269,706 results match your criteria Aids Care-psychological And Socio-medical Aspects Of Aids/hiv[Journal]


Association between self-reported hearing impairment, use of a hearing aid and performance of instrumental activities of daily living.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Apr 6;83:101-105. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Semillero de Neurociencias y Envejecimiento, Ageing Institute, Medical School, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; Geriatric Epidemiology Research Department, Instituto Nacional De Geriatría, México City, Mexico; Geriatric Medicine Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Age-related hearing loss is a prevalent condition among the growing elderly population, which has been associated with both cognitive decline and decreased daily functioning. Decreased functioning is linked to lower performance, predominantly regarding instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). The present study aims to explore the association between hearing loss and impairment in IADLs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.04.001DOI Listing

HIV co-infection in HTLV-1 carriers in Spain.

Virus Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

UNIR Health Sciences School & Medical Center, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Human retroviruses HIV and HTLV share transmission routes. HIV widely spread in Spain during the 80 s through injection drug use and sex, and nowadays HIV rates in Spain account for one of the largest in Europe. In contrast, HTLV-1 is not endemic in Spain, despite hosting huge numbers of migrants from highly endemic regions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01681702193017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Hearing Aid Prevalence and Factors Related to Use Among Older Adults From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Hearing loss is highly prevalent in the rapidly growing and aging Hispanic/Latino population in the United States. However, little is known or understood about hearing aid use among US adults from Hispanic/Latino backgrounds.

Objective: To describe hearing aid prevalence and factors associated with hearing aid use among US adults of Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2019.0433DOI Listing

AIDS prevention and control in the Yunnan region by T cell subset assessment.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0214800. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Kunming, Yunan, China.

Background: Prior to being spread throughout broader China, multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes were originally discovered in the Yunnan Province. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues its spread in Yunnan, knowledge of the influence of gender, age, and ethnicity to instances of HIV reservoirs will benefit monitoring the spread of HIV.

Methods: The degree to which T cells are depleted during an HIV infection depends on the levels of immune activation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214800PLOS

Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Heterosexual Persons Who Are Living Homeless and Inject Drugs - Seattle, Washington, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Apr 19;68(15):344-349. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Although diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons who inject drugs in the United States are declining, an HIV outbreak among such persons in rural Indiana demonstrated that population's vulnerability to HIV infection (1). In August 2018, Public Health-Seattle and King County (PHSKC) identified a cluster of cases of HIV infection among persons living homeless, most of whom injected drugs. Investigation identified 14 related cases diagnosed from February to mid-November 2018 among women who inject drugs and men who have sex with women (MSW) who inject drugs and their sex partners. Read More

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6815a2.htm?s_cid=mm6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6815a2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Vestibular Function Modulates the Benefit of Hearing Aids in People With Hearing Loss During Static Postural Control.

Ear Hear 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

École d'orthophonie et d'audiologie, Université de Montréal, Québec, Montréal, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate the influence of auditory cues on postural sway in normal-hearing (NH) individuals, hearing-impaired individuals with vestibular impairment (HIVL), or hearing-impaired (HI) individuals without vestibular impairment.

Design: Thirty-two participants received a hearing and a vestibular evaluation (vHIT, oVEMP, cVEMP) and then were separated in to three groups (NH, HI, HIVL). All participants had to stand on a force platform in four postural conditions (A: EO/firm, B: EC/firm, C: EO/Foam, D: EC/Foam) under two auditory conditions, with or without auditory cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000720DOI Listing

The Use of Static and Dynamic Cues for Vowel Identification by Children Wearing Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants.

Ear Hear 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Audiology and Speech Pathology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

Objective: To examine vowel perception based on dynamic formant transition and/or static formant pattern cues in children with hearing loss while using their hearing aids or cochlear implants. We predicted that the sensorineural hearing loss would degrade formant transitions more than static formant patterns, and that shortening the duration of cues would cause more difficulty for vowel identification for these children than for their normal-hearing peers.

