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    Binge alcohol consumption 18 h after induction of sepsis in a mouse model causes rapid overgrowth of bacteria, a cytokine storm, and decreased survival.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 27;63:9-17. Epub 2016 Nov 27.
    Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS, USA.
    Alcohol abuse increases vulnerability to infections and infection-related mortality. In previous studies, we found that acute alcohol abuse in a binge-drinking model in mice decreased resistance to bacterial sepsis when alcohol was administered near the time of bacterial challenge. In the present study, we investigated the effects of alcohol administered later in the course of sepsis (18 h after injection of Escherichia coli). Read More

    Is catalase involved in the effects of systemic and pVTA administration of 4-methylpyrazole on ethanol self-administration?
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 1;63:61-73. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy; Centre of Excellence on Neurobiology of Addiction, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.
    The oxidative metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde involves several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and catalase-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this regard, while it is well known that 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) acts by inhibiting ADH in the liver, little attention has been placed on its ability to interfere with fatty acid oxidation-mediated generation of H2O2, a mechanism that may indirectly affect catalase whose enzymatic activity requires H2O2. The aim of our investigation was twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of systemic (i. Read More

    Ethanol suppresses carbamylcholine-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 2;63:53-59. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea; Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Oscillation of intracellular calcium levels is closely linked to initiating secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to relate to a variety of disorders in the digestive system, including the exocrine pancreas. In this study, we have investigated the role and mechanism of ethanol on carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Read More

    Isolation stress and chronic mild stress induced immobility in the defensive burying behavior and a transient increased ethanol intake in Wistar rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 21;63:43-51. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Wilfrido Massieu esq. Manuel Stampa s/n Col. Nueva Industrial Vallejo Del, CP: 07738, Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Stress can be experienced with or without adverse effects, of which anxiety and depression are two of the most important due to the frequent comorbidity with alcohol abuse in humans. Historically, stress has been considered a cause of drug use, particularly alcohol abuse due to its anxiolytic effects. In the present work we exposed male Wistar rats to two different stress conditions: single housing (social isolation, SI), and chronic mild stress (CMS). Read More

    P3b amplitude is not reduced in abstinent alcoholics with a current MDD.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 18;63:33-42. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Neurobehavioral Research, Inc., 77 Ho'okele Street, 3rd Floor, Kahului, HI 96732, USA.
    Background And Aims: In two studies of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs), we found that about 17% had a current major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that LTAAs with a current MDD diagnosis do not exhibit the reduced P3b event-related potential amplitude endophenotype for alcoholism. This is consistent with the majority of LTAAs with a current MDD having developed alcohol dependence via self-medication of their MDD rather than their alcohol dependence arising from the alcoholism endophenotype. Read More

    Binge drinking and anxiety at the end of the nocturnal period in alcohol-preferring sP rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 4;63:27-32. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Neuroscience Institute, Section of Cagliari, National Research Council of Italy, S.S. 554, Km. 4,500, I-09042, Monserrato, CA, Italy.
    Previous studies suggested that exposure of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to daily drinking sessions of 1 h, during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, with multiple alcohol concentrations, and unpredictable access to alcohol, resulted in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol when the drinking session occurred over the last hours of the dark phase. Additionally, higher levels of anxiety-related behaviors were observed at the 12th, rather than 1st, hour of the dark phase, suggesting that uncertainty of time of alcohol access and expectation of alcohol availability produced an emotional "distress". The present study was designed to provide pharmacological support to the hypothesis that high alcohol intake under this drinking procedure is secondary to exacerbation of the anxiety-like state of sP rats. Read More

    Persistent negative effects of alcohol drinking on aspects of novelty-directed behavior in male rhesus macaques.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 23;63:19-26. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Department of Neurobiology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Harvard Medical School/NEPRC, Southborough, MA 01772, USA. Electronic address:
    Humans with histories of prolonged heavy alcohol use exhibit poorer performance on cognitive tasks associated with problem solving, short-term memory, and visuospatial reasoning, even following the cessation of drinking, when compared with healthy controls. It is unclear, however, whether the cognitive problems are a consequence of alcohol exposure or a contributing factor to alcohol-use disorders. Here, we examined the relationship between performance on a novel object recognition (NOR) task and total alcohol consumption (TAC) in adult male rhesus macaques (n = 12; ETH group; trained to self-administer alcohol). Read More

    A GABRA2 polymorphism improves a model for prediction of drinking initiation.
    Alcohol 2017 Sep 28;63:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    Background: Survival analysis was used to explore the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and covariates (sex, interview age, and ancestry) on a previously published model's ability to predict onset of drinking. A SNP variant of rs279871, in the chromosome 4 gene encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABRA2), was selected due to its associations with alcoholism in young adults and with behaviors that increased risk for early drinking.

