135 results match your criteria Alcohol Research-current Reviews[Journal]


Binge Drinking's Effects on the Body.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):99-109

Patricia E. Molina, M.D., Ph.D., is the Richard Ashman, Ph.D., Professor; head of the Department of Physiology; and director of the Comprehensive Alcohol-HIV/AIDS Research Center and the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. Steve Nelson, M.D., is the John H. Seabury Professor of Medicine and the dean of the School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Studies have focused on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption and the mechanisms of tissue injury underlying alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, with less focus on the pathophysiological consequences of binge alcohol consumption. Alcohol binge drinking prevalence continues to rise, particularly among individuals ages 18 to 24. However, it is also frequent in individuals ages 65 and older. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104963PMC
January 2018
17 Reads

Effects of Binge Drinking on the Developing Brain.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):87-96

Scott A. Jones and Jordan M. Lueras are graduate students in the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Bonnie J. Nagel, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol drinking that raises a person's blood alcohol concentration to at least .08%, which amounts to consuming five alcoholic drinks for men and four alcoholic drinks for women in about 2 hours. It is the most common form of alcohol misuse in adolescents and young adults. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104956PMC
January 2018
1 Read

Binge Drinking's Effects on the Developing Brain-Animal Models.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):77-86

Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Ph.D., is a science writer and editor affiliated with CSR Inc., Arlington, Virginia. Linda Patia Spear, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, and the director of the Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.

Adolescence typically is a time of experimentation, including alcohol use and, particularly, binge drinking. Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, such exposure could have long-lasting effects. Animal models and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) paradigms have been used to help elucidate the consequences of adolescent binge drinking. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104958PMC
January 2018
2 Reads

Gender Differences in Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):57-76

Richard W. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Sharon C. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is the Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Gerhard Gmel, Ph.D., is a professor, University of Lausanne, and is affiliated with the Alcohol Treatment Center, University of Lausanne Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also an invited professor, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom. Lori Wolfgang Kantor, M.A., is a science writer at CSR, Incorporated.

Just as binge drinking rates differ for men and women, the predictors and consequences of binge drinking vary by gender as well. This article examines these differences and how binge drinking definitions and research samples and methods may influence findings. It also describes the relationship between age and binge drinking among men and women, and how drinking culture and environment affect this relationship. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104960PMC
January 2018

High-Intensity Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):49-55

Megan E. Patrick, Ph.D., is a research associate professor at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Beth Azar, M.A., is a science writer for Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

Binge drinking thresholds have long been set at four or more drinks for women and five or more drinks for men over the course of a few hours. However, a significant number of people regularly consume much higher amounts of alcohol: double or even triple the standard binge drinking threshold. Researchers have begun to distinguish between typical binge drinking and this kind of "high-intensity drinking," which is common among certain types of binge drinkers and is often associated with special occasions, including holidays, sporting events, and, notably, 21st birthdays. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104968PMC
January 2018

NIAAA's College Alcohol Intervention Matrix.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):43-47

Jessica M. Cronce, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Human Services, College of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Traci L. Toomey, Ph.D., is a professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Kathleen Lenk, M.P.H., is a senior research fellow in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Toben F. Nelson, Sc.D., is an associate professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Jason R. Kilmer, Ph.D., is an assistant director of Health and Wellness for Alcohol and Other Drug Education and an associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Mary E. Larimer, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

The College Alcohol Intervention Matrix (CollegeAIM) is a user-friendly, interactive decision tool based on a synthesis of the substantial and growing literature on campus alcohol use prevention. It includes strategies targeted at both the individual and environmental levels. Commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), CollegeAIM reflects the collective knowledge of 16 separate experts in the field, which makes it unique relative to other summaries of the science. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104959PMC
January 2018
1 Read

"Maturing Out" of Binge and Problem Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):31-42

Matthew R. Lee, Ph.D., is research assistant professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Kenneth J. Sher, Ph.D., is curators' distinguished professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

This article reviews literature aiming to explain the widespread reductions in binge and problem drinking that begin around the transition to young adulthood (i.e., "maturing out"). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104962PMC
January 2018

The Epidemiology of Binge Drinking Among College-Age Individuals in the United States.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):23-30

Heather Krieger, M.A., is a graduate student; Chelsie M. Young, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral researcher; Amber M. Anthenien, M.S., is a graduate student; and Clayton Neighbors, Ph.D., is a professor, all in the Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Rates of alcohol consumption continue to be a concern, particularly for individuals who are college age. Drinking patterns have changed over time, with the frequency of binge drinking (consuming four/five or more drinks for women/men) remaining high (30% to 40%). Young adults in the college age range are developmentally and socially at higher risk for drinking at binge levels. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104967PMC
January 2018
6 Reads

Drinking Patterns and Their Definitions.