Design: A repeated-measures, between-group design was used. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00003446-900000000-9881
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000735DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Understanding Variability in Individual Response to Hearing Aid Signal Processing in Wearable Hearing Aids.

Ear Hear 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.

Objectives: Previous work has suggested that individual characteristics, including amount of hearing loss, age, and working memory ability, may affect response to hearing aid signal processing. The present study aims to extend work using metrics to quantify cumulative signal modifications under simulated conditions to real hearing aids worn in everyday listening environments. Specifically, the goal was to determine whether individual factors such as working memory, age, and degree of hearing loss play a role in explaining how listeners respond to signal modifications caused by signal processing in real hearing aids, worn in the listener's everyday environment, over a period of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000717DOI Listing

Motivating HIV Providers in Vietnam to Learn: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of a Mobile Health Continuing Medical Education Intervention.

JMIR Med Educ 2019 Apr 18;5(1):e12058. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: The Mobile Continuing Medical Education Project (mCME V.2.0) was a randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a text messaging (short message service [SMS])-based distance learning program in Vietnam that included daily quiz questions, links to readings and online courses, and performance feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12058DOI Listing

Implementing Web-Based Interventions in HIV Primary Care Clinics: Pilot Implementation Evaluation of Positive Health Check.

JMIR Form Res 2019 Apr 18;3(2):e10688. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Center for Communication Science, RTI International, Durham, NC, United States.

Background: Web-based interventions can help people living with HIV achieve better clinical outcomes and behaviors, but integrating them into clinical practice remains challenging. There is a gap in understanding the feasibility of implementing these interventions in HIV clinic settings from the clinicians' perspective.

Objective: The goal of the research was to determine whether Positive Health Check (PHC)-a Web-based, tailored video counseling tool focused on increasing patient adherence and retention in care and reducing HIV risk among HIV-positive patients-was acceptable, appropriate, and feasible for HIV primary care clinic staff to implement in clinic workflows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10688DOI Listing

Bisexual Lives and Aging in Context: A Cross-National Comparison of the United Kingdom and the United States.

Int J Aging Hum Dev 2019 Apr 18:91415019843661. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

2 The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.

Research on bisexual histories and identities in later life is limited and reflects only single-nation studies. This article compares findings from two independently conducted studies of bisexual aging, in the United Kingdom and the United States, using a discourse analytic and life course perspective. The goals were to compare how participants narrated and made sense of their bisexual experiences in later life and to examine ways in which historical and cultural contexts shaped their accounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091415019843661DOI Listing

The Effect of Hormonal Contraception on Cervico-Vaginal Mucosal Endpoints associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Eastern Virginia Medical School, 6040, OB/GYN - CONRAD , 1911 N Fort Myer Dr , Arlington, Virginia, United States , 22209 ;

Objective: Reproductive age women may choose to concurrently use topical anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and hormonal contraceptives (HC) to simultaneously prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and unintended/mistimed pregnancy. There are conflicting data on the effect of HCs on mucosal susceptibility to HIV-1. The objective of this study was to evaluate cervico-vaginal (CV) mucosal data from healthy women before and after initiation of either oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0298DOI Listing

Female Sex Workers' Experiences Selling Sex during Pregnancy and Post-Delivery in South Africa.

Stud Fam Plann 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nearly 75 percent of female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Elizabeth, South Africa are mothers, many of whom engage in sex work during pregnancy or after delivery. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 postpartum and 8 pregnant FSWs in Port Elizabeth. Interview guides were used to probe women's experiences, challenges, and concerns about selling sex during pregnancy and post-delivery in a high-HIV-prevalence context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sifp.12090DOI Listing

Health Education Training Embedded in a Microfinance Platform Associated with Safer Sexual Behavior in Haitian Women.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Fonkoze Foundation, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Sexual health education interventions have generally yielded modest impact, but may be more successful when integrated into programs designed to alleviate poverty and empower women. Between December 2017 and February 2018, we interviewed 304 Haitian female microfinance clients, 75 of whom had received health education training delivered within their regular meetings. Participants reported six key sexual health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02511-xDOI Listing

Timeliness of HIV Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation in the Era of Universal Test and Treat.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health (ISPH), City University of New York (CUNY); New York City, New York USA.

