16,016 results match your criteria Aircraft Engineering And Aerospace Technology[Journal]


Investigation into features of fracture toughness of a transparent E-glass fiber reinforced polyester composites at extreme temperatures.

Heliyon 2020 May 26;6(5):e03986. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, 65201, USA.

In recent years, several investigators have made efforts to satisfy industrial and transportation demands with respect to high mechanical properties. Moreover, the transparent composites are needed for automotive and aircraft applications. Thus, developing more efficient and advanced transparent composite techniques has recently got more attention but seldom studied in harsh conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256466PMC

Augmented Visual Feedback: Cure or Distraction?

Hum Factors 2020 Jun 3:18720820924602. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

2860 Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of augmented feedback on participants' workload, performance, and distribution of visual attention.

Background: An important question in human-machine interface design is whether the operator should be provided with direct solutions. We focused on the solution space diagram (SSD), a type of augmented feedback that shows directly whether two aircraft are on conflicting trajectories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720820924602DOI Listing

Characterizing distinct components of tactical aircraft noise sources.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 May;147(5):3550

Blue Ridge Research and Consulting, LLC, Asheville, North Carolina 28801, USA.

Noise from a tactical aircraft can impact operations due to concerns regarding military personnel noise exposure and community annoyance and disturbance. The efficacy of mission planning can increase when the distinct, complex acoustic source mechanisms creating the noise are better understood. For each type of noise, equivalent acoustic source distributions are obtained from a tied-down F-35B operating at various engine conditions using the hybrid method for acoustic source imaging of Padois, Gauthier, and Berry [J. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001260DOI Listing

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood and Long-Term Exposure to Source-Specific Transportation Noise and Air Pollution: The SAPALDIA Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 Jun 1;128(6):67003. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Few epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on air pollutants exist, and none have been done on transportation noise exposures, which also contribute to environmental burden of disease.

Objective: We performed mutually independent EWAS on transportation noise and air pollution exposures.

Methods: We used data from two time points of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) from 1,389 participants contributing 2,542 observations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP6174DOI Listing

Persistent and emerging hazards contributing to work-related fatalities in Alaska.

Am J Ind Med 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Anchorage, Alaska.

Background: Workers in Alaska have an elevated risk of dying on the job compared to workers in the rest of the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe the trend in fatalities during the 15-year period 2004 to 2018, and to identify lingering and emerging hazards that result in fatalities.

Methods: Data on fatal work-related injuries in Alaska during 2004 to 2018 were obtained from the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23137DOI Listing

Food safety and quality control: Best practices in the Indian Armed Forces.

Authors:
A K Jindal

Med J Armed Forces India 2020 Apr 17;76(2):142-146. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Consultant (Community Medicine), Brig Med 4 Corps C/O 99 APO, India.

The Army Marches on its Stomach". To provide nutritious, wholesome, safe and quality food to the large Indian Armed Forces, spread over various terrains, ranging from the icy Himalayas to the burning deserts of Rajasthan or the humid jungles of the North East and over various platforms like tanks, ships and aircraft is a challenge. The major issue in this is to procure and supply the food while ensuring that it is safe and retains its quality till it is cooked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2019.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244882PMC

Monolithic Approach for Next-Generation Aircraft Design Considering Airline Operations and Economics.

J Aircr 2019 Jul 3;56(4):1565-1576. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109.

Traditional approaches to design and optimization of a new system often use a system-centric objective that does not consider how the operator will use this new system alongside other existing systems. When the new system design is incorporated into the broader group of systems, the performance of the operator-level objective can be sub-optimal due to the unmodeled interaction between the new system and the other systems. Among the few available references that describe attempts to address this disconnect, most follow an MDO-motivated sequential decomposition approach of first designing an optimal system and then providing this system to the operator who decides the best way to use this new system along with the existing systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.C035312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259484PMC

On design of robust sliding mode observer for nonlinear networked time-delay systems with communication constraints.

ISA Trans 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Automation, Zhejiang University of Technology, 310023, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

For a class of nonlinear discrete-time networked systems with time-delay and communication constraints, this paper is concerned with the design of robust sliding mode observer (SMO), where only one sensor node is allowed to transmit information to remote observer. We focus on the design of SMO to guarantee the exponentially stable of estimation error system and have a desired H disturbance attenuation level in presence of communication constraints. Firstly, a sensor selector is introduced such that only one sensor node is chosen and its measurement can be transmitted to remote SMO at each time instant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.05.014DOI Listing

Are new vision standards and tests needed for military aircrew using 3D stereo helmet-mounted displays?

