Collaboration, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, Japan.

Objective: To examine the possibility of diagnosing the double burden of malnutrition using estimated deviation values in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

Methods: A modified version of the Japanese Diagnostic Tool was used. Data on 194 countries were analyzed, including data from the United Nations International Children's Fund, World Health Organization and World Bank. Read More

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December 2018
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Anthocyanins from Cornus kousa ethanolic extract attenuate obesity in association with anti-angiogenic activities in 3T3-L1 cells by down-regulating adipogeneses and lipogenesis.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208556. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Dun-Duk Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam, Korea.

Cornus kousa the Korean dogwood has been traditionally used in East Asia as therapeutic traditional medicine however biological activities of Cornus kousa have not been investigated previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-obesity activities coupled with anti-angiogenic activities of anthocyanins rich fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of Cornus kousa (ELECk) in HUVECs and 3T3- L1 cells. Dried plants leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and anthocyanin fraction (AnT Fr) was obtained by eluting the ethanolic extract through non-polar macroporous resin and further purification by HPLC. Read More

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December 2018
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Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208171. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol consumption and insomnia in the northern Chinese population.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sanbo Brain Institute, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Insomnia is one of the main symptoms of sleep disorders. Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with several adverse health outcomes. The association between alcohol consumption and insomnia has been addressed in several studies with different results. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Prospective patterns of modifiable health risk behaviors and the utilization of healthcare services in the "Health Workers Cohort Study" in Mexico.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208172. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Morelos, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Cuernavaca, México.

Introduction: We still lack information about how changes in modifiable health risk behaviors influence the utilization of healthcare services. This study assesses the relationships between prospective patterns of modifiable health risk behaviors and the utilization of healthcare services.

Material And Methods: This was a prospective study among men and women participants in the Health Workers Cohort Study, aged 18 years and older. Read More

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December 2018

Licence to swill: James Bond's drinking over six decades.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):495-500

Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To describe the patterns of alcohol use in James Bond movies over six decades.

Design: Film content analysis.

Setting: Wide range of international locations in 24 James Bond movies (Eon Productions series, 1962-2015). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

DHA supplementation during prenatal ethanol exposure alters the expression of fetal rat liver genes involved in oxidative stress regulation.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Manitoba, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is known to induce adverse effects on fetal brain development. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to alleviate these effects by upregulating antioxidant mechanisms in the brain. The liver is the first organ to receive enriched blood after placental transport; therefore, it could be negatively affected by EtOH, but no studies have assessed the effects of DHA on fetal liver. Read More

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December 2018

Education and mortality in three Eastern European populations: findings from the PrivMort retrospective cohort study.

Eur J Public Health 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.

Background: The aim of the study is 2-fold. Firstly, it attempts to investigate the potential impact of major political and economic changes on inequalities in all-cause mortality among men and women with different levels of education in three Eastern European countries. Secondly, to identify changes in contribution of smoking and drinking to educational differences in all-cause mortality. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Alkoxyallene-based syntheses of preussin and its analogs and their cytotoxicity.

Org Biomol Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

Short syntheses of oxa-preussin, racemic preussin and (-)-preussin are reported. Starting from a racemic 3-nonyl-substituted methoxyallene derivative, its lithiation and addition to phenylethanal provided the corresponding allenyl alcohol that was converted into two diastereomeric dihydrofuran derivatives by silver nitrate-catalyzed 5-endo-trig cyclization. The acid hydrolysis of the enol ether moiety gave heterocyclic ketones and subsequent highly stereoselective reductions with l-selectride furnished 2-benzyl-5-nonylfuran-3-ol derivatives in good overall yield. Read More

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December 2018

Modifiable risk factors for young onset dementia.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, Sydney.

Purpose Of Review: Although young onset dementia (YOD) causes high levels of burden and distress, factors that contribute to its onset are not well understood. Identifying relevant modifiable risk and protective factors for YOD can inform efforts to prevent or delay onset of symptoms to later in life.

Recent Findings: Studies of modifiable factors for YOD have increased in frequency in recent years. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Does lifestyle matter? Individual lifestyle factors and their additive effects associated with cognitive function in older men and women.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Social Work and Social Administration , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong.