Background: We describe the timing of HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation following implementation of universal test and treatment policies in New York City (NYC).

Methods: Using NYC population-based HIV Registry data for persons diagnosed from 2012 through 2015 and followed through June 2017, we examined trends in the proportion diagnosed early following HIV infection (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz148DOI Listing

'Management of a spoiled identity': systematic review of interventions to address self-stigma among people living with and affected by HIV.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 19;4(2):e001285. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Frontline AIDS, Brighton, UK.

Background: Self-stigma, also known as internalised stigma, is a global public health threat because it keeps people from accessing HIV and other health services. By hampering HIV testing, treatment and prevention, self-stigma can compromise the sustainability of health interventions and have serious epidemiological consequences. This review synthesised existing evidence of interventions aiming to reduce self-stigma experienced by people living with HIV and key populations affected by HIV in low-income and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441299PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Synthesis and Evaluation of Bifunctional Aminothiazoles as Antiretrovirals Targeting the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Apr 7;10(4):463-468. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, "Department of Excellence 2018-2022", University of Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Small molecule inhibitors of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) are considered as promising agents in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. In an effort to exploit the privileged 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole moiety in NC inhibition, here we conceived, synthesized, and tested 18 NC inhibitors (NCIs) bearing a double functionalization. In these NCIs, one part of the molecule is deputed to interact noncovalently with the NC hydrophobic pocket, while the second portion is designed to interact with the N-terminal domain of NC. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00506
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466545PMC
April 2019
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Limb linkage rehabilitation training-related changes in cortical activation and effective connectivity after stroke: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6226. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing, 100176, China.

Stroke remains the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. Rehabilitation training is essential for motor function recovery following stroke. Specifically, limb linkage rehabilitation training can stimulate motor function in the upper and lower limbs simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42674-0DOI Listing

Identification of rare HIV-1-infected patients with extreme CD4+ T cell decline despite ART-mediated viral suppression.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 18;4(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, HIV Pathogenesis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress HIV-1 replication and reconstitute CD4+ T cells. Here, we report on HIV-infected individuals who had a paradoxical decline in CD4+ T cells despite ART-mediated suppression of plasma HIV-1 load (pVL). We defined such an immunological outcome as extreme immune decline (EXID). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127113DOI Listing

Chronic cough and cystic lung disease caused by in a patient with AIDS.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 16;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

A 24-year-old man with a history of HIV and large B cell lymphoma (currently in remission) presented with fever, dry cough and dizziness. His CD4+ count was undetectable, and the HIV viral load was 109 295 cop/mL. Physical examination revealed fever, hypotension and tachycardia with coarse breath sounds in the middle and lower chest zones bilaterally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228741DOI Listing

Comparative Assessment of the Magnitude of Hyperlipidemia in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Lopinavir/r- and Atazanavir/r-Based Antiretroviral Drugs.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2019 Jan-Dec;18:2325958219841908

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Objective: To assess prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients receiving lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r) and atazanavir boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) antiretroviral drugs.

Methods: HIV-infected patients (300) were recruited in the study between December 2015 and April 2016. Lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325958219841908DOI Listing

Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Subtype G in the Russian Federation.

Viruses 2019 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, 111123 Moscow, Russia.

Although HIV-1 subtype A has predominated in Russia since the end of the 20th century, other viral variants also circulate in this country. The dramatic outbreak of HIV-1 subtype G in 1988-1990 represents the origin of this variant spreading in Russia. However, full genome sequencing of the nosocomial viral variant and an analysis of the current circulating variants have not been conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040348DOI Listing

Effects of Helminth Eradication on the Immune System.

Pathog Immun 2017 10;2(2):293-307. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Kaplan Medical Center, Ben-Ari Institute of Clinical Immunology and AIDS Center, Rehovot, Israel.

