282,213 results match your criteria Aids Care-psychological And Socio-medical Aspects Of Aids/hiv[Journal]


Hypertension burden and challenges across the hypertension treatment cascade among adults enrolled in HIV care in northern Tanzania.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Failure to address hypertension among people living with HIV (PLWH) may undermine the significant progress made toward reducing mortality among this high-risk population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Here, the authors report hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment among patients enrolled in HIV care in Tanzania. Patients attending an HIV clinic were consecutively screened for hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13929DOI Listing

Multicenter evaluation of Xpert® HIV-1 Viral Load assay for HIV Quantification in China.

J Med Virol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

New approaches to increase HIV-1 testing and HIV-1 viral load (VL) monitoring are needed for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China. The Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load (VL) assay was prequalified by World Health Organization in 2017 but has not been evaluated in China. A multicenter evaluation was conducted to assess the accuracy of the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 VL assay compared to the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26295DOI Listing

Substance use patterns and health profiles among US adults who use opioids, methamphetamine, or both, 2015-2018.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jul 2;214:108162. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, 701 Park Ave., Suite PP7.700, Minneapolis, MN, 55415, USA; Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare, 716 S 7thSt, Minneapolis, MN, 55415, USA.

Background: Methamphetamine use, with and without opioids, has increased substantially, but little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, or health profiles of individuals who use methamphetamine. To design effective public health interventions, health care professionals and policymakers need data describing individuals who are using methamphetamine in the midst of the opioid crisis.

Methods: We used 2015-2018 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and included non-elderly adults aged 18-64 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108162DOI Listing

Metagenome Data on Intestinal Phage-Bacteria Associations Aids the Development of Phage Therapy against Pathobionts.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Immunology and Genomics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan; Division of Metagenome Medicine, Human Genome Center, the Institute of Medical Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Division of Innate Immune Regulation, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, the Institute of Medical Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Collaborative Research Institute for Innovative Microbiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

The application of bacteriophages (phages) is proposed as a highly specific therapy for intestinal pathobiont elimination. However, the infectious associations between phages and bacteria in the human intestine, which is essential information for the development of phage therapies, have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report the intestinal viral microbiomes (viromes), together with bacterial microbiomes (bacteriomes), in 101 healthy Japanese individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.005DOI Listing

SARS-CoV-2 and Male Infertility: Possible Multifaceted Pathology.

Reprod Sci 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Bulk of research on this virus are carried out to unveil its multivariate pathology. Surprisingly, men are reportedly more vulnerable to COVID-19 even with higher fatality rate compared to women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00261-zDOI Listing

Evaluation of Rapid Testing Algorithms for Venue-based Anonymous HIV Testing among Non-HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS), 2017.

J Community Health 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 3033, USA.

HIV rapid testing algorithms (RTAs) using any two orthogonal rapid tests (RTs) allow for on-site confirmation of infection. RTs vary in performance characteristics therefore the selection of RTs in an algorithm may affect identification of infection, particularly if acute. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) assessed RTAs among men who have sex with men recruited using anonymous venue-based sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00871-3DOI Listing

Development and Validation of a Sociodemographic and Behavioral Characteristics-Based Risk-Score Algorithm for Targeting HIV Testing Among Adults in Kenya.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Global HIV & TB (DGHT), United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kenya, KEMRI Campus, P.O. Box 606, Nairobi, 00621, Kenya.

To inform targeted HIV testing, we developed and externally validated a risk-score algorithm that incorporated behavioral characteristics. Outpatient data from five health facilities in western Kenya, comprising 19,458 adults ≥ 15 years tested for HIV from September 2017 to May 2018, were included in univariable and multivariable analyses used for algorithm development. Data for 11,330 adults attending one high-volume facility were used for validation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02962-7DOI Listing

Characterization of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus: integration of phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic approaches.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry Malaysia, Federal Government Administrative Center, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

The field strain of Haemonchus contortus has a long history of anthelmintic resistance. To understand this phenomenon, the benzimidazole resistance profile was characterized from the Malaysian field-resistant strain by integrating phenotypic, genotypic and proteomic approaches. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) demonstrated that benzimidazole resistance was at a critical level in the studied strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06790-5DOI Listing

Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19.

Nat Med 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Although COVID-19 is most well known for causing substantial respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations. These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications. Given that ACE2, the entry receptor for the causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in multiple extrapulmonary tissues, direct viral tissue damage is a plausible mechanism of injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3DOI Listing

Hemophilus influenzae and Parainfluenza Virus Pneumonia in a Patient with AIDS.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Jul 11;21:e923132. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ, USA.