Authors:

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):17-18

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104961PMC
January 2018

Adolescent Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):5-15

Tammy Chung, Ph.D., is an associate professor; Rachel Bachrach, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow; Duncan B. Clark, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor; and Christopher S. Martin, Ph.D., is an associate professor, all in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Kasey G. Creswell, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Binge drinking, commonly defined as consuming five or more standard drinks per occasion for men and four or more drinks for women, typically begins in adolescence. Adolescents, although they may drink less often, tend to consume higher quantities of alcohol per occasion compared with adults. This developmental difference in pattern of alcohol consumption may result, in part, from maturational changes that involve an adolescent-specific sensitivity to certain alcohol effects and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviors, such as binge drinking. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104966PMC
January 2018

Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):1-3

Aaron M. White, Ph.D., is a senior scientific adviser to the director, Office of the Director, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, Maryland. Susan Tapert, Ph.D., is a professor of psychiatry in the School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California. Shivendra D. Shukla, Ph.D., is the Margaret Proctor Mulligan Endowed Professor in Medical Research at the School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104965PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

Development, Prevention, and Treatment of Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury: The Role of Nutrition.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):289-302

Shirish Barve, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, and a Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; Shao-Yu Chen, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; Irina Kirpich, Ph.D., and Walter H. Watson, Ph.D., both are Assistant Professors in the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, and in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; all at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky. Craig McClain, M.D., is a Professor in the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, and a Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, and a Staff Physician at the Robley Rex Veterans Medical Center, Louisville, Kentucky.

Alcohol and nutrition have the potential to interact at multiple levels. For example, heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with normal nutrition, resulting in overall malnutrition or in deficiencies of important micronutrients, such as zinc, by reducing their absorption or increasing their loss. Interactions between alcohol consumption and nutrition also can affect epigenetic regulation of gene expression by influencing multiple regulatory mechanisms, including methylation and acetylation of histone proteins and DNA. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513692PMC
May 2018
116 Reads

Alcohol Misuse and Kidney Injury: Epidemiological Evidence and Potential Mechanisms.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):283-288

Zoltan V. Varga, M.D., Ph.D., is a visiting Research Fellow; Csaba Matyas, M.D., is a visiting Research Fellow; Janos Paloczi, Ph.D., is a visiting Research Fellow; and Pal Pacher, M.D., Ph.D., is a Senior Investigator and Lab Chief, all in the Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology and Tissue Injury, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.

Chronic alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor for tissue injury. The link between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and kidney injury is intriguing but controversial, and the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol may damage the kidneys are poorly understood. Epidemiological studies attempting to link AUD and kidney disease are, to date, inconclusive, and there is little experimental evidence directly linking alcohol consumption to kidney injury. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513691PMC
May 2018
40 Reads

Alcohol and Puberty.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):277-282

William L. Dees, Ph.D., is a Professor; Jill K. Hiney, Ph.D., is a Research Assistant Professor; and Vinod K. Srivastava, Ph.D., is a Research Associate Professor, all in the Department of Veterinary Integrative Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for developing youth. Alcohol use and misuse are especially problematic behaviors during this time. Adolescents are more sensitive to alcohol and less tolerant of its detrimental effects than are adults. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513690PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):255-276

Nadia Rachdaoui, Ph.D., is an Assistant Research Professor, and Dipak K. Sarkar, Ph.D., D.Phil., is Board of Governors Distinguished Professor, in the Rutgers Endocrine Research Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513689PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Alcohol and the Lung.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):243-254

Ashish J. Mehta, M.D., is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, and a Staff Physician at the Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia. David M. Guidot, M.D., is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, and a Staff Physician at the Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia.

Among the many organ systems affected by harmful alcohol use, the lungs are particularly susceptible to infections and injury. The mechanisms responsible for rendering people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) vulnerable to lung damage include alterations in host defenses of the upper and lower airways, disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity, and alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. Collectively, these derangements encompass what has been termed the "alcoholic lung" phenotype. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513688PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

Alcohol's Effects on the Cardiovascular System.