Introduction: Helminth infection has a profound effect on the immune system. However, the precise nature of the immune changes that are elicited by helminth infection have not been sufficiently characterized. Furthermore, the reversibility of these changes after treatment has not been documented sufficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20411/pai.v2i2.205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423624PMC

Nonhuman Primates and Humanized Mice for Studies of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: A Review.

Pathog Immun 2016 31;1(1):41-67. Epub 2016 May 31.

McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Since the discovery of the first inhibitors of HIV replication, drug resistance has been a major problem in HIV therapy due in part to the high mutation rate of HIV. Therefore, the development of a predictive animal model is important to identify impending resistance mutations and to possibly inform treatment decisions. Significant advances have been made possible through use of nonhuman primates infected by SIV, SHIV, and simian-tropic HIV-1 (stHIV-1), and use of humanized mouse models of HIV-1 infections. Read More

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https://paijournal.com/index.php/paijournal/article/view/104
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20411/pai.v1i1.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423640PMC
May 2016
1 Read

Assessing HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Awareness and Attitudes among Senior High School Students in Kuwait.

Med Princ Pract 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Objectives: An estimated 1.8 million individuals worldwide became newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2016, which amounts to 5,000 new infections per day. This includes 160,000 children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500307DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of the impact of antimicrobial hand towels on hand contamination with Escherichia coli among mothers in Kisumu County, Kenya, 2011-2012.

Water Res 2019 Mar 29;157:564-571. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Poor hand hygiene contributes to diarrhea in developing countries. Handwashing with soap reduces diarrhea risk, but drying hands on contaminated towels can compromise the benefits of handwashing. In response to the challenge of keeping hands clean, an antimicrobial hand towel was developed and shown to be promising in the laboratory, but has not been adequately tested in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.085DOI Listing

Clinical and epidemiology evaluation of Aids-infected patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016 in the Santos region of Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Apr 11;52:e20180126. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departamento de Infectologia, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santos, Santos, Brasil.

Introduction: We assessed the clinical-epidemiological profile of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the Santos region (São Paulo state) with the highest AIDS prevalence in Brazil.

Methods: Information was extracted from records of 409 AIDS-infected patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016.

Results: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was diagnosed in 24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0126-2018DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal patterns of AIDS incidence among adults in São Paulo, Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Apr 11;52:e20180020. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: AIDS remains a major public health concern in Brazil.

Methods: This study investigated spatiotemporal patterns of reported AIDS cases among adults in São Paulo between 2000 and 2016, and their associations with human development index.

Results: In the early 20th century, the more developed administrative districts (ADs) indicated higher AIDS incidences among men. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0020-2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Stigma and discrimination related to gender identity and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among transgender women: a systematic review.

Cad Saude Publica 2019 8;35(4):e00112718. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil.

HIV prevalence among transgender women is disproportional when compared to the general population in various countries. Stigma and discrimination based on gender identity have frequently been associated with vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The objective was to conduct a systematic literature review to analyze the relationship between stigma and discrimination related to gender identity in transgender women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00112718DOI Listing

Experiences of transgender women/transvestites with access to health services: progress, limits, and tensions.

Cad Saude Publica 2019 8;35(4):e00111318. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de de Janeiro, Brasil.

Given both the changes in sexual customs, norms and policies and the persistent patterns in Brazil, the article analyzes the experiences of transgender women/transvestites with access to health services and discusses sexual/gender discrimination and their demands for gender transition and AIDS prevention services. The study involved interviews with nine transgender women/transvestites 23-45 years of age from low-income strata in the Baixada Fluminense region of Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2016 and observation of contexts of prostitution and sociability. Compared to the violence experienced years previously, the narratives of transgender women/transvestites highlight important social strides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00111318DOI Listing

Decision Aids Are a Solution, but to Which Problem?

Anesth Analg 2019 May;128(5):837-838

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003974DOI Listing

Coevolution of HIV-1 and broadly neutralizing antibodies.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, Immunology and Microbiology Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Exploring the molecular details of the coevolution of HIV-1 Envelope with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in infected individuals over time provides insights for vaccine design. Since mid-2017, the number of individuals described in such publications has nearly tripled. New publications have extended such studies to new epitopes on Env and provided more detail on previously known sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000550DOI Listing
April 2019
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Presentation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers on diverse nanoparticle platforms.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: We will discuss recent advances in the development of nanoparticle vaccines presenting HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccines and the immunological mechanisms by which they act.

