Aims: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress.
Methods: Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Read More
UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building, Nottingham City Hospital, NottinghamNG5 1PB, UK.
Aim: To evaluate temporal changes in recorded alcohol consumption in Sri Lanka during and after the armed conflict 1998-2013.
Methods: District level alcohol sales, and mid-year population data for the whole study period (1998-2013) were consistently available from the Department of Excise and the Department of Census and Statistics for 18 of 25 districts. These data were used to estimate the recorded per capita consumption for the areas that were not directly exposed to the armed conflict. Read More
Aim: To investigate pro-inflammatory markers in the blood and associate with cognitive impairment.
Methods: Il-6 and ferritin were assayed in the blood of 27 patients, divided according to Lesch typology, at the commencement and after 21 days of detoxification, together with a battery of cognitive tests.
Results: A significantly higher mean level of IL-6 was present in the blood of patients with Lesch typology 1 compared to the other typologies 2 and 3 on admission to the Detoxification Ward which did not alter significantly after detoxification. Read More
Aims: Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD, SOD2) and catalase (CAT) counteract free radical activity within the mitochondria and the cytosol. Moreover, CAT activity contributes to the transformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, a toxic intermediate product of ethanol metabolism, which has been associated with pancreatic damage. Read More
Aims: Alcoholism may be a cardiovascular risk factor. Osteocyte derived molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and soluble α Klotho have recently been associated with cardiovascular disease, but their role in alcoholics is unknown. We here analyze the behavior of FGF23 and α Klotho in alcoholics. Read More
Aims: The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) over a 6 year period and compare the bio-psycho-social correlates between these trajectories.
Methods: Community-based cohort of 1899 adult men were interviewed in 2006-2008 and 2012-2014. AUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and potential correlates including psycho-social problems, morbidity and physiological parameters were measured at follow-up. Read More
Aims: Binge drinking (BD) is characterized by intermittent consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods. This pattern of drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and has been associated with undermined learning and memory ability. This study investigates the relationships between a history of BD and the effects of acute exposure to alcohol on learning and memory performance in adolescent men and women. Read More
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans.
Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered. To assess both positive and negative PE signals, expectancies were systematically violated in both positive (i. Read More
Aim: To appraise existing alcohol guidelines for identifying and managing harmful alcohol use in primary healthcare settings.
Methods: Seven databases and 18 health organization or medical society websites were systematically searched from inception to 31 October 2016. Guidelines in English language, developed by a national or international medical specialty society, government or health organization, and containing recommendations for identifying and managing harmful use of alcohol in primary healthcare settings, were included. Read More
Aims: Measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in nail, as a biomarker for alcohol intake, has recently been suggested as alternative to measurement in hair. The aim of this study was to compare levels of EtG in nail and hair, and to investigate the elimination kinetics of EtG in fingernails during an alcohol abstinent period.
Methods: Overall, 40 subjects (median estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) 92. Read More
Aims: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol that can be detected in conventional and non-conventional biological matrices for longer periods than alcohol. The aim was to describe the time courses of both biomarkers after ingestion of acute low-moderate doses of ethanol.
Methods: The study design was double-blind, randomized, crossover and controlled with placebo. Read More
Aims: Alcohol dependence is a major public health issue with a need for new pharmacological treatments. The ALPADIR study assessed the efficacy and safety of baclofen at the target dose of 180 mg/day for the maintenance of abstinence and the reduction in alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients.
Methods: Three hundred and twenty adult patients (158 baclofen and 162 placebo) were randomized after alcohol detoxification. Read More
Aims: Epidemiological evidence indicates a protective effect of light to moderate alcohol consumption compared to non-drinking and heavy drinking. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic changes in vessel walls is unclear. Therefore, we explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and common carotid intima media thickness, a marker of early atherosclerosis in the general population. Read More
Aims: The influence of tobacco use in alcohol-dependent individuals is not well understood, especially the role of snuffing, which is common in Northern Europe. The aim was therefore to investigate the influence of smoking and snuffing on the progression, severity and treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent individuals. The hypotheses were that concomitant tobacco use (i. Read More
Background: Innate immunity plays a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Understanding the inter-relationship of signals from within and outside of the liver that trigger liver inflammation is pivotal for development of novel therapeutic targets of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
Aim: The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in the field of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Read More
Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute on Drug Abuse, 10 Center Drive (10CRC/15330), Bethesda, MD 20892-1108, USA.
