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    Challenges of diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in foster and adopted children.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 24;67:37-43. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    PALs Developmental Center, Lubbock, TX, USA; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) might be 10-15 times more prevalent among foster/adopted children compared to the general population; however, many of these children remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The lack of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be a key barrier to diagnosis. Our sample included 681 patients evaluated for FASD, according to the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, at a pediatric specialty clinic. Read More

    Alcohol operant self-administration: Investigating how alcohol-seeking behaviors predict drinking in mice using two operant approaches.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 19;67:23-36. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Laboratory on Neurobiology of Compulsive Behaviors, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Read More

    Differential COMT expression and behavioral effects of COMT inhibition in male and female Wistar and alcohol preferring rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 19;67:15-22. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
    Polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene have been associated with alcoholism, suggesting that alterations in the metabolism of catecholamines may be a critical component of the neuropathology of alcoholism. In the current experiments, the COMT inhibitor tolcapone was utilized in an operant behavioral model of reinforcer-seeking and drinking to determine if this compound was capable of remediating the excessive seeking and drinking phenotype of the alcohol-preferring P rat. Tolcapone was administered to male and female alcohol-reinforced P and Wistar rats. Read More

    Evaluation of a novel method for the analysis of alcohol biomarkers: Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate and phosphatidylethanol.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 31;67:7-13. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Translational Australian Clinical Toxicology (TACT) Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia; Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia. Electronic address:
    Currently available markers and methods to evaluate alcohol consumption are indirect and suboptimal, or rely on self-report, which have inherent problems. Direct metabolites of alcohol, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), are known to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, methods were established for the identification of PEth in erythrocytes and EtG and EtS in serum using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Read More

    Maternal hair testing to disclose self-misreporting in drinking and smoking behavior during pregnancy.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 31;67:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    BCNatal (Barcelona Center for Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and Hospital Clínic), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Maternal and Child Health and Development Network II (SAMID II), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), - Sub-Directorate General for Research Assessment and Promotion and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), Madrid, Spain.
    This study aimed to objectively verify smoking and drinking behavior during pregnancy and to disclose self-misreporting through maternal hair analysis. A total of 153 women attending a university hospital in Barcelona (Spain) were selected and interviewed after delivery, on their smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. A 9-cm hair strand was collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol consumption, respectively. Read More

    The effects of working memory load and attention refocusing on delay discounting rates in alcohol use disorder with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 23;66:9-14. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Indiana University-Bloomington, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Electronic address:
    Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. Read More

    Alcohol withdrawal upregulates mRNA encoding for CaV2.1-α1 subunit in the rat inferior colliculus.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 23;66:21-26. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Washington D.C., USA. Electronic address:
    We previously reported increased current density through P-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons during alcohol withdrawal. However, the molecular correlate of this increased P-type channel current is currently unknown. Here, we probe changes in mRNA and protein expression of the pore-forming CaV2. Read More

    Correlation between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and psychomotor evaluation in a clinical monitored study of alcohol intake in Brazil.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 7;66:15-20. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Minas Gerais, Alameda Ezequiel Dias 275, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Instituto Medico Legal, Rua Nícias Continentino, 1291, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Background: Policies that establish maximum blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) or breath alcohol concentration (BrACs) for drivers while driving can reduce traffic accidents by approximately 20%. In Brazil, the National Transit Council (CONTRAN) considers positive BAC and/or BrAC tests or signs of psychomotor capacity alterations as evaluated by a police authority to be an administrative infraction or even a crime. The observed clinical symptoms of alcohol intoxication based on a subject's appearance may not necessarily reflect the quantified BAC and/or BrAC. Read More

    Evaluation of laboratory tests for cirrhosis and for alcohol use, in the context of alcoholic cirrhosis.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 23;66:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:
    Laboratory tests can play an important role in assessment of alcoholic patients, including for evaluation of liver damage and as markers of alcohol intake. Evidence on test performance should lead to better selection of appropriate tests and improved interpretation of results. We compared laboratory test results from 1578 patients between cases (with alcoholic cirrhosis; 753 men, 243 women) and controls (with equivalent lifetime alcohol intake but no liver disease; 439 men, 143 women). Read More

    Effects of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation on ethanol- and sucrose-seeking and consumption in the rat.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 23;66:77-85. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Previous studies suggest that group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are involved in regulating ethanol-seeking and consumption. The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) and selective mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator biphenyl‑indanone A (BINA) were used to investigate the relative contribution of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors on ethanol- and sucrose-seeking and consumption. A microinjection study was then performed to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core mGluR2/3 on ethanol-seeking. Read More