BMJ Mil Health 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA) laboratory, 711th HPW, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, USA.

Visual standards for military aviators were historically set in the 1920s with requirements based on the visual systems of aircraft at the time, and these standards have changed very little despite significant advances in aircraft technology. Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) today enable pilots to keep their head out of the cockpit while flying and can be monocular, biocular or binocular in design. With next generation binocular HMDs, flight data can be displayed in three-dimensional stereo to declutter information presented, improving search times and potentially improve overall performance further. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001493DOI Listing

Numerical and Experimental UAV Structure Investigation by Pre-Flight Load Test.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 26;20(11). Epub 2020 May 26.

Air Force Institute of Technology, Airworthiness Division, Warsaw 01-494, Poland.

This paper presents the preparation and execution of on-ground static and engine load tests for the composite unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The test was conducted for pre-flight structural strength verification of the remotely piloted aerial target named HORNET, after introducing some structural modifications. The ground tests were performed before the flight test campaign, to ensure the strength and operational safety of the modified structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113014DOI Listing

Simulation of organic aerosol formation during the CalNex study: updated mobile emissions and secondary organic aerosol parameterization for intermediate-volatility organic compounds.

Atmos Chem Phys 2020 Apr;20(7):4313-4332

Center of Atmospheric Particle Studies, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

We describe simulations using an updated version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model version 5.3 (CMAQ v5.3) to investigate the contribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in southern California during the CalNex study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-4313-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252505PMC

PLinaS-g-PEG coated magnetic nanoparticles as a contrast agent for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 May 27:1-24. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Aircraft Airframe Engine Maintenance, Kapadokya University, Nevşehir, Turkey.

Among many different types of fabricated nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have unique physical and chemical properties and have been widely used due to theirs enhanced permeability and retention effect for biomedical applications. The incorporated theranostic MNPs into biopolymer coatings are currently particular interest to investigators in the fields of nanobiomedicine because of efficiently delivering of various drugs, genes and providing imaging properties. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent reason of cancer-related deaths, makes it one of the worst malignant tumors in the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1764183DOI Listing

Instrumentation for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds emission at elevated temperatures. Part 2: Analysis of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8702. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centre for Engineering Photonics, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.

We have investigated the release of gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite matrix used in aircraft structural components. Analysis was performed at several temperatures both up to and above the recommended operating temperature (121 °C) for the material, to a maximum of 250 °C. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with thermal desorption (TD-GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify VOCs, and in parallel real-time gas detection with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) gas sensors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65473-4DOI Listing

Monitoring During Transport.

Respir Care 2020 Jun;65(6):882-893

Warfighter Medical Optimization Division, Airman Systems Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Transport of critically ill patients within and between hospitals is a common undertaking in an effort to improve patient outcomes. Intrahospital transports are frequently conducted to aid in diagnosis through advanced imaging techniques or to allow image-guided procedures. Interhospital transport is most frequently conducted to bring patients to specialized care, including centers of excellence for cardiac, trauma, transplant, and respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07796DOI Listing

Generalized Linear Quadratic Control for a Full Tracking Problem in Aviation.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 22;20(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland.

In this paper, the full tracking problem in aircraft system identification and control is presented. Time domain output error method with maximum likelihood principle was used to perform system identification. The linear quadratic regulator (LQR)-based approach has been used for solving aviation full tracking problems in aviation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102955DOI Listing

Autofluorescence in Plants.

Authors:
Lloyd Donaldson

Molecules 2020 May 21;25(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3046, New Zealand.

Plants contain abundant autofluorescent molecules that can be used for biochemical, physiological, or imaging studies. The two most studied molecules are chlorophyll (orange/red fluorescence) and lignin (blue/green fluorescence). Chlorophyll fluorescence is used to measure the physiological state of plants using handheld devices that can measure photosynthesis, linear electron flux, and CO assimilation by directly scanning leaves, or by using reconnaissance imaging from a drone, an aircraft or a satellite. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102393DOI Listing

UAS-based tracking of the Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala.