BACKGROUND Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are known to cause mild respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients but can cause severe infections in immune-compromised patients such as transplant recipients and children with HIV. PIV infection in HIV-infected adults has rarely been reported. We report a case of PIV pneumonia in an adult with AIDS who was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.923132DOI Listing

Covid-19 communication aids.

BMJ 2020 Jul 10;370:m2630. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2630DOI Listing

Addressing advanced HIV disease and mortality in global HIV programming.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 Jul 10;17(1):40. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, US 1-1, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Introduction: The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was launched to increase access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and to prevent new HIV infections globally. As new infections have decreased in many PEPFAR-supported countries, PEPFAR is increasingly focusing on understanding and decreasing mortality among PLHIV, specifically by addressing advanced HIV disease (AHD) and its attendant opportunistic infections (OIs). Several developments in identifying AHD, in preventing, diagnosing, and treating selected OIs, and in PEPFAR's support for mortality surveillance make this an opportune moment for PEPFAR to address HIV-related mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00296-xDOI Listing

Antiretroviral treatment failure and associated factors among HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Sekota, northeast Ethiopia.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 Jul 10;17(1):39. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, PO Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Antiretroviral treatment has played a pivotal role in the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. However, treatment options can be impaired by the development of antiretroviral treatment failure. Regular monitoring of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus treatment outcome via viral load tests is the key approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00294-zDOI Listing

Epidemiological Impact of Novel Preventive and Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccination in the United States: Mathematical Modeling Analyses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha 24144, Qatar.

This study aims to inform herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccine development, licensure, and implementation by delineating the population-level impact of vaccination. Mathematical models were constructed to describe the transmission dynamics in presence of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines assuming 50% efficacy, with application to the United States. Catch-up prophylactic vaccination will reduce, by 2050, annual number of new infections by 58%, incidence rate by 60%, seroprevalence by 21%, and avert yearly as much as 350,000 infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030366DOI Listing

Serum (1,3)-Beta-D-Glucan has suboptimal performance for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in cancer patients and correlates poorly with respiratory burden as measured by quantitative PCR.

J Infect 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-HIV immunocompromised patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) have lower fungal load than those with AIDS, potentially affecting the accuracy of diagnostic biomarkers. Therefore, we investigated the performance of serum (1,3)-Beta-D-Glucan (BDG) in conjunction with quantitative Pneumocystis jirovecii PCR (qPCR) in non-HIV cancer patients.

Methods: We reviewed records of non-HIV cancer patients and classified them as definite, probable, or possible PCP cases, according to clinicoradiological features, microscopy findings, and qPCR results in bronchoscopy specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.07.003DOI Listing

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide for patients with HIV and haematological malignancies: a feasibility study.

Lancet HIV 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is a potentially life-saving treatment for individuals with HIV and haematological malignancies; challenges include identifying donors and maintaining antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objectives of our study were to investigate interventions to expand donor options and to prevent ART interruptions for patients with HIV in need of alloBMT.

Methods: This single-arm, interventional trial took place at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center (Baltimore, MD, USA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30073-4DOI Listing

Natural transmission of bat-like SARS-CoV-2PRRA variants in COVID-19 patients.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

AIDS Institute, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 contains the furin cleavage PRRA motif in the S1/S2 region, which enhances viral pathogenicity but is absent in closely related bat and pangolin coronaviruses. It remains unknown if bat-like coronaviral variants without PRRA (ΔPRRA) can establish natural infection in humans.

Methods: Here, we developed a duplex digital PCR assay to examine ΔPRRA variants in Vero-E6-propagated isolates, human organoids, experimentally infected hamsters and COVID-19 patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa953DOI Listing

Female adolescents' reproductive health decision-making capacity and contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: What does the future hold?

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235601. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Introduction: Given the social, economic, and health consequences of early parenthood, unintended pregnancy, and the risks of HIV infection and subsequent transmission, there is an urgent need to understand how adolescents make sexual and reproductive decisions regarding contraceptive use. This study sought to assess the association between female adolescents' reproductive health decision-making capacity and their contraceptive usage.

Materials And Methods: Data was obtained from pooled current Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235601PLOS

Reproducibility of the Development and Validation Process of Standard Area Diagram by Two Laboratories: An Example Using the / Pathosystem.

Plant Dis 2020 Jul 10:PDIS08191708RE. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biotecnologia Aplicada, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brasil.