Aims: Accumulating evidence for the influence of the gut microbiota on the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis suggests a role of the gut microbiota in eating disorders (EDs) and alcohol and substance use disorders. The potential influence of altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) on behaviors associated with such disorders may have implications for developing therapeutic interventions.
Methods: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the gut microbiota, EDs and alcohol and substance use disorders was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases with the objective being to examine the role of the gut microbiota in behavioral correlates of these disorders. Read More
Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 10 Center Drive (10CRC/15330), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Aims: The orexigenic peptide ghrelin may enhance the incentive value of food-, drug- and alcohol-related rewards. Consistent with preclinical findings, human studies indicate a role of ghrelin in alcohol use disorders (AUD). In the present study an a priori hypothesis-driven analysis was conducted to investigate whether a Leu72Met missense polymorphism (rs696217) in the prepro-ghrelin gene (GHRL), is associated with AUD, alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol. Read More
Aims: Evidence indicates that feeding-related peptides, such as ghrelin, have a role in the rewarding properties of addictive substances like alcohol. Oral alcohol administration significantly suppresses ghrelin. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two doses of alcohol on ghrelin and examine if ghrelin levels predict the subjective effects of alcohol. Read More
Aims: This study aimed to examine alcohol, tobacco or marijuana use onset and associations between age of onset and current use, and between age of onset and current polysubstance use among a sample of Mexican young people aged 17-20 years.
Methods: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other substance use were identified in a 2012 cross-sectional survey of male and female students entering first year university in Mexico City. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models examined associations between gender, age of onset, order of onset, family substance use and current polysubstance use among 22,224 students. Read More
Aims: To assess the concurrent validity of the two-item NIAAA/American Academy of Pediatrics Brief Alcohol Use Screener, a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument, in a school-based sample of adolescents.
Method: The sample consisted of 756 adolescents (53% girls; Mage = 13.7 years; SD = 1. Read More
Background: Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use. Read More
Aims: Using a household survey conducted in 2014, this study estimates price elasticity of demand (PED) for beer, country liquor and spirits in India.
Methods: Ordinary least-square models were used to estimate the responsiveness in alcohol demand due to price change. A large number of control variables were included to adjust for potential confounding in the model. Read More
Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected increased alcohol consumption.
Methods: All patients with first-time AP between 2003 and 2012 in a well-defined area in Sweden were retrospectively identified. Data on AP aetiology (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) and severity were registered. Read More
Aims: Neurotrophins have been linked to the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. We aimed to investigate a possible association between the methylation of the promoters of both neurotrophins, the serum levels of the cytokines and core symptoms of alcohol dependence as withdrawal severity and anxiety.
Methods: In this study we investigated a possible association between alterations in the methylation of the BDNF IV/NGF I gene promoter and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 55 male alcohol-dependent patients. Read More
Aims: To evaluate the influences of alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking on changes in the body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness of healthy young men during military service.
Methods: A population-based study of men performing their military service in the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade, Finland in 2005. Body composition, fitness and lifestyle habits were evaluated at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up. Read More
Aims: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects cells from ethanol toxicity by metabolizing acetaldehyde. We studied the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs886205s located between a negative and a positive regulating promoter element in the ALDH2 gene. The negative regulatory region was already associated with differential DNA methylation in the two allele variations of rs886205 SNP. Read More
Aims: To identify a typology of heavier drinking styles in Great Britain and to identify socio-demographic trends in the typology over the period 1978-2010.