Authors:
Mariann R Piano

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):219-241

Mariann R. Piano, Ph.D., is a Professor in and Department Head of the Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513687PMC

Alcoholic Myopathy: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):207-217

Liz Simon, M.V.Sc., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence; Sarah E. Jolley, M.D., M.Sc., is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Critical Care Medicine; and Patricia E. Molina, M.D., Ph.D., is the Richard Ashman, Ph.D. Professor and Department Head of Physiology, and Director of the Comprehensive Alcohol-HIV/AIDS Research Center and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, all at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Skeletal muscle dysfunction (i.e., myopathy) is common in patients with alcohol use disorder. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513686PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Alcohol's Effects on the Brain: Neuroimaging Results in Humans and Animal Models.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):183-206

Natalie M. Zahr, Ph.D., is a Research Scientist in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and Program Director of Translational Imaging, Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California. Adolf Pfefferbaum, M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and Distinguished Scientist and Center Director of the Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California.

Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513685PMC
May 2018
8 Reads

Uniting Epidemiology and Experimental Disease Models for Alcohol-Related Pancreatic Disease.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):173-182

Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Kristine Monroe, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor, at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Aurelia Lugea, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Dhiraj Yadav, M.D., M.P.H., is a Professor of Medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Stephen J. Pandol, M.D., is Director of Basic and Translational Pancreas Research at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Findings from epidemiologic studies and research with experimental animal models provide insights into alcohol-related disease pathogeneses. Epidemiologic data indicate that heavy drinking and smoking are associated with high rates of pancreatic disease. Less clear is the association between lower levels of drinking and pancreatitis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513684PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Alcohol and Gut-Derived Inflammation.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):163-171

Faraz Bishehsari, M.D., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor; Garth Swanson, M.D., is an Assistant Professor; Vishal Desai, M.D., is a Physician; Robin M. Voigt, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor; Christopher B. Forsyth, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor; and Ali Keshavarzian, M.D., is a Professor, all in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. Emmeline Magno, M.D., is an Internist in the Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

In large amounts, alcohol and its metabolites can overwhelm the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and liver and lead to damage both within the GI and in other organs. Specifically, alcohol and its metabolites promote intestinal inflammation through multiple pathways. That inflammatory response, in turn, exacerbates alcohol-induced organ damage, creating a vicious cycle and leading to additional deleterious effects of alcohol both locally and systemically. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513683PMC

Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and Current Management.

Alcohol Res 2017 ;38(2):147-161

Natalia A. Osna, Ph.D., is a Research Biologist in the Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, and an Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, both in Omaha, Nebraska. Terrence M. Donohue, Jr., Ph.D., is a Research Biochemist in the Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, and a Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, both in Omaha, Nebraska. Kusum K. Kharbanda, Ph.D., is a Research Biologist in the Research Service, Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, and a Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, both in Omaha, Nebraska.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513682PMC
May 2018
7 Reads

Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):59-68

Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872614PMC
July 2016
1 Read

Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):133-40

VA Mid-Atlantic Health Care Network Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center Durham, North Carolina.

Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872608PMC
July 2016
7 Reads

The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):121-32

Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872607PMC
July 2016
2 Reads

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Older Adults.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):115-20

Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

A substantial and growing number of older adults misuse alcohol. The emerging literature on the "Baby Boom" cohort, which is now reaching older adulthood, indicates that they are continuing to use alcohol at a higher rate than previous older generations. The development and refinement of techniques to address these problems and provide early intervention services will be crucial to meeting the needs of this growing population. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872606PMC
July 2016
2 Reads

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on College Ages.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):103-14

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies and the Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences at Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island.

Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872605PMC
July 2016
9 Reads

Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Early Adolescents and Youth.

Authors:
Michael Windle

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):95-101

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872619PMC
July 2016
7 Reads

Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Alcohol Outcomes.

Authors:
Susan E Collins

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):83-94

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.

Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. Findings have indicated that people with higher SES may consume similar or greater amounts of alcohol compared with people with lower SES, although the latter group seems to bear a disproportionate burden of negative alcohol-related consequences. These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872618PMC
July 2016
2 Reads

Alcohol Use and Related Problems Along the United States-Mexico Border.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):79-81

University of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, Texas.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872617PMC
July 2016
5 Reads

Alcohol Use Patterns Among Urban and Rural Residents: Demographic and Social Influences.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):69-77

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Rates of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD) vary with geographic location. Research on risks for AUD associated with living in a rural versus urban setting is complicated by the varied systems used to classify geographic location. Studies comparing the prevalence of heavier or binge drinking and AUD based on a dichotomous urban/rural classification have mixed findings when compared with those using more detailed urban-to-rural categories. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872615PMC
July 2016
22 Reads

Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

Authors:
Arthur W Bloom

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):47-54

Department of Psychology at Washington State University, Vancouver, Washington.

Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872612PMC
July 2016
1 Read

Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):35-45

School of Social Work, Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts.

Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872611PMC
July 2016
3 Reads

Recent Developments in Alcohol Services Research on Access to Care.

Authors:
Laura A Schmidt

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):27-33

Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine at the School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

In the United States, only about 10 percent of people with an alcohol or drug use disorder receive care for the condition, pointing to a large treatment gap. Several personal characteristics influence whether a person will receive treatment; additionally, many people with an alcohol use disorder do not perceive the need for treatment. The extent of the treatment gap differs somewhat across different population subgroups, such as those based on gender, age, or race and ethnicity. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872610PMC
July 2016
2 Reads

Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):17-25

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland-College Park, College Park, Maryland.

Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872609PMC
July 2016
6 Reads

Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

Alcohol Res 2016 ;38(1):7-15

Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.

Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872616PMC
July 2016
3 Reads

Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):251-62

Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages In the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells' actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590621PMC
April 2016
21 Reads

Primer on the Immune System.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):171-5

CSR, Incorporated, Arlington, Virginia.

The human body regularly encounters and combats many pathogenic organisms and toxic molecules. Its ensuing responses to these disease-causing agents involve two interrelated systems: innate immunity and adaptive (or acquired) immunity. Innate immunity is active at several levels, both at potential points of entry and inside the body (see figure). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590614PMC
April 2016
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Alcohol's Effect on Host Defense.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):159-70

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Alcohol affects many organs, including the immune system, with even moderate amounts of alcohol influencing immune responses. Although alcohol can alter the actions of all cell populations involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, the effect in many cases is a subclinical immunosuppression that becomes clinically relevant only after a secondary insult (e.g. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590613PMC
April 2016
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Neuroimmune Function and the Consequences of Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):331-41, 344-51

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Induction of neuroimmune genes by binge drinking increases neuronal excitability and oxidative stress, contributing to the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and causing neurodegeneration. Ethanol exposure activates signaling pathways featuring high-mobility group box 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, which regulates expression of several cytokine genes involved in innate immunity, and its target genes. This leads to persistent neuroimmune responses to ethanol that stimulate TLRs and/or certain glutamate receptors (i. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590627PMC
April 2016
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Effects of Alcohol on Tumor Growth, Metastasis, Immune Response, and Host Survival.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):311-22

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Washington State University, Spokane, Washington.

Most research involving alcohol and cancer concerns the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer risk and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This review relates the amount and duration of alcohol intake in humans and in animal models of cancer to tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immune response, and host survival in specific types and subtypes of cancer. Research on the influence of alcohol drinking on human cancer patients is limited. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590626PMC
April 2016
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Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis: Role of Lipid Rafts.

Authors:
Angela Dolganiuc

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):299-309

Department of Medicine/Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Both alcohol abuse and infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to liver disease, including chronic hepatitis. Alcohol and hepatitis viruses have synergistic effects in the development of liver disease. Some of these involve the cellular membranes and particularly their functionally active domains, termed lipid rafts, which contain many proteins with essential roles in signaling and other processes. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590625PMC
April 2016
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Alcohol and HIV Effects on the Immune System.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):287-97

Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana.

HIV disease and alcohol independently influence the human immune system, so it stands to reason that, together, their influence may be additive. Here, we review the evidence that alcohol can exacerbate HIV's influence on the immune system, thereby affecting disease progression and transmission. We focus particularly on alcohol's effect on the mucosal immune system in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the genital tract and the lungs, all of which play a role in transmission and progression of HIV disease. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590624PMC
April 2016
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Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):279-85

Department of Pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590623PMC

Alcohol's Burden on Immunity Following Burn, Hemorrhagic Shock, or Traumatic Brain Injury.

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):263-78

Department of Physiology, Comprehensive Alcohol Research Center and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Alcohol consumption contributes to increased incidence and severity of traumatic injury. Compared with patients who do not consume alcohol, alcohol-consuming patients have higher rates of long-term morbidity and mortality during recovery from injury. This can be attributed in part to an impaired immune response in individuals who consume alcohol. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590622PMC
April 2016
30 Reads

The Role of Innate Immunity in Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Authors:
Laura E Nagy

Alcohol Res 2015 ;37(2):237-50

Department of Gastroenterology and Pathobiology at Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.

The innate immune system represents the first-line response to invading microbes, tissue damage, or aberrant cell growth. Many of the proteins and cells involved in innate immunity are produced by, and reside in, the liver. This abundance in immune cells and proteins reflects the liver's adaptation to various immune challenges but also makes the organ particularly vulnerable to alcohol's effects. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590620PMC