    Methods: A subsample of 674 adolescents (ages 14-17) participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) was examined using a previously derived Cox proportional hazards model containing: 1) number of non-drinking related conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, 2) membership in a high-risk alcohol-dependent (AD) family, 3) most best friends drank (MBFD), 4) Achenbach Youth Self Report (YSR) externalizing score, and 5) YSR social problems score. Read More

    Drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy: Development of group-based trajectories in the Safe Passage Study.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:49-60. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, 715 Albany Street, Talbot Building, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    Precise identification of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy is crucial to better understand the risk to the fetus. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the methodological approach used to define prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories from a large prospective pregnancy cohort, and to describe maternal characteristics associated with different exposure patterns. In the Safe Passage Study, detailed information regarding quantity, frequency, and timing of exposure was self-reported up to four times during pregnancy and at 1 month post-delivery. Read More

    Efficient determination of six fatty acid ethyl ethers in human whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:41-47. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have been widely studied as specific markers of ethanol intake and mediators of ethanol-induced diseases. In the present study, a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of six fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl arachidonate, in human whole blood. FAEEs were extracted from 200 μL of human whole blood by a modified liquid-liquid extraction, and the hexane layer was injected directly into GC-MS with ethyl heptadecanoate as the internal standard. Read More

    Increased expression of M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in isolated microglia after four-day binge alcohol exposure in male rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 20;62:29-40. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address:
    Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are common features of neurodegenerative conditions, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). When activated, microglia span a continuum of diverse phenotypes ranging from classically activated, pro-inflammatory (M1) microglia/macrophages to alternatively activated, growth-promoting (M2) microglia/macrophages. Identifying microglia phenotypes is critical for understanding the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AUDs. Read More

    A modified Timeline Followback assessment to capture alcohol exposure in pregnant women: Application in the Safe Passage Study.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 12;62:17-27. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    University of North Dakota, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, School of Medicine & Health Sciences, 501 North Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203-9037, USA.
    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been linked to poor pregnancy outcomes, yet there is no recognized standard for PAE assessment, and the specific effects of quantity, frequency, and timing remain largely unknown. The Safe Passage Study was designed to investigate the role of PAE in a continuum of poor peri- and postnatal outcomes. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the rationale for, and feasibility of, modifications to the traditional Timeline Followback (TLFB) for collecting PAE information in a large cohort of pregnant women. Read More

    A prospective cohort study examining the effectiveness of baclofen in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol use disorder patients attending a joint liver and alcohol treatment clinic.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 15;62:11-15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Hepatology, The Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK.
    Objective: Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the leading cause of alcohol-related mortality in the UK. Helping patients with ARLD to stop drinking is an important treatment goal. The aim of this study is to explore baclofen's utility in maintaining abstinence. Read More

    Genome-wide profiling of differentially spliced mRNAs in human fetal cortical tissue exposed to alcohol.
    Alcohol 2017 Aug 4;62:1-9. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA; Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address:
    Excessive alcohol consumption results in significant changes in gene expression and isoforms due to altered mRNA splicing. As such, an intriguing possibility is that disturbances in alternative splicing are involved in key pathological pathways triggered by alcohol exposure. However, no resources have been available to systematically analyze this possibility at a genome-wide scale. Read More

    Quantifying the contribution of alcohol to cardiomyopathy: A systematic review.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 20;61:9-15. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada; Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Chemnitzer Str. 46, 01187 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Alcohol has a direct toxic impact on the heart, and while there is an ICD code for alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the burden of alcohol-attributable cardiomyopathy is not clear. For the usual estimation of this burden via population-attributable fractions, one would need to determine the risk relationships, i.e. Read More

    Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 18;61:25-31. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Read More

    Working memory over a six-year period in young binge drinkers.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 21;61:17-23. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Adolescence and early adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Young people with alcohol-use disorders display deficits in working memory (WM). This function is supported by the prefrontal cortex, a late-maturing brain region. Read More