Sci Rep 2020 May 25;10(1):8644. Epub 2020 May 25.

German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam, Germany.

Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Changes in surface movement, temperature, or lava viscosity are considered crucial data for hazard assessments at active lava domes and thus valuable study targets. Here, we present results from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS) to create topography data and orthophotos of the lava dome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65386-2DOI Listing

Decision support tool and suggestions for the development of guidelines for the helicopter transport of patients with COVID-19.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2020 May 25;28(1):43. Epub 2020 May 25.

LifeFlight Retrieval Medicine, PO box 15166, City East, QLD, 4002, Australia.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 emerged in December 2019 and is now pandemic. Initial analysis suggests that 5% of infected patients will require critical care, and that respiratory failure requiring intubation is associated with high mortality.Sick patients are geographically dispersed: most patients will remain in situ until they are in need of critical care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-020-00736-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247287PMC

A New Route to Enhance the Packing Density of Buckypaper for Superior Piezoresistive Sensor Characteristics.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 20;20(10). Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Transforming individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into bulk form is necessary for the utilization of the extraordinary properties of CNTs in sensor applications. Individual CNTs are randomly arranged when transformed into the bulk structure in the form of buckypaper. The random arrangement has many pores among individual CNTs, which can be treated as gaps or defects contributing to the degradation of CNT properties in the bulk form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102904DOI Listing

A benchmark dataset for ensemble framework by using nature inspired algorithms for the early-stage forest fire rescue.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 13;31:105686. Epub 2020 May 13.

School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.

This paper introduces a benchmark dataset to the research article entitled "Ensemble framework by using nature inspired algorithms for the early-stage forest fire rescue - a case study of dynamic optimization problems", by Zhang et al. [7]. Rescue ensemble that consists of rescue simulator and rescue algorithm is characterized by supporting the dynamic simulation of forest fire rescue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232107PMC

Injuries associated with the use of ejection seats: a systematic review, meta-analysis and the experience of the Israeli Air Force, 1990-2019.

Injury 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Introduction: All modern military jet aircraft are equipped with rocket-assisted ejection systems. Jet aircraft operate in the majority of the conflict regions throughout the world, and in nearly all modern countries during peacetime. Civilian and military emergency services may be called upon to treat aircrews that have ejected and should be familiar with the common injury patterns associated with aircraft ejection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.04.048DOI Listing

Detection of Exotic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) at International Airports in Europe.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 May 15;17(10). Epub 2020 May 15.

Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Geertjesweg 15, 6706 EA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

In Europe, the air-borne accidental introduction of exotic mosquito species (EMS) has been demonstrated using mosquito surveillance schemes at Schiphol International Airport (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Based upon these findings and given the increasing volume of air transport movements per year, the establishment of EMS after introduction via aircraft is being considered a potential risk. Here we present the airport surveillance results performed by the Centre for Monitoring of Vectors of the Netherlands, by the Monitoring of Exotic Mosquitoes (MEMO) project in Belgium, and by the Public Health England project on invasive mosquito surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103450DOI Listing

A Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Matter, Trace Elements and Gaseous Emissions of Piston-Engine Aircraft.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

The gaseous and PM emissions of a piston-engine aircraft during ground operations at different engine states (six engine speed points and three air/fuel mixtures) representing certain flight phases were concurrently measured from the exhaust duct. PM emissions were sampled on a 47 mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter in order to be analyzed with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) to identify the presence and level of forty-eight elements. The most abundant element is found to be Pb (med=4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c00815DOI Listing

Royal Flying Doctor Service COVID-19 activity and surge modelling in Australia.

Air Med J 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: There is a COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients transported by the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) for confirmed or suspected Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to investigate surge capacity of, and operational implications for, the RFDS in dealing with COVID-19.

Methods: Prospective cohort study To determine the characteristics of patients transported for confirmed or suspected COVID-19, we included patient data from 02 February 2020 to 06 May 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amj.2020.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229980PMC

An integrated machine learning model for aircraft components rare failure prognostics with log-based dataset.