Recent Findings: The multivalent presentation of Env trimers on nanoparticles is a promising strategy to increase Env immunogenicity. Recent studies have shed light on how Env nanoparticles increase lymph node trafficking and germinal center formation by using the lectin-mediated complement pathway and enhancing the interaction with naïve B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000549DOI Listing
April 2019
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Germinal centers B-cell reaction and T follicular helper cells in response to HIV-1 infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Sorbonne Université, Inserm, CNRS, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses Cimi-Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to summarize the recent findings on germinal center B-cell reaction and Tfh cells in HIV-1 infection, with particular emphasis on the spatial organization of the germinal center, follicular cell regulation, and cellular alterations resulting from HIV infection.

Recent Findings: HIV-specific bNAbs are generated by iterative cycles of B-cell maturation supported by GC environment. Recent observations underline that germinal center structural alterations at the earliest stages of HIV infection could impact Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell homeostasis, thus preventing the rise of efficient humoral immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000557DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Vaccine-induced V1V2-specific antibodies control and or protect against infection with HIV, SIV and SHIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Purpose Of Review: In humans, only one independent immunologic correlate of reduced risk of HIV infection has been identified: a robust antibody (Ab) response to the V1V2 domain of the gp120 envelope (Env) protein. In recent years, the presence and level of V1V2-specific Abs has also been correlated with protection from SIV and SHIV infections. Here, we review the multitude of studies showing the in-vivo protective effects of V1V2 Abs and review their immunologic characteristics and antiviral functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000551DOI Listing

Experiences of HIV-infected adults and healthcare providers with healthcare delivery practices that influence engagement in US primary healthcare settings: a qualitative systematic review.

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Nursing, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, USA.

Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major public health problem that has claimed the lives of more than 34 million people worldwide. The health of people living with HIV (PLWH) is optimized by ongoing engagement in HIV care, yet many people living with HIV either do not enter or fall out of care. Access to care and ongoing engagement in care for antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence and psychoeducational support are critical to achieving the desired outcomes of reducing the risk of further HIV transmission and HIV related morbidity and mortality, and managing other commonly co-occurring health, social and behavioral conditions, thereby maximizing wellness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003756DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Estimation of the Population Size of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Vietnam: Social App Multiplier Method.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2019 Apr 17;5(2):e12451. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Although the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam has been increasing in recent years, there are no estimates of the population size of MSM based on tested empirical methods.

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the size of the MSM population in 12 provinces in Vietnam and extrapolate from those areas to generate a national population estimate of MSM. A secondary aim of this study was to compare the feasibility of obtaining the number of users of a mobile social (chat and dating) app for MSM using 3 different approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12451DOI Listing

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0171DOI Listing

The Ethics of Breastfeeding by Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Concrete Proposal for Reforming Department of Health and Human Services Recommendations.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):161-164

Lawrence O. Gostin, J.D., LL.D. (Hon.), is O'Neill Professor of Global Health Law, Director of the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, and Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Public Health Law and Human Rights. President Obama appointed Prof. Gostin to the National Cancer Advisory Board. Matthew M. Kavanagh, Ph.D., is a visiting professor at Georgetown University Law Center and director of the Global Health Policy and Governance Initiative at the O'Neill Institute.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840496DOI Listing
March 2019
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Early outcomes after implementation of treat all in Rwanda: an interrupted time series study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25279

Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Introduction: Nearly all countries in sub-Saharan Africa have adopted policies to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all persons living with HIV (Treat All), though HIV care outcomes of these programmes are not well-described. We estimated changes in ART initiation and retention in care following Treat All implementation in Rwanda in July 2016.