    Testing bidirectional relationships between alcohol use and depressive symptoms: What is the role of the serotonin transporter gene?
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 13;66:69-75. Epub 2017 Aug 13.
    Trimbos Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Alcohol abuse often co-exists with a major depressive disorder. In order to understand the development of this comorbidity, it is important to concentrate on the preceding process. It has been suggested that the link between alcohol use and depressive symptoms is a result of an interaction with genetic factors. Read More

    Quantitative trait loci for sensitivity to acute ethanol and ethanol consummatory behaviors in rats.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 12;66:55-67. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:
    Individuals with a low initial response to alcohol (i.e., ethanol) are at greater risk of developing alcohol abuse or dependence later in life. Read More

    Examining the effects of alcohol on GABAA receptor mRNA expression and function in neural cultures generated from control and alcohol dependent donor induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 12;66:45-53. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, 06030-1410, USA; Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06268, USA. Electronic address:
    Factors influencing the development of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are complex and heterogeneous. While animal models have been crucial to identifying actions of alcohol on neural cells, human-derived in vitro systems that reflect an individual's genetic background hold promise in furthering our understanding of the molecular and functional effects of alcohol exposure and the pathophysiology of AUD. In this report, we utilized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs)-derived neural cell cultures obtained from healthy individuals (CTLs) and those with alcohol dependence (ADs) to 1) examine the effect of 21-day alcohol exposure on mRNA expression of three genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits (GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRD) using quantitative PCR, and 2) examine the effect of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on GABA-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Read More

    Summary of the 2016 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 23;66:35-43. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Alcohol Research Program, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:
    On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome. Read More

    Regional dysregulation of taurine and related amino acids in the fetal rat brain following gestational alcohol exposure.
    Alcohol 2018 Feb 30;66:27-33. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:
    The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. Read More

    Impact of a brief intervention on reducing alcohol use and increasing alcohol treatment services utilization among alcohol- and drug-using adult emergency department patients.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 23;65:71-80. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Most previous brief intervention (BI) studies have focused on alcohol or drug use, instead of both substances. Our primary aim was to determine if an alcohol- and drug-use BI reduced alcohol use and increased alcohol treatment services utilization among adult emergency department (ED) patients who drink alcohol and require an intervention for their drug use. Our secondary aims were to assess when the greatest relative reductions in alcohol use occurred, and which patients (stratified by need for an alcohol use intervention) reduced their alcohol use the most. Read More

    Hazardous alcohol use among patients with schizophrenia and depression.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 22;65:63-69. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Buangkok Green Medical Park, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore 539747, Singapore.
    Aims: The current study aimed to 1) report the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use in an outpatient population among those with schizophrenia and depressive disorders, 2) assess the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of hazardous alcohol use, 3) examine the association of hazardous alcohol use with severity of depression, anxiety and smoking, and 4) assess the association of hazardous alcohol use with quality of life.

    Methods: Three hundred ten outpatients seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric institute with a diagnosis of either schizophrenia spectrum disorder or depressive disorder were included in the study. Patients were assessed for hazardous alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Read More

    Progressive white matter atrophy with altered lipid profiles is partially reversed by short-term abstinence in an experimental model of alcohol-related neurodegeneration.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 15;65:51-62. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Liver Research Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Pathology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Rhode Island Hospital, The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic ethanol exposure causes white matter (WM) atrophy and degeneration with major impairments in the structural integrity of myelin. Since myelin is composed of oligodendrocyte lipid-rich membranes, understanding the consequences and reversibility of alcohol-related oligodendrocyte dysfunction in relation to myelin structure could provide new insights into the pathogenesis of WM degeneration and potential strategies for treatment. Adult male Long Evans rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 26% ethanol (caloric) for 3 or 8 weeks. Read More

    Urinary bladder volume measured in whole-body CT scans is a useful marker for alcohol intoxication.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 23;65:45-50. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str., 17475 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether urinary bladder volume (UBV) and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlate in a cohort of emergency trauma patients. Furthermore, the feasibility of semi-automated 3D-CT volumetry for urinary bladder volumetry calculations in whole-body CT examinations was elucidated.