ISA Trans 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Center, Cranfield University, Bedford, MK430Al, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Predictive maintenance is increasingly advancing into the aerospace industry, and it comes with diverse prognostic health management solutions. This type of maintenance can unlock several benefits for aerospace organizations. Such as preventing unexpected equipment downtime and improving service quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Energy-Aware Management in Multi-UAV Deployments: Modelling and Strategies.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 14;20(10). Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Network Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Calle Jordi Girona 1-3, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain.

Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are frequently present in the civilian environment. However, proper implementations of different solutions based on these aircraft still face important challenges. This article deals with multi-UAV systems, forming aerial networks, mainly employed to provide Internet connectivity and different network services to ground users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102791DOI Listing

Consistent vortex initialization for the athermal lattice Boltzmann method.

Phys Rev E 2020 Apr;101(4-1):043306

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, M2P2 UMR 7340, 13451 Marseille, France.

A barotropic counterpart of the well-known convected vortex test case is rigorously derived from the Euler equations along with an athermal equation of state. Starting from a given velocity distribution corresponding to an intended flow recirculation, the athermal counterpart of the Euler equations are solved to obtain a consistent density field. The present initialization is assessed on a standard lattice Boltzmann solver based on the D2Q9 lattice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.043306DOI Listing

Lower body negative pressure protects brain perfusion in aviation gravitational stress induced by push-pull manoeuvre.

J Physiol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

School of Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Key Points: Rapid alterations of gravitational stress during high-performance aircraft push-pull manoeuvres induce dramatic shifts in volume and pressure within the circulation system, which may result in loss of consciousness due to the rapid and significant reduction in cerebral perfusion. There are still no specific and effective countermeasures so far. We found that lower body negative pressure (LBNP), applied prior to and during -Gz and released at the subsequent transition to +Gz, could effectively counteract gravitational haemodynamic stress induced by a simulated push-pull manoeuvre and improve cerebral diastolic perfusion in human subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279876DOI Listing

Hybrid Fiber Optic Sensor Systems in Structural Health Monitoring in Aircraft Structures.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 13;13(10). Epub 2020 May 13.

Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa, Poland.

'Smart' structural health monitoring of composite materials with optical fiber sensors is becoming more and more important, especially in the aviation industry. This paper presents an overview of hybrid fiber-optic sensing systems based on scattering techniques, fiber Bragg gratings, interferometric techniques, and polarimetric methods in structural health monitoring. The main purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the possibilities of using hybrid sensors based on fiber optics to monitor composite structures, with a particular emphasis on aircraft structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102249DOI Listing

Transport of COVID-19 and other highly contagious patients by helicopter and fixed-wing air ambulance: a narrative review and experience of the Swiss air rescue Rega.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2020 May 14;28(1):40. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Rorschacher Strasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic highlights the challenges air ambulance services are facing when transporting highly infectious patients for several hours in enclosed spaces. This overview provides an example of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for infection prevention measures in HEMS missions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, we describe different methods used by several organizations in Europe and the experience of the Swiss air rescue organization Rega in transporting these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-020-00734-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222521PMC

Statistical characterization of urban CO emission signals observed by commercial airliner measurements.

Sci Rep 2020 May 14;10(1):7963. Epub 2020 May 14.

National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.

Cities are responsible for the largest anthropogenic CO emissions and are key to effective emission reduction strategies. Urban CO emissions estimated from vertical atmospheric measurements can contribute to an independent quantification of the reporting of national emissions and will thus have political implications. We analyzed vertical atmospheric CO mole fraction data obtained onboard commercial aircraft in proximity to 36 airports worldwide, as part of the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliners (CONTRAIL) program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64769-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224273PMC

Dynamic Countermeasure Fabrics for Post-Spaceflight Orthostatic Intolerance.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Jun;91(6):525-531

Aerospace orthostatic intolerance garments (OIG) have historically been pneumatic (e.g., NASA's antigravity suit), an approach that inhibits mobility and requires connection to an air supply. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5560.2020DOI Listing

Vigilance Aid Use and Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance in Pilots of Tactical Aircraft.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Jun;91(6):518-524

Fatigue is a well-known hazard in aviation. In military fighter communities, policies have evolved to allow for in-flight use of pharmacological vigilance aids to counteract the negative effects of fatigue. With limited objective evidence supporting the role of these medications in continuous flight operations, the present study seeks to evaluate whether use of modafinil is associated with pilot aircraft carrier landing performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5532.2020DOI Listing