Objectives: This study investigated the association between healthy lifestyle comprised of multiple domains, gender, and cognitive function in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with data from 1,831 community-dwellers aged 65 years and above. Participants' basic demographics, comorbidity, and six lifestyle factors: diet; smoking; alcohol drinking; and physical, mental, and social activities were surveyed. Read More

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December 2018

Deciphering crystal packing effects in the spin crossover of six [Fe(2-pic)]Cl solvatomorphs.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institut für Physik, Universität zu Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23562 Lübeck, Germany.

In this work we investigate how the crystal packing affects the spin crossover (SCO) of [FeII(2-pic)3]Cl2. Four alcohol solvatomorphs of this compound have been reported to present a transition from a singlet low spin (LS, S = 0) to a quintet high spin (HS, S = 5) state at different temperatures, whereas two other solvatomorphs remain in the HS state along the entire range of temperatures explored. Given that all these solvatomorphs are isostructural, this behavior hints at crystal packing effects playing an important role in the spin transition. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of three triterpenic acids in dried rosemary using HPLC-fluorescence detection and 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)benzoyl chloride derivatization.

Luminescence 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University, 2825-7 Huis Ten Bosch, Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan.

Functional triterpenic acids such as ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA) and betulinic acid (BA) are representative ingredients in rosemary that may have health benefits. UA, OA and BA in rosemary extracts were derivatized with 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)benzoyl chloride (DIB-Cl) and detected using HPLC-fluorescence (FL). Dried rosemary (50 mg) was ground, added to 3 ml of ethanol, sonicated for 40 min, then the sample solution was added to a mixture of 1% trimethylamine and 1 mM DIB-Cl in acetonitrile. Read More

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December 2018
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Printable Fabrication of a Fully Integrated and Self-Powered Sensor System on Plastic Substrates.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 6:e1804285. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Wearable and portable devices with desirable flexibility, operational safety, and long cruising time, are in urgent demand for applications in wireless communications, multifunctional entertainments, personal healthcare monitoring, etc. Herein, a monolithically integrated self-powered smart sensor system with printed interconnects, printed gas sensor for ethanol and acetone detection, and printable supercapacitors and embedded solar cells as energy sources, is successfully demonstrated in a wearable wristband fashion by utilizing inkjet printing as a proof-of-concept. In such a "wearable wristband", the harvested solar energy can either directly drive the sensor and power up a light-emitting diode as a warning signal, or can be stored in the supercapacitors in a standby mode, and the energy released from supercapacitors can compensate the intermittency of light illumination. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Metabolomics study on promoting blood circulation and ameliorating blood stasis: investigating the mechanism of Angelica sinensis and its processed products.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Dec 5:e4457. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, PR China.

Angelica sinensis (Danggui, DG) parched with alcohol (Jiu Danggui, JDG) and charred DG (CDG) were main processed products of DG, which were used to treat blood stasis syndrome (BSS). However, their therapeutic effect and mechanisms are still unclear. Based on a rats acute BSS model, the intervention effects of DG and its processed products (DGPPs) were evaluated by the hemorheology and coagulation function parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Small Intestine Carcinoid Tumors: A US Population-Based Study 2012-2017.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Wearn 244, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Background And Aims: Most carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are located in the small bowel (SB). Epidemiological studies of these tumors have been limited by small sample sizes. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of SB carcinoids (SBCs) using a large database. Read More

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December 2018

Lifespan Dispersion in Times of Life Expectancy Fluctuation: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe.

Demography 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have experienced considerable instability in mortality since the 1960s. Long periods of stagnating life expectancy were followed by rapid increases in life expectancy and, in some cases, even more rapid declines, before more recent periods of improvement. These trends have been well documented, but to date, no study has comprehensively explored trends in lifespan variation. Read More

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November 2018

The Longitudinal Associations Between Outness and Health Outcomes Among Gay/Lesbian Versus Bisexual Emerging Adults.