    Material And Methods: Whole-body CT scans of 831 individuals treated in the emergency department with suspected multiple injuries were included. Read More

    First description and evaluation of SNPs in the ADH and ALDH genes in a population of alcoholics in Central-West Brazil.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 23;65:37-43. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Laboratório de Genética Molecular e Citogenética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Avenida Esperança, s/n, Campus Samambaia (Campus II), Goiânia, GO, CEP: 74690-900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Worldwide, different studies have reported an association of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) with different types of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In Brazil, there is little information about the occurrence of these SNPs in the AUD population and an absence of studies characterizing the population in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Actually, in Brazil, there are more than 4 million people with AUD. Read More

    THC inhibits the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 21;65:31-35. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas Santa Casa de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Cesário Motta Jr., 61, São Paulo, SP, Cep: 01221-020, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The motivational circuit activated by ethanol leads to behavioral changes that recruit the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Case reports and observational studies suggest that the use of Cannabis sp. mitigates problematic ethanol consumption in humans. Read More

    Increased risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with alcohol intoxication: A population-based retrospective cohort study.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 15;65:25-30. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Molecular and Genomic Epidemiology Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Previous studies have reported that light-to-moderate drinkers have a lower risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) than abstainers, and that heavy drinking increases the risk of PAD. However, reports of the effects of severe alcohol drinking on PAD are lacking within a population-based cohort. Alcohol intoxication is typically considered a medical emergency at clinics in Taiwan and is commonly attributed to excessive alcohol use. Read More

    Proceedings of the 2016 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 21;65:19-24. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
    The 2016 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled "Rehabilitation in FASD: Potential Interventions and Challenges". During the previous decades, studies with human subjects and animal models have improved much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying FASD, putting the scientific community in a good position to test hypotheses that can lead to potential therapeutic interventions. During the conference, two keynote speakers addressed potential interventions used in different fields and their applicability to FASD research. Read More

    Evaluation of N-acetyltaurine as an ethanol marker in human blood.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 5;65:11-18. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bühlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    To investigate the potential of N-acetyltaurine (NAcT) in blood as a biomarker for alcohol uptake, a previously published LC-MS/MS method for urine was modified to simultaneously detect NAcT and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The method was applied in a drinking study and by analyzing 147 forensic case samples. In the drinking study, contrary to EtG, NAcT proved to be an endogenous substance, which was present at 22 ± 7 ng/mL (13-31 ng/mL) in the blood after 2 weeks of abstinence. Read More

    Alcohol intake in two different mouse drinking models after recovery from the lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness reaction.
    Alcohol 2017 Dec 14;65:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:
    Neuroinflammation may play an important role in the development of alcohol addiction. Recent preclinical reports suggest that enhanced innate immune system signaling increases consumption of alcohol. Our aim was to study whether consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness reaction increase long-term alcohol intake. Read More

    Interactive effects of ethanol on ulcerative colitis and its associated testicular dysfunction in pubertal BALB/c mice.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 4;64:65-75. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Available epidemiological reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of ulcerative colitis, as well as alcohol consumption, globally. The present study investigated the possible interactive effects of ethanol consumption on ulcerative colitis and its associated testicular dysfunction using six groups of 12 pubertal mice each. Group I (Control) mice received drinking water alone. Read More

    Effects of binge alcohol exposure on Burkholderia thailandensis-alveolar macrophage interaction.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 19;64:55-63. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    Alcohol consumption has diverse and well-documented effects on the human immune system and its ability to defend against infective agents. One example is melioidosis, a disease caused by infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is of public health importance in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, with an expanding global distribution. While B. Read More

    The new kisspeptin derivative - kissorphin (KSO) - attenuates acute hyperlocomotion and sensitization induced by ethanol and morphine in mice.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 24;64:45-53. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10. This peptide possesses neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-like biological activity in vitro; NPFF, in many cases, inhibits opioid and ethanol effects in rodents. Therefore, the current study explored the influence of KSO on acute ethanol- and morphine-induced hyperactivity, and on the development and expression of locomotor sensitization induced by these drugs. Read More

    Broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibition by the staurosporine analog KT-5720 reverses ethanol withdrawal-associated loss of NeuN/Fox-3.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 30;64:37-43. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, Lexington, KY, USA; University of Kentucky, Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, Lexington, KY, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic, intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is known to produce neuroadaptive alterations in excitatory neurotransmission that contribute to the development of dependence. Although activation of protein kinases (e.g. Read More

    Increased risk of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with alcohol intoxication: A population-based retrospective cohort study.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 18;64:23-28. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of alcohol intoxication and the risk of pyogenic liver abscess. The present study enrolled 245,076 patients with a history of alcohol intoxication from 2000 to 2010 and matched each of them with four comparison patients, with similar mean age and sex ratios. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of liver abscess. Read More