In-Flight UV-A Exposure of Commercial Airline Pilots.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Jun;91(6):501-510

Understanding UV exposure is essential for the assessment of its contribution to the occupational risk of pilots developing ocular and skin pathologies. The objective of this observational study was to measure the UV exposure of pilots flying between the United Kingdom and a range of destinations at three different seasons. The in-flight UV exposure of pilots was measured on 322 Monarch Airlines short-haul flights on the Airbus A321-231 and Airbus A320-214 to 31 destinations, mostly in Europe, from 4 UK airports in September 2016-August 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5507.2020DOI Listing

Further Studies into Crack Growth in Additively Manufactured Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 12;13(10). Epub 2020 May 12.

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands.

Understanding and characterizing crack growth is central to meeting the damage tolerance and durability requirements delineated in USAF Structures Bulletin EZ-SB-19-01 for the utilization of additive manufacturing (AM) in the sustainment of aging aircraft. In this context, the present paper discusses the effect of different AM processes, different build directions, and the variability in the crack growth rates related to AM Ti-6Al-4V, AM Inconel 625, and AM 17-4 PH stainless steel. This study reveals that crack growth in these three AM materials can be captured using the Hartman-Schijve crack growth equation and that the variability in the various versus curves can be modeled by allowing the terms Δ and to vary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102223DOI Listing

Manufacturing ZrB-SiC-TaC Composite: Potential Application for Aircraft Wing Assessed by Frequency Analysis through Finite Element Model.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 12;13(10). Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This study presents a new ultra-high temperature composite fabricated by using zirconium diboride (ZrB), silicon carbide (SiC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) with the volume ratios of 70%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. To attain this novel composite, an advanced processing technique of spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to produce ZrB-SiC-TaC. The SPS manufacturing process was achieved under pressure of 30 MPa, at 2000 °C for 5 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102213DOI Listing

Image-free classification of fast-moving objects using "learned" structured illumination and single-pixel detection.

Opt Express 2020 Apr;28(9):13269-13278

Object classification generally relies on image acquisition and subsequent analysis. Real-time classification of fast-moving objects is a challenging task. Here we propose an approach for real-time classification of fast-moving objects without image acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.392370DOI Listing

Radiometer-to-imager in-flight cross calibration and verification.

Opt Express 2020 Apr;28(8):11001-11015

This work develops a method to complete the in-flight cross calibration and verification between a radiometer and an imager hosted on aircraft. The in-flight cross calibration is data transmission through time matching, space matching, and spectral matching of two polarization instruments on the same platform, and this method can not only complete the data transfer without considering the surface type to reduce the calibration cycle but also can obtain huge and rich calibration data. The radiometer is the particulate observing scanning polarimeter (POSP), which takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.386566DOI Listing

Onboard wake vortex localization with a coherent 1.5 µm Doppler LIDAR for aircraft in formation flight configuration.

Opt Express 2020 May;28(10):14374-14385

An onboard LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensor designed to track wake vortex created by aircraft in formation flight is presented. It uses short pulses (75 ns) to obtain a spatial resolution of ∼22.5 m required to resolve small-scale structures of vortices and a blind zone of 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.377049DOI Listing

Lidar remote sensing of the aquatic environment: invited.

Appl Opt 2020 Apr;59(10):C92-C99

This paper is a review of lidar remote sensing of the aquatic environment. The optical properties of seawater relevant to lidar remote sensing are described. The three main theoretical approaches to understanding the performance of lidar are considered (the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, Monte Carlo simulations, and the quasi-single-scattering assumption). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.59.000C92DOI Listing

Comparison of univariate and multivariate anthropometric design requirements methods for flight deck design application.

Ergonomics 2020 May 18:1-17. Epub 2020 May 18.

Crew Accommodation Laboratory in Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Human Systems Program Office (AFLCMC/WNU), Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH, USA.

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes and shapes existing in the world population has always been a difficult problem for crew station engineers. There is no consensus on the best method for obtaining measurements for body forms that statistically represent the variation within a population. The aim of this research is to compare the two most commonly used anthropometric approaches for dimension specification and flight deck design: the boundary cases multivariate and the percentile univariate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1765029DOI Listing

Critical care transport in the time of COVID-19.