Standard area diagrams (SADs) are plant disease severity assessment aids demonstrated to improve the accuracy and reliability of visual estimates of severity. Knowledge of the sources of variation, including those specific to a lab such as raters, specific procedures followed including instruction, image analysis software, image viewing time, etc., that affect the outcome of development and validation of SADs can help improve standard operating practice of these assessment aids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1708-REDOI Listing

Interventions to improve inpatients' sleep quality in intensive care units and acute wards: a literature review.

Br J Nurs 2020 Jul;29(13):770-776

Lecturer, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge.

Background: Sleep is essential for the physical and psychological restoration of inpatients, and lack of sleep results in sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, with potentially harmful consequences.

Aim: To summarise sleep-promoting interventions in the Intensive care unit (ICU) and acute ward setting.

Method And Results: Six databases were searched to obtain studies for review and eight studies were selected, appraised, analysed and produced two themes: sleep-disturbing factors and sleep-promoting strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.13.770DOI Listing

Double Level Osteotomy Assisted by 3D Printing Technology in a Patient with Blount Disease: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):e0477

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain 2Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain.

Case: We describe the case of a 26-year-old patient diagnosed with Blount disease. She underwent a medial oblique supracondylar biplanar closing-wedge osteotomy of the distal femur followed by a medial oblique biplanar opening-wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia. 3D printed cutting guides were used for the procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00477DOI Listing

Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques for Detection and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi: a review.

Mycoses 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institute of Tropical Medicine of Rio Grande do Norte, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Fungal infections have increased during the last years due to the AIDS epidemic and immunosuppressive therapies. The available diagnostic methods, such as culture, histopathology and serology, have several drawbacks regarding sensitivity, specificity and time-consuming, while molecular methods are still expensive and dependent of many devices. Isothermal Nucleic acid Amplification Techniques arose as promising diagnostic methods for infectious diseases, since they are sensitive, specific, fast, cost-effective, affordable, robust, deliverable to end-users, equipment-free and user-friendly technologies, fulfilling all criteria proposed by World Health Organization for an ideal diagnostic method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13140DOI Listing

An overview of vaccine design against different pathogens and cancer.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Iranian Comprehensive Hemophilia Care Center , Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Due to overcome the hardness of the vaccine design, computational vaccinology is emerging widely. Prediction of T cell and B cell epitopes, antigen processing analysis, antigenicity analysis, population coverage, conservancy analysis, allergenicity assessment, toxicity prediction, and protein-peptide docking are important steps in the process of designing and developing potent vaccines against various viruses and cancers. In order to perform all of analyses, several bioinformatics tools and online web servers have been developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1794832DOI Listing

CDC's Community-Based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project: Perspectives for Researchers, Implementers and Funders.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Behavioral interventions have been a crucial tool for the prevention of HIV transmission since early in the epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided funding for evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) at health departments and community-based organizations (CBOs) since 2004. From 2006 to 2015, CDC funded 25 CBOs to evaluate one or more of seven EBIs designed to prevent HIV through the Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project (CBOP) as implemented outside of a research setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02970-7DOI Listing

Combination HIV Prevention Strategies Among Montreal Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in the PrEP Era: A Latent Class Analysis.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) became publicly available in Quebec for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in 2013. We used baseline data from Engage, a cohort of GBM recruited by respondent-driven sampling, to examine patterns of combination HIV prevention use among Montreal GBM since PrEP became available. Latent class analysis, stratified by HIV status, was used to categorize GBM by self-reported use of biomedical and behavioural prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02965-4DOI Listing

Secretion of a mammalian chondroitinase ABC aids glial integration at PNS/CNS boundaries.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11262. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Reconstructive Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14220, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Schwann cell grafts support axonal growth following spinal cord injury, but a boundary forms between the implanted cells and host astrocytes. Axons are reluctant to exit the graft tissue in large part due to the surrounding inhibitory environment containing chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We use a lentiviral chondroitinase ABC, capable of being secreted from mammalian cells (mChABC), to examine the repercussions of CSPG digestion upon Schwann cell behaviour in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67526-0DOI Listing

Therapeutic vaccine-mediated Gag-specific CD8 T-cell induction under anti-retroviral therapy augments anti-virus efficacy of CD8 cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11394. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can inhibit HIV proliferation but not achieve virus eradication from HIV-infected individuals. Under ART-based HIV control, virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses are often reduced. Here, we investigated the impact of therapeutic vaccination inducing virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses under ART on viral control in a macaque AIDS model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68267-wDOI Listing

An analysis of variability in 'CatWalk' locomotor measurements to aid experimental design and interpretation.