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on executive functions controlling self-regulated behavior.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 20;61:1-8. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Syracuse University, Department of Psychology, 430 Huntington Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. Electronic address:
    Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self-regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. Read More

    Maternal alcohol exposure during mid-pregnancy dilates fetal cerebral arteries via endocannabinoid receptors.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 18;61:51-61. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address:
    Prenatal alcohol exposure often results in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Mechanisms of fetal brain damage by alcohol remain unclear. We used baboons (Papio spp. Read More

    Lobeline attenuates ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior in mice.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 26;61:63-70. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Electronic address:
    Evidence indicates that the brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) ligand lobeline reduces depression-like behaviors, ethanol drinking, and nicotine withdrawal-induced depression-like behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of lobeline on ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior and associated neuroadaptive changes in mice. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were allowed to drink 10% ethanol for 4 weeks using a two-bottle choice procedure. Read More

    Impact of adolescent alcohol use across the lifespan: Long-lasting tolerance to high-dose alcohol coupled with potentiated spatial memory impairments to moderate-dose alcohol.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 4;61:33-42. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
    Understanding how alcohol exposure during adolescence affects aging is a critical but understudied area. In the present study, male rats were exposed to either alcohol or saline during adolescence, then tested every 4 months following either an ethanol or saline challenge; animals were tested until postnatal day (PD) 532. It was found that long-lasting tolerance to high-dose ethanol exists through the test period, as measured by loss of righting reflex, while tolerance to lower doses of ethanol is not found. Read More

    Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.
    Alcohol 2017 May 3;60:7-18. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address:
    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e. Read More

    α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.
    Alcohol 2017 Jun 27;61:43-49. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Biobehavioral Health, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA.
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. Read More

    Alignment of the transcriptome with individual variation in animals selectively bred for High Drinking-In-the-Dark (HDID).
    Alcohol 2017 May 12;60:115-120. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA.
    Among animals at risk for excessive ethanol consumption such as the HDID selected mouse lines, there is considerable individual variation in the amount of ethanol consumed and the associated blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). For the HDID lines, this variation occurs even though the residual genetic variation associated with the DID phenotype has been largely exhausted and thus is most likely associated with epigenetic factors. Here we focus on the question of whether the genes associated with individual variation in HDID-1 mice are different from those associated with selection (risk) (Iancu et al. Read More

    The BAF (BRG1/BRM-Associated Factor) chromatin-remodeling complex exhibits ethanol sensitivity in fetal neural progenitor cells and regulates transcription at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus.
    Alcohol 2017 May 7;60:149-158. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Dept. of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics & Women's Health in Neuroscience Program, College of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, United States. Electronic address:
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a leading cause of intellectual disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that developmental ethanol exposure results in loss of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-9, and loss of these miRNAs, in turn, mediates some of ethanol's teratogenic effects in the developing brain. We previously found that ethanol increased methylation at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus in mouse fetal neural stem cells (NSC), advancing a mechanism for epigenetic silencing of this locus and consequently, miR-9 loss in NSCs. Read More

    Emerging roles for ncRNAs in alcohol use disorders.
    Alcohol 2017 May 15;60:31-39. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic alcohol exposure produces widespread neuroadaptations and alterations in gene expression in human alcoholics and animal models. Technological advances in the past decade have increasingly highlighted the role of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the regulation of gene expression and function. These recently characterized molecules were discovered to mediate diverse processes in the central nervous system, from normal development and physiology to regulation of disease, including alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Read More

    Prefrontal cortex expression of chromatin modifier genes in male WSP and WSR mice changes across ethanol dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence.
    Alcohol 2017 May 14;60:83-94. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road L470, Portland, OR, 97239, United States; VA Portland Health Care System, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, United States. Electronic address:
    Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. Read More

    Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.
    Alcohol 2017 May 3;60:159-167. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Center for Behavioral Teratology, Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92120, USA. Electronic address:
    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. Read More

    Strain-specific programming of prenatal ethanol exposure across generations.
    Alcohol 2017 May 4;60:191-199. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Psychology Department, Center for Developmental and Behavioral Neuroscience, Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center, Binghamton University- SUNY, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA. Electronic address:
    Behavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be transmitted from in utero-exposed F1 generation to their F2 offspring. This type of transmission is modulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. This study investigated the intergenerational consequences of prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose (1 g/kg) during gestational days 17-20, on ethanol-induced hypnosis in adolescent male F1 and F2 generations, in two strains of rats. Read More