CJEM 2020 May 13:1-5. Epub 2020 May 13.

Ornge, Mississauga, ON.

Critical care transport organizations are nimble, operationally focused institutions that can aid in managing crises. Ornge provides air ambulance and critical care transport services to Ontario. From 12 bases, Ornge operates four PC-12 Next Generation fixed wing (FW) aircraft, eight AW-139 rotary wing (RW) aircraft, and four critical care land ambulances (CCLA) on a 24/7 basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cem.2020.400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262110PMC

Impact of international travel dynamics on domestic spread of 2019-nCoV in India: origin-based risk assessment in importation of infected travelers.

Global Health 2020 05 12;16(1):45. Epub 2020 May 12.

Transportation Engineering Division, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600 036, India.

The recent pandemic caused by the 2019 outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or COVID-19) has affected more than 3.0 million people resulting ~ 212,000 deaths across 215 countries/territories as on 28th April 2020. The importation of the cases owing to enormous international travels from the affected countries is the foremost reason for local cycle of transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00575-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216130PMC

Fatal gyroplane crash.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Stiftsplatz 12, 53111, Bonn, Germany.

Gyroplanes are mainly used for sports aviation. Experience is required when flying these special aircraft because in 40% of gyroplane crashes, the passengers do not survive. Herein, a fatal gyroplane crash of a tandem-seat gyroplane with two occupants is reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-020-00253-0DOI Listing

Masking effects on subjective annoyance to aircraft flyover noise: An fMRI study.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Shanghai Med-X Engineering Research Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Sound masking, a new noise control technology, has been applied to improve subjective perception of noise in recent years. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this technology are still unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects were recurited to take subjective annoyance assessments and fMRI scanning with the aircraft noise and the masked aircraft noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25016DOI Listing

Indexing Mental Workload During Simulated Air Traffic Control Tasks by Means of Dual Frequency Head Maps.

Front Physiol 2020 21;11:300. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition, Department of Computer Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

In our digitized society, advanced information and communication technology and highly interactive work environments impose high demands on cognitive capacity. Optimal workload conditions are important for assuring employee's health and safety of other persons. This is particularly relevant in safety-critical occupations, such as air traffic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186426PMC

Using aircraft location data to estimate current economic activity.

Sci Rep 2020 May 5;10(1):7576. Epub 2020 May 5.

Data Science Lab, Behavioural Science, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Scarman Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Aviation is a key sector of the economy, contributing at least 3% to gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK and the US. Currently, airline performance statistics are published with a three month delay. However, aircraft now broadcast their location in real-time using the Automated Dependent Surveillance Broadcast system (ADS-B). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63734-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200678PMC

On the Evaluation of a Coupled Sequential Approach for Rotorcraft Landing Simulation.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Apr 29;20(9). Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milano, Italy.

Maximum loads acting on aircraft structures generally arise when the aircraft is undergoing some form of acceleration, such as during landing. Landing, especially when considering rotorcrafts, is thus crucial in determining the operational load spectrum, and accurate predictions on the actual health/load level of the rotorcraft structure cannot be achieved unless a database comprising the structural response in various landing conditions is available. An effective means to create a structural response database relies on the modeling and simulation of the items and phenomena of concern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20092540DOI Listing

Pilots' mental workload prediction based on timeline analysis.

Technol Health Care 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Chinese Flight Test Establishment, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710089, China.

Background: The aircraft cockpit is a highly intensive human-computer interaction system, and its design directly affects flight safety.

Objective: To optimize the display interface design in complex flight tasks, the present study aimed to propose a dynamic conceptual framework and a timeline task analysis method for the quantization of the dynamic time effect of mental workload and the influencing factors of task types in the mental workload prediction model.

Methods: The multi-factor mental workload prediction model based on attention resource allocation was integrated to establish the dynamic prediction model of mental workload. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-209021DOI Listing

Sound from rotors in non-uniform flow.

Authors:
Michael Carley

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Apr;147(4):2205

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom.

An analysis is presented for the evaluation of the acoustic field of a rotating source in a non-uniform potential flow. Other than the restriction to low flow Mach numbers, the method is exact and general. The variation in radiation properties with source position is handled by representation as a Fourier series in source angle, giving rise to an asymmetrically varying acoustic field evaluated by summation of the series. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001019DOI Listing