Methods: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis of adults enrolling in HIV care at ten Rwandan health centres from July 2014 to September 2017. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jia2.25279
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25279DOI Listing
April 2019
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Lipidome Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV Infection.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Division of Medical Laboratory Science, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 453 W. 10th Ave. 535A Atwell Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lipid abnormalities that may enhance cardiovascular disease risk (CVD).

Recent Findings: Chronic inflammation persists in HIV+ individuals, and complex relationships exist among lipids and inflammation, as immune activation may be both a cause and a consequence of lipid abnormalities in HIV infection. Advances in mass spectrometry-based techniques now allow for detailed measurements of individual lipid species; improved lipid measurement might better evaluate CVD risk compared with the prognostic value of traditional assessments. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-019-00442-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00442-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Barriers and Facilitators of PrEP Adherence for Young Men and Transgender Women of Color.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Craig A. Dalsimer Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We aimed to discover barriers and facilitators of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in young men and transgender women of color who have sex with men (YMSM/TW). Short-term and sustained adherence were measured by urine tenofovir concentration and pharmacy refills, respectively. Optimal adherence was defined as having both urine tenofovir concentration consistent with dose ingestion within 48 h and pharmacy refills consistent with ≥ 4 doses per week use. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Trauma and Self-Care (CBT-TSC) in Men Who have Sex with Men with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

To address childhood sexual abuse (CSA) related distress and HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM) using cognitive-behavioral therapy for trauma and self-care (CBT-TSC), which is a novel intervention integrating HIV risk reduction with modified cognitive and behavioral therapy strategies for post-traumatic stress. We compared CBT-TSC to HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)-only in an initial 2-arm RCT in 43 HIV-negative MSM at with a history of CSA and HIV risk. Serodiscordant condomless anal/vaginal sex (CAS; CAS with HIV-postive or HIV unknown status partners) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale: total score and avoidance, intrusions, hyperarousal subscales) were outcomes immediately post-treatment, and at 6- and 9-month follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02482-zDOI Listing

Evaluating the Knowledge and Practices of Nurses and Paramedics in Blood Transfusion Services - A survey in the states of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, India.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 15;8:48. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Background: Blood transfusion service is an important part of our healthcare system whose aim is to provide safe, effective blood components for the patient's requirement. The laboratory technicians and nurses working in the blood bank form the core for the effective functioning of blood bank. The study was to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses and paramedics such as laboratory technicians working in blood banks and whether intervention of a training program had any benefit to the participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_293_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432811PMC
February 2019

Changes in patterns of retention in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment in Tanzania between 2008 and 2016: an analysis of routinely collected national programme data.

J Glob Health 2019 Jun;9(1):010424

Strategic Information Unit, National AIDS Control Programme, Dodoma Tanzania.

Background: Tanzania is a high HIV burden country in Sub-Saharan Africa with 1.5 million people infected. Unless monitored and responded to, low levels of retention in care may lead to poor HIV associated clinical outcomes and an increased likelihood of onward viral transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.09.010424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445500PMC

Image-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Intrathoracic Lesions.

J Cytol 2019 Apr-Jun;36(2):106-110

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Percutaneous, image-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (TTFNAC) is a rapid, yet accurate, and well-established diagnostic method used in the cytological evaluation of intrathoracic lesions. The study was done to determine the utility of image-guided TTFNAC in diagnosis of intrathoracic lesions.

Subjects And Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases who underwent image-guided TTFNAC of a suspected intrathoracic lesion, in a tertiary care hospital was done over a period of 3 years. Read More

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http://www.jcytol.org/text.asp?2019/36/2/106/251452
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JOC.JOC_187_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425786PMC
April 2019
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Cystic Fibrosis Rapid Response: Translating Multi-omics Data into Clinically Relevant Information.

MBio 2019 Apr 16;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

Pulmonary exacerbations are the leading cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To track microbial dynamics during acute exacerbations, a CF rapid response (CFRR) strategy was developed. The CFRR relies on viromics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics data to rapidly monitor active members of the viral and microbial community during acute CF exacerbations. Read More

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http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.00431-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00431-19DOI Listing
April 2019
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