    Altered functional connectivity during spatial working memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 12;64:11-21. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Center for Behavioral Teratology, Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol often have impaired spatial working memory (SWM). This study examines functional connections of frontal and parietal regions that support SWM in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Children ages 10 to 16 with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE group; n = 18) and controls (CON group; n = 19) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a SWM task. Read More

    Acute ethanol intoxication suppresses pentraxin 3 expression in a mouse sepsis model involving cecal ligation and puncture.
    Alcohol 2017 Nov 9;64:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Legal Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan. Electronic address:
    Acute ethanol intoxication impairs immunological reactions and increases the risk of sepsis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Pentraxin (PTX) 3 is a humoral pattern recognition receptor whose levels rapidly increase in response to inflammation. PTX3 production is triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Read More

    Binge alcohol consumption 18 h after induction of sepsis in a mouse model causes rapid overgrowth of bacteria, a cytokine storm, and decreased survival.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 27;63:9-17. Epub 2016 Nov 27.
    Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS, USA.
    Alcohol abuse increases vulnerability to infections and infection-related mortality. In previous studies, we found that acute alcohol abuse in a binge-drinking model in mice decreased resistance to bacterial sepsis when alcohol was administered near the time of bacterial challenge. In the present study, we investigated the effects of alcohol administered later in the course of sepsis (18 h after injection of Escherichia coli). Read More

    Is catalase involved in the effects of systemic and pVTA administration of 4-methylpyrazole on ethanol self-administration?
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 1;63:61-73. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy; Centre of Excellence on Neurobiology of Addiction, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.
    The oxidative metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde involves several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and catalase-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this regard, while it is well known that 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) acts by inhibiting ADH in the liver, little attention has been placed on its ability to interfere with fatty acid oxidation-mediated generation of H2O2, a mechanism that may indirectly affect catalase whose enzymatic activity requires H2O2. The aim of our investigation was twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of systemic (i. Read More

    Ethanol suppresses carbamylcholine-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 2;63:53-59. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea; Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Oscillation of intracellular calcium levels is closely linked to initiating secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to relate to a variety of disorders in the digestive system, including the exocrine pancreas. In this study, we have investigated the role and mechanism of ethanol on carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Read More

    Isolation stress and chronic mild stress induced immobility in the defensive burying behavior and a transient increased ethanol intake in Wistar rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 21;63:43-51. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Wilfrido Massieu esq. Manuel Stampa s/n Col. Nueva Industrial Vallejo Del, CP: 07738, Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Stress can be experienced with or without adverse effects, of which anxiety and depression are two of the most important due to the frequent comorbidity with alcohol abuse in humans. Historically, stress has been considered a cause of drug use, particularly alcohol abuse due to its anxiolytic effects. In the present work we exposed male Wistar rats to two different stress conditions: single housing (social isolation, SI), and chronic mild stress (CMS). Read More

    P3b amplitude is not reduced in abstinent alcoholics with a current MDD.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 18;63:33-42. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., 77 Ho'okele Street, 3rd Floor, Kahului, HI 96732, USA.
    Background And Aims: In two studies of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs), we found that about 17% had a current major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that LTAAs with a current MDD diagnosis do not exhibit the reduced P3b event-related potential amplitude endophenotype for alcoholism. This is consistent with the majority of LTAAs with a current MDD having developed alcohol dependence via self-medication of their MDD rather than their alcohol dependence arising from the alcoholism endophenotype. Read More

    Binge drinking and anxiety at the end of the nocturnal period in alcohol-preferring sP rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 4;63:27-32. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Neuroscience Institute, Section of Cagliari, National Research Council of Italy, S.S. 554, Km. 4,500, I-09042, Monserrato, CA, Italy.
    Previous studies suggested that exposure of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to daily drinking sessions of 1 h, during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, with multiple alcohol concentrations, and unpredictable access to alcohol, resulted in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol when the drinking session occurred over the last hours of the dark phase. Additionally, higher levels of anxiety-related behaviors were observed at the 12th, rather than 1st, hour of the dark phase, suggesting that uncertainty of time of alcohol access and expectation of alcohol availability produced an emotional "distress". The present study was designed to provide pharmacological support to the hypothesis that high alcohol intake under this drinking procedure is secondary to exacerbation of the anxiety-like state of sP rats. Read More

    Persistent negative effects of alcohol drinking on aspects of novelty-directed behavior in male rhesus macaques.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 23;63:19-26. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Department of Neurobiology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Harvard Medical School/NEPRC, Southborough, MA 01772, USA. Electronic address:
    Humans with histories of prolonged heavy alcohol use exhibit poorer performance on cognitive tasks associated with problem solving, short-term memory, and visuospatial reasoning, even following the cessation of drinking, when compared with healthy controls. It is unclear, however, whether the cognitive problems are a consequence of alcohol exposure or a contributing factor to alcohol-use disorders. Here, we examined the relationship between performance on a novel object recognition (NOR) task and total alcohol consumption (TAC) in adult male rhesus macaques (n = 12; ETH group; trained to self-administer alcohol). Read More