eNeuro 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Preclinical studies in models of neurological injury and disease rely upon behavioral outcomes to measure intervention efficacy. For spinal cord injury, the CatWalk system provides unbiased quantitative assessment of subtle aspects of locomotor function in rodents and so can powerfully detect significant differences between experimental and control groups. Although clearly of key importance, summary group-level data can obscure the variability within and between individual subjects and therefore make it difficult to understand the magnitude of effect in individual animals and the proportion of a group that may show benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0092-20.2020DOI Listing

Evaluating the integration of chronic care elements in primary health care for people with mental illness: a longitudinal study in Nepal conducted among primary health care workers.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 9;20(1):632. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Research and Development, HealthNet TPO, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Despite many important developments in the global mental health arena in the past decade, many people with mental health problems still do not have access to good quality mental health care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived impact of a mental health care package (MHCP) in integrating chronic care elements in primary health care for people with mental illness.

Methods: A controlled pre-post study design was used in 20 primary health care facilities in Chitwan, Nepal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05491-0DOI Listing

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated vacuolar encephalomyelopathy with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease improved after antiretroviral therapy: a case report.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 Jul 9;17(1):38. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Sakamoto 1-7-1, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, 852-8501, Japan.

Background: Vacuolar encephalomyelopathy, a disregarded diagnosis lately, was a major neurological disease in the terminal stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) was classically identified as a non-infectious complication of common variable immunodeficiency; however, it is now being recognized in other immunodeficiency disorders. Here, we report the first case of GLILD accompanied by vacuolar encephalomyelopathy in a newly diagnosed HIV-infected man. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00295-yDOI Listing

Acceptability of a hypothetical preventative HIV vaccine among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 9;20(1):1081. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: As research on HIV vaccines continues to advance, studies exploring the feasibility of this intervention are necessary to inform uptake and dissemination strategies with key populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD).

Methods: We conducted 25 in-depth qualitative interviews examining HIV vaccine acceptability among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Participants were recruited from an ongoing prospective cohort of HIV-negative PWUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09202-6DOI Listing

Effect of a multi-dimensional case management model on anti-retroviral therapy-related outcomes among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Beijing, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 9;20(1):489. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: This paper introduces a comprehensive case management model uniting doctors, nurses, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in order to shorten the time from HIV diagnosis to initiation of antiviral therapy, improve patients' adherence, and ameliorate antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related outcomes.

Methods: All newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases at Beijing YouAn Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were selected as the control group, while all newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients from January 2015 to December 2016 were selected as the intervention group, receiving the comprehensive case management model.

Results: 4906 patients were enrolled, of which 1549 were in the control group and 3357 in the intervention group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05219-9DOI Listing

Consensus document on enhancing medication adherence in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus receiving antiretroviral therapy.

Farm Hosp 2020 Jul 1;44(4):163-173. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona. Spain..

Adherence to treatment in patients living with HIV remains the focus of attention of health professionals and researchers. However, patient profiles and the  available therapeutic arsenal have changed greatly over the last decade.  Inadequate adherence not only to antiretroviral therapy but also to other  prescribed drugs remains the main cause of therapeutic failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7399/fh.11441DOI Listing

Cilostazol for Secondary Prevention of Stroke and Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Stroke 2020 Jul 10:STROKEAHA120029454. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Stroke Trials Unit, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom (J.P.A., P.M.B.).

Background And Purpose: Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3' inhibitor, is used in Asia-Pacific countries for stroke prevention, but rarely used elsewhere. In addition to weak antiplatelet effects, it stabilizes endothelium, aids myelin repair and astrocyte-neuron energy transfer in laboratory models, effects that may be beneficial in preventing small vessel disease progression.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of unconfounded randomized controlled trials of cilostazol to prevent stroke, cognitive decline, or radiological small vessel disease lesion progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029454DOI Listing

Efficacy of Music Training in Hearing Aid and Cochlear Implant Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Hearing and Technology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of music training on the improvement of musical perception among hearing-impaired listeners using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Article search was conducted from five databases, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, and PubMed. A total of 186 participants from 10 studies investigating the music training effects on individuals fitted with hearing assistive devices and outcome measurements were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21053/ceo.2020.00101DOI Listing

Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Training for Ugandan Seniors Living with HIV: A Validation Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychology, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) for mitigating neurocognitive decline was evaluated in African adults ≥50 years old. Eighty-one Ugandans with ( = 40) and without ( = 41) chronic human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were allocated CCRT-i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072137DOI Listing

An Evaluation of Baseline Kidney Function in the REPRIEVE Trial of Pitavastatin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S41-S51

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbid condition among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). We characterized baseline kidney function in the REPRIEVE (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) trial cohort.