    DNA Methylation program in normal and alcohol-induced thinning cortex.
    Alcohol 2017 May 20;60:135-147. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Anatomy Department of Mersin University, School of Medicine, Mersin, 33343, Turkey; Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA; Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Dr., MS5035, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. Electronic address:
    While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. Read More

    Disconnect between alcohol-induced alterations in chromatin structure and gene transcription in a mouse embryonic stem cell model of exposure.
    Alcohol 2017 May 11;60:121-133. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:
    Alterations to chromatin structure induced by environmental insults have become an attractive explanation for the persistence of exposure effects into subsequent life stages. However, a growing body of work examining the epigenetic impact that alcohol and other drugs of abuse exert consistently notes a disconnection between induced changes in chromatin structure and patterns of gene transcription. Thus, an important question is whether perturbations in the 'histone code' induced by prenatal exposures to alcohol implicitly subvert gene expression, or whether the hierarchy of cellular signaling networks driving development is such that they retain control over the transcriptional program. Read More

    Binge alcohol alters PNPLA3 levels in liver through epigenetic mechanism involving histone H3 acetylation.
    Alcohol 2017 May 12;60:77-82. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA. Electronic address:
    The human PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3) gene codes for a protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue and liver, and is implicated in lipid homeostasis. While PNPLA3 protein contains regions homologous to functional lipolytic proteins, the regulation of its tissue expression is reflective of lipogenic genes. A naturally occurring genetic variant of PNPLA3 in humans has been linked to increased susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease. Read More

    Mechanistic insights into epigenetic modulation of ethanol consumption.
    Alcohol 2017 May 12;60:95-101. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, USA; The College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2500 Speedway A4800, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.
    There is growing evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), can reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in animal models, but molecular and cellular processes underlying this behavioral effect are poorly understood. We used C57BL/6J male mice to investigate the effects of two FDA-approved drugs, decitabine (a DNMT inhibitor) and SAHA (an HDAC inhibitor), on ethanol consumption using two tests: binge-like drinking in the dark (DID) and chronic intermittent every other day (EOD) drinking. Decitabine but not SAHA reduced ethanol consumption in both tests. Read More

    Alcohol effects on the epigenome in the germline: Role in the inheritance of alcohol-related pathology.
    Alcohol 2017 May 6;60:53-66. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    The Endocrine Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 67 Poultry Lane, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address:
    Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown. Recent studies in animal models have suggested that epigenetic factors are also responsible for the transmission of alcohol-related pathologies across generations. Read More

    Changes to histone modifications following prenatal alcohol exposure: An emerging picture.
    Alcohol 2017 May 4;60:41-52. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Molecular Genetics Unit, Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London N6A 5B7, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Epigenetic mechanisms are important for facilitating gene-environment interactions in many disease etiologies, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extensive research into the role of DNA methylation and miRNAs in animal models has illuminated the complex role of these mechanisms in FASD. In contrast, histone modifications have not been as well researched, due in part to being less stable than DNA methylation and less well-characterized in disease. Read More

    Epigenetic mediators and consequences of excessive alcohol consumption.
    Alcohol 2017 05 11;60:1-6. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States; Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States; Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

    Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life.
    Alcohol 2016 Dec 13;57:55-63. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA; Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA. Electronic address:
    Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay. Read More

    Effects of the serotonin transporter gene, sensitivity of response to alcohol, and parental monitoring on risk for problem alcohol use.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 6;59:7-16. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; University of Michigan, Addiction Center, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:
    The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been previously associated with alcohol-related risk. Most findings point to short (S) allele carriers being at increased risk for negative alcohol outcomes relative to long allele homozygotes, although some work indicates a more complex relationship. The current prospective study aimed to clarify how and under what circumstances variations in 5-HTTLPR transmit risk for various alcohol-related outcomes. Read More

    An investigation into the effect of alcohol consumption on health status and health care utilization in Ireland.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 4;59:53-67. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Department of Economics, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland.
    This paper presents a study of the effect of alcohol consumption on individual health status and health care utilization in Ireland using the 2007 Slán National Health and Lifestyle Survey, while accounting for the endogenous relationship between alcohol and health. Drinkers are categorized as those who never drank, non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers, based on national recommended weekly drinking levels in Ireland. The drinking-status equation is estimated using an ordered probit model. Read More

    Urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 14;59:37-41. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: Congeners are substances, other than ethanol, that are produced during fermentation. Previous research found that the consumption of congener-rich drinks contributes to the severity of alcohol hangover. Methanol is such a congener that has been related to alcohol hangover. Read More

    Cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning involve executive dysfunction and memory impairment in cross-sectional and long-term perspective.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 10;59:27-35. Epub 2016 Dec 10.
    Department of Neurology and Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Methanol poisoning leads to lesions in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter, as well as to demyelination and atrophy of the optic nerve. However, information regarding cognitive deficits in a large methanol sample is lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to identify the cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning and their morphological correlates. Read More

    Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 23;59:17-25. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, MR Research, 1356 Lusitania St., 7th Floor UHT, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. Electronic address:
    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. Read More

    Seeking mental health care from private health practitioners among individuals with alcohol dependence/abuse; results from a study in the French general population.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 24;59:1-6. Epub 2016 Sep 24.
    EHESP School of Public Health, Rennes, F-35043, France; Paris Descartes University, Paris, F-75006, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Better knowledge of the factors that have an impact on pathways to mental health care may contribute greatly to organizing optimum health-care delivery. However, surveillance systems concerning alcohol problems in the French general population are suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to investigate: 1) the prevalence of mental health-care seeking in individuals with alcohol abuse/dependence in France, 2) which category of medical practitioner was consulted, and 3) psychological and socio-environmental factors associated with mental health-care seeking. Read More

    Long-term alterations to DNA methylation as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure: From mouse models to human children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
    Alcohol 2017 May 22;60:67-75. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Molecular Genetics Unit, Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Program in Neuroscience, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Rodent models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in differential DNA cytosine methylation in the developing brain. The resulting genome-wide methylation changes are enriched in genes with neurodevelopmental functions. The profile of differential methylation is dynamic and present in some form for life. Read More

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Mar 7;59:43-51. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA. Electronic address:
    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Read More

    Reduced ethanol drinking following selective cortical interneuron deletion of the GluN2B NMDA receptors subunit.
    Alcohol 2017 Feb 12;58:47-51. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Laboratory of Behavioral and Genomic Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are involved in the regulation of alcohol drinking, but the contribution of NMDAR subunits located on specific neuronal populations remains incompletely understood. The current study examined the role of GluN2B-containing NMDARs expressed on cortical principal neurons and cortical interneurons in mouse ethanol drinking. Consumption of escalating concentrations of ethanol was measured in mice with GluN2B gene deletion in either cortical principal neurons (GluN2B(CxNULL)) or interneurons (GluN2B(InterNULL)), using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Read More

    Initial subjective reward to alcohol in Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Alcohol 2017 Feb 23;58:19-22. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program at Bucknell University, One Dent Drive, Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA. Electronic address:
    Initial subjective response to the rewarding properties of alcohol predicts voluntary consumption and the risk for alcohol use disorders. We assessed the initial subjective reward to alcohol in rats using a single exposure conditioned place preference (SE-CPP) paradigm. Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrate preference for a context paired with a single systemic injection of ethanol (1. Read More

    Involvement of Wnt pathway in ethanol-induced inhibition of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.
    Alcohol 2017 Feb 16;58:13-18. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Cardiology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 168 ChangHai Road, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:
    Ethanol has been reported to have toxicity on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The present study aims to address the teratogenic effects of ethanol on the growth and cardiac differentiation of ESCs. Mouse embryonic stem D3 cells were employed. Read More

    Developmental lead exposure induces opposite effects on ethanol intake and locomotion in response to central vs. systemic cyanamide administration.
    Alcohol 2017 Feb 10;58:1-11. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    IFEC - CONICET, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016, Córdoba, Argentina; Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects. Read More

    Analyses of differentially expressed genes after exposure to acute stress, acute ethanol, or a combination of both in mice.
    Alcohol 2017 Feb 16;58:139-151. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Genetics, Genomics, and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA; Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, 226001, China. Electronic address:
    Alcohol abuse is a complex disorder, which is confounded by other factors, including stress. In the present study, we examined gene expression in the hippocampus of BXD recombinant inbred mice after exposure to ethanol (NOE), stress (RSS), and the combination of both (RSE). Mice were given an intraperitoneal (i. Read More

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