Arch Sex Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, Northwestern University, 625 N Michigan Ave., #14-047, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for substance use and mental health problems. Although previous studies have examined the associations between outness and health outcomes, few have used longitudinal designs or examined differences across subgroups of sexual minorities. To address these gaps, the current study examined sexual orientation and gender as moderators of the longitudinal associations between outness and substance use (cigarettes, marijuana, illicit drugs, and alcohol) and mental health (depression and anxiety). Read More

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December 2018
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Current status of esophageal endoscopy including the evaluation of smoking and alcohol consumption in Japan: an analysis based on the Japan endoscopy database.

Esophagus 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

JED (Japan Endoscopy Database) Project Committee, Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The aim was to investigate the current status of esophageal endoscopy, including the evaluation of smoking and alcohol consumption, in Japan.

Methods: A total of 47,441 patients who underwent 69,748 sessions of esophageal endoscopy were registered in the Japan Endoscopy Database between January 2015 and March 2017. The study variables were as follows: (1) methods for monitoring the esophagus and the time required for monitoring and (2) the status of smoking and alcohol consumption in patients with esophageal cancer and head and neck cancer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Inhibition by general anesthetic propofol of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve and its chemical structure.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Physiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501, Japan.

Although the intravenous general anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an ability to inhibit nerve conduction, this has not been fully examined. Various agents inhibit compound action potentials (CAPs) in a manner dependent on their chemical structures. To determine propofol's chemical structure that is important in nerve conduction inhibition, we examined the effects of propofol and its related compounds on fast-conducting CAPs recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Read More

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December 2018

Risk Model in Women with Ovarian Cancer Without Mutations.

Open Med (Wars) 2018 25;13:565-574. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Gynecological Surgery and Gynecological Oncology of Adults and Adolescents, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Ovarian cancer is characterised by the greatest mortality among all tumors of the reproductive tract. This study included 246 patients which consisted of 136 women with ovarian cancer without genetic mutation and 110 women with benign ovarian cysts. We created two mathematical logic models containing positive and negative risk factors of ovarian cancer such as: age at last menstruation cycle, patient age, OC, HRT, smoking, education status, and alcohol consumption. Read More

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November 2018

Chemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fruit fractions of L. f. (Arecaceae).

PeerJ 2018 28;6:e5991. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

PostGraduate Program in Ethnobiology and Nature Conservation, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, Ceará, Brazil.

Background: Fruit consumption is currently considered beyond the nutritional aspects because of the important roles in disease prevention and benefits to health. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different fractions obtained from fruit pulps of (MFFs).

Methods: Initially, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions were obtained from the pulps. Read More

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November 2018
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Large variations in the practice patterns of surgical antiseptic preparation solutions in patients with open and closed extremity fractures: a cross-sectional survey.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2018 29;7:148. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

3Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON Canada.

Background: Surgically-managed fractures, particularly open fractures, are associated with high rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). To reduce the risk of an SSI, orthopaedic surgeons routinely clean open fracture wounds in the emergency department (ED) and then apply a bandage to the open wound. Prior to the surgical incision, it is standard practice to prepare the fracture region with an antiseptic skin solution as an additional SSI prevention strategy. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

A Cross-Lagged Study of Developmental Trajectories of Video Game Engagement, Addiction, and Mental Health.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2239. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Video game addiction has been associated with an array of mental health variables. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating such associations, and studies differentiating addicted gaming from problem and engaged (i.e. Read More

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November 2018

A longitudinal inquiry into directionality of effects between coping and information needs in hypertensive patients.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2018 9;11:567-580. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: It is well recognized that effective health communication is associated with better adherence to medical prescriptions, behavioral changes, and enhanced perception of control over the disease. However, there is limited knowledge about the variables on which to tailor health messages. This study examined whether coping strategies were related to information needs over time in a sample of patients with hypertension. Read More

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November 2018

Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 9;10:1657-1665. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden,

Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Patients And Methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Read More

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November 2018

Intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone and concomitant oral pregabalin misuse: a case report.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 9;14:3033-3035. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey,

Opioid misuse and dependence are major medical and social concerns worldwide. Buprenorphine/naloxone combination (BNC) is a drug that has misuse potential and is used to treat opioid dependence, including buprenorphine and naloxone. Buprenorphine shows its pharmacological effects by binding to opioid receptors. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Curcumin nanoemulsion as a novel chemical for the treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in mice.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 9;13:7363-7374. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Background: The aim of this study was to prepare curcumin nanoemulsion (CR-NE) to solve the problems associated with poor water solubility and low bioavailability of CR and to test its efficiency in the treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in mouse models.