Methods: REPRIEVE enrolled PWH with low to moderate cardiovascular risk based on traditional risk factors to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa222DOI Listing

Physical Function Impairment and Frailty in Middle-Aged People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the REPRIEVE Trial Ancillary Study PREPARE.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S52-S62

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) are at risk for accelerated development of physical function impairment and frailty; both associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and death. Identifying factors associated with physical function impairment and frailty can help target interventions.

Methods: The REPRIEVE trial enrolled participants 40-75 years of age, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/mm3, and with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa249DOI Listing

Patterns of Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Immunologic Profiles at Enrollment in the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S8-S19

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Patterns of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and immunologic correlates vary globally, and contemporary trends are not well described.

Methods: The REPRIEVE trial (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) enrolled persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were aged 40-75 years, receiving ART, and had low-to-moderate cardiovascular disease risk. ART use was summarized within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-regions, with adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses examining associations with immune parameters and key demographics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa259DOI Listing

Leveraging a Landmark Trial of Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Introduction From the REPRIEVE Coprincipal Investigators.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S1-S7

Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) is the largest study of cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus. Enrolling 7770 participants from 2015 to 2019 with sites across 5 continents, REPRIEVE will assess the effects of a statin as a cardiovascular disease prevention strategy in people with HIV (PWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although the primary purpose of REPRIEVE, and its substudy assessing coronary plaque, is to assess cardiovascular outcomes, the trial is a rich source of data on population characteristics and critical comorbidities in PWH, particularly across Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions, reflective of the ethnic, racial, and gender diversity in this global epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa098DOI Listing

Characteristics of REPRIEVE Trial Participants Identifying Across the Transgender Spectrum.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S31-S40

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Because persons who identify across the transgender spectrum (PATS) are a key population in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) yet are underreported in HIV and cardiovascular research, we aimed to characterize this population within the REPRIEVE global clinical trial (n = 7770). Acceptance of gathering gender identity was high (96%). Participation by PATS was 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa213DOI Listing

Correlates and Timing of Reproductive Aging Transitions in a Global Cohort of Midlife Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Insights From the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S20-S30

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Reproductive aging may contribute to cardiometabolic comorbid conditions. We integrated data on gynecologic history with levels of an ovarian reserve marker (anti-müllerian hormone [AMH)] to interrogate reproductive aging patterns and associated factors among a subset of cisgender women with human immunodeficiency virus (WWH) enrolled in the REPRIEVE trial.

Methods: A total of 1449 WWH were classified as premenopausal (n = 482) (menses within 12 months; AMH level ≥20 pg/mL; group 1), premenopausal with reduced ovarian reserve (n = 224) (menses within 12 months; AMH <20 pg/mL; group 2), or postmenopausal (n = 743) (no menses within12 months; AMH <20 pg/mL; group 3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa214DOI Listing

Myocardial Steatosis Among Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Participating in the REPRIEVE Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul;222(Supplement_1):S63-S69

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) face increased risks for heart failure and adverse heart failure outcomes. Myocardial steatosis predisposes to diastolic dysfunction, a heart failure precursor. We aimed to characterize myocardial steatosis and associated potential risk factors among a subset of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa245DOI Listing

Phoneme recognition in bimodal hearing.

Acta Otolaryngol 2020 Jul 9:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Many unilateral cochlear implant (CI) users have residual hearing in the nonimplanted ear, allowing them to use bimodal hearing. Assessing the hearing aid (HA) contribution is important.

Objective: To examine the contribution of a contralateral HA in unilateral CI users with severe-profound hearing loss (HL) in the non-implanted ear to phonetic features perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2020.1780311DOI Listing

Clinical Features and CD4+ T Cells Count in AIDS Patients with CMV Retinitis: Correlation with Mortality.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 Jul 9:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Eagle Eye Center, Gleneagles Hospital , Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: To explore the all-cause mortality in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (CMVR) presented to a tertiary referral center in Singapore from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015.

Results: A total of 144 patients were studied (87 survived, 11 lost to follow up, 46 died). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1772312DOI Listing

Nivolumab for Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Sézary Syndrome.

Eur J Neurol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but severe opportunistic CNS infection caused by JC polyomavirus in immunosuppressed patients. Immune checkpoint blockade stimulates immune function and has been suggested to reinvigorate viral clearance in PML patients by expanding JCV-specific T cells . Among the first 13 published PML patients treated with programmed cell death 1 inhibitors (PD1I) 8 showed a mild to marked treatment response . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14433DOI Listing