    A GABRA2 polymorphism improves a model for prediction of drinking initiation.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 28;63:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    Background: Survival analysis was used to explore the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and covariates (sex, interview age, and ancestry) on a previously published model's ability to predict onset of drinking. A SNP variant of rs279871, in the chromosome 4 gene encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABRA2), was selected due to its associations with alcoholism in young adults and with behaviors that increased risk for early drinking.

    Methods: A subsample of 674 adolescents (ages 14-17) participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) was examined using a previously derived Cox proportional hazards model containing: 1) number of non-drinking related conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, 2) membership in a high-risk alcohol-dependent (AD) family, 3) most best friends drank (MBFD), 4) Achenbach Youth Self Report (YSR) externalizing score, and 5) YSR social problems score. Read More

    Drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy: Development of group-based trajectories in the Safe Passage Study.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:49-60. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, 715 Albany Street, Talbot Building, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    Precise identification of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy is crucial to better understand the risk to the fetus. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the methodological approach used to define prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories from a large prospective pregnancy cohort, and to describe maternal characteristics associated with different exposure patterns. In the Safe Passage Study, detailed information regarding quantity, frequency, and timing of exposure was self-reported up to four times during pregnancy and at 1 month post-delivery. Read More

    Efficient determination of six fatty acid ethyl ethers in human whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:41-47. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have been widely studied as specific markers of ethanol intake and mediators of ethanol-induced diseases. In the present study, a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of six fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl arachidonate, in human whole blood. FAEEs were extracted from 200 μL of human whole blood by a modified liquid-liquid extraction, and the hexane layer was injected directly into GC-MS with ethyl heptadecanoate as the internal standard. Read More

    Increased expression of M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in isolated microglia after four-day binge alcohol exposure in male rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 20;62:29-40. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address:
    Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are common features of neurodegenerative conditions, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). When activated, microglia span a continuum of diverse phenotypes ranging from classically activated, pro-inflammatory (M1) microglia/macrophages to alternatively activated, growth-promoting (M2) microglia/macrophages. Identifying microglia phenotypes is critical for understanding the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AUDs. Read More

    A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women: Application in the Safe Passage Study.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 12;62:17-27. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    University of North Dakota, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, School of Medicine & Health Sciences, 501 North Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203-9037, USA.
    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been linked to poor pregnancy outcomes, yet there is no recognized standard for PAE assessment, and the specific effects of quantity, frequency, and timing remain largely unknown. The Safe Passage Study was designed to investigate the role of PAE in a continuum of poor peri- and postnatal outcomes. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the rationale for, and feasibility of, modifications to the traditional Timeline Followback (TLFB) for collecting PAE information in a large cohort of pregnant women. Read More

    A prospective cohort study examining the effectiveness of baclofen in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol use disorder patients attending a joint liver and alcohol treatment clinic.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:11-15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Hepatology, The Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK.
    Objective: Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the leading cause of alcohol-related mortality in the UK. Helping patients with ARLD to stop drinking is an important treatment goal. The aim of this study is to explore baclofen's utility in maintaining abstinence. Read More

    Genome-wide profiling of differentially spliced mRNAs in human fetal cortical tissue exposed to alcohol.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 4;62:1-9. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA; Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address:
    Excessive alcohol consumption results in significant changes in gene expression and isoforms due to altered mRNA splicing. As such, an intriguing possibility is that disturbances in alternative splicing are involved in key pathological pathways triggered by alcohol exposure. However, no resources have been available to systematically analyze this possibility at a genome-wide scale. Read More

    Quantifying the contribution of alcohol to cardiomyopathy: A systematic review.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 20;61:9-15. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada; Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Chemnitzer Str. 46, 01187 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Alcohol has a direct toxic impact on the heart, and while there is an ICD code for alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the burden of alcohol-attributable cardiomyopathy is not clear. For the usual estimation of this burden via population-attributable fractions, one would need to determine the risk relationships, i.e. Read More

    Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 18;61:25-31. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Read More

    Working memory over a six-year period in young binge drinkers.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 21;61:17-23. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Adolescence and early adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Young people with alcohol-use disorders display deficits in working memory (WM). This function is supported by the prefrontal cortex, a late-maturing brain region. Read More

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