Materials And Methods: CR-NE 1% was prepared using spontaneous emulsification by soybean as oil phase; a mixture of Tween 80 and Tween 85 as surfactant; ethanol as cosurfactant and distilled water. Particle size and zeta potential of NE were assessed using Nano-ZS90 dynamic light scattering. Read More

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November 2018

Selective production of phase-separable product from a mixture of biomass-derived aqueous oxygenates.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5183. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

Selective conversion of an aqueous solution of mixed oxygenates produced by biomass fermentation to a value-added single product is pivotal for commercially viable biomass utilization. However, the efficiency and selectivity of the transformation remains a great challenge. Herein, we present a strategy capable of transforming ~70% of carbon in an aqueous fermentation mixture (ABE: acetone-butanol-ethanol-water) to 4-heptanone (4-HPO), catalyzed by tin-doped ceria (Sn-ceria), with a selectivity as high as 86%. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

H roaming chemistry and the formation of H from organic molecules in strong laser fields.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5186. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Roaming mechanisms, involving the brief generation of a neutral atom or molecule that stays in the vicinity before reacting with the remaining atoms of the precursor, are providing valuable insights into previously unexplained chemical reactions. Here, the mechanistic details and femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of H formation from a series of alcohols with varying primary carbon chain lengths are obtained through a combination of strong-field laser excitation studies and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. For small alcohols, four distinct pathways involving hydrogen migration and H roaming prior to H formation are uncovered. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and offspring white matter microstructure: results from three birth cohorts.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, 3000 CB, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Prepregnancy maternal obesity is a global health problem and has been associated with offspring metabolic and mental ill-health. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding potential neurobiological factors related to these associations. This study explored the relation between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring brain white matter microstructure at the age of 6, 10, and 26 years in three independent cohorts. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Intrahost dynamics of human cytomegalovirus variants acquired by seronegative glycoprotein B vaccinees.

J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and a frequent cause of hearing loss and debilitating neurologic disease in newborn infants. Thus, a vaccine to prevent HCMV-associated congenital disease is a public health priority. One potential strategy is vaccination of women of child-bearing age to prevent maternal HCMV acquisition during pregnancy. Read More

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December 2018

Neighbourhoods, networks and pre-exposure prophylaxis awareness: a multilevel analysis of a sample of young black men who have sex with men.

Sex Transm Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Chicago Center for HIV Elimination, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective: Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the USA represent a subgroup that has the highest HIV incidence among the overall population. In the USA, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective prevention intervention to prevent HIV acquisition when taken regularly. Neighbourhood and network factors may relate to PrEP awareness, but have not been studied in YBMSM. Read More

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December 2018

Combating escalating harms associated with pharmaceutical opioid use in Australia: the POPPY II study protocol.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e025840. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Opioid prescribing has increased 15-fold in Australia in the past two decades, alongside increases in a range of opioid-related harms such as opioid dependence and overdose. However, despite concerns about increasing opioid use, extramedical use and harms, there is a lack of population-level evidence about the drivers of long-term prescribed opioid use, dependence, overdose and other harms.

Methods And Analysis: We will form a cohort of all adult residents in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, who initiated prescribed opioids from 2002 using Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme dispensing records. Read More

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December 2018
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Predicting Costs Exceeding Bundled Payment Targets for Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University Hospital, Duke Orthopaedics at Page Road, Durham, NC.

Background: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has instituted bundled reimbursement models for total joint arthroplasty (TJA), which includes target prices for each procedure. Some patients exceed these targets; however, currently there are no tools to accurately predict this preoperatively. We hypothesized that a validated comorbidity index combined with patient demographics would adequately predict excess cost-of-care prior to hospitalization. Read More

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November 2018
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