Methods: We applied multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to beverage-specific quantity-frequency measures of alcohol consumption in the repeated cross-sectional General Lifestyle Survey of Great Britain, 1978-2010. The cluster analysis focuses on the 60,043 adult respondents over this period reporting average drinking levels above the UK Government guidelines. Read More
Aims: There are no legal regulations in Japan governing minors' consumption of alcohol-flavoured non-alcoholic beverages (AFNAB); therefore, we examined if their consumption could lead to increased alcohol use among adolescents in Japan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study used a nonclinical, nationally representative sample of 38,494 junior (19,662 boys) and 61,556 senior (31,925 boys) high school students recruited in 2012. We measured AFNAB consumption rates and the order that adolescents first consumed AFNAB and alcohol. Read More
Aims: After the first acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP), active repeated brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to protect against recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP). However, in daily hospital practice the treatment of alcohol problems varies. Our aim was to study BIs performed in the clinic during AAP and whether this prevents from future RAP episodes. Read More
Aim: To document the use of prescribed psychoactive medicines in France in patients recovering from alcohol use disorders (AUDs).
Method: Survey among short- and long-term abstainers attending groups of French self-help associations for AUDs, recording socio-demographic profile, duration of abstinence, prescription of psychoactive medication and attitudes towards that, and whether or not in medical or psychological follow-up for AUD.
Result: Five hundred seventy-five abstainers participated. Read More
Aims: Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation.
Methods: Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. Read More
Aims: The aim of the study was to explore the relative efficiency and effectiveness of targeted versus universal screening for at-risk alcohol use in a primary care population in the UK.
Methods: The study was a randomized evaluation of screening approach (targeted versus universal) for consecutive attendees at primary care aged 18 years or more. Targeted screening involved screening any patient attending with one of the targeted presentations, conditions associated with excessive alcohol consumption: mental health, gastrointestinal, hypertension, minor injuries or a new patient registration. Read More
Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of conducting a study of structured brief intervention (BI) for reducing problem alcohol use among individuals who experienced earthquake.
Methods: Following the Wenchuan earthquake, 1336 clients from 18 local hospitals were invited to complete the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Of those, 239 individuals (AUDIT score of greater than or equal to 7) were included in the study. Read More
Aims: The current study examines the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and delay discounting neural activation.
Methods: Participants (N = 17; 6 female) completed measures of alcohol use and severity and a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of a delay discounting task.
Results: Alcohol dependence severity was negatively associated with activation in superior frontal gyrus during impulsive relative to delayed decisions, and positively associated with activation in paracingulate gyrus and frontal pole in delayed relative to impulsive decisions. Read More
Aims: To characterize a series of contemporary patients with alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and to update the current prognosis of disease.
Methods: Retrospective and prospective study of patients diagnosed with an alcohol-related WE or KS between 2002 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. Socio-demographic, alcohol use characteristics, signs and symptoms, co-morbidity and blood parameters were obtained at admission. Read More
Aims: Little evidence exists supporting the efficacy of regular alcohol urine screening (RAUS) in the management of alcohol dependence, despite recent improvements in urine biomarkers. In this study, we aimed at investigating 1 year, differential clinical correlates between a positive and a negative baseline urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) screening.
Methods: Alcohol-dependent outpatients participating in a previous cross-sectional study where EtG and ethanol diagnostic performances were compared in a double blind design were included. Read More
Aims: Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is a high-risk factor for osteoporosis. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in bone formation; however, they are vulnerable to ethanol (EtOH). The purpose of this research was to investigate whether EtOH could induce premature senescence in BM-MSCs and subsequently impair their osteogenic potential. Read More
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Read More
Aims: To examine the association between drinking levels and inpatient health service utilization in people with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence.
Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted in a cohort of patients with alcohol dependence who had undergone treatment in 1987. Current results refer to the association between drinking patterns at 20-year follow-up and subsequent inpatient health service utilization. Read More