928,515 results match your criteria Ai Edam-artificial Intelligence For Engineering Design Analysis And Manufacturing[Journal]


Distinct clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in female COVID-19 inpatients: a sex-stratified large-scale cohort study in Wuhan, China.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Background: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak accelerates worldwide, it is highly significant to evaluate sex-specific clinical characteristics and outcomes, that may affect public health policies.

Methods: COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji Hospital between January 18and March 27, 2020 were evaluated. Clinical features, laboratory data, complications and outcomes were compared between females and males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa920DOI Listing

AI-PLAX: AI-based placental assessment and examination using photos.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2020 Jun 1;84:101744. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PN, USA. Electronic address:

Post-delivery analysis of the placenta is useful for evaluating health risks of both the mother and baby. In the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2020.101744DOI Listing

Application of Artificial Intelligence in COVID-19 drug repurposing.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Jul 3;14(5):1027-1031. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Electronics Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: COVID-19 outbreak has created havoc and a quick cure for the disease will be a therapeutic medicine that has usage history in patients to resolve the current pandemic. With technological advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) coupled with increased computational power, the AI-empowered drug repurposing can prove beneficial in the COVID-19 scenario.

Methods: The recent literature is studied and analyzed from various sources such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and IEEE Xplore databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.068DOI Listing

Results of the surgical management of acute limb ischemia in the nonagenarians.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Service de Chirurgie vasculaire, CHU Besançon, France; EA3920, Université de Franche-Comté, CHU Besançon, France. Electronic address:

Background: The aging of the population leads us to treat older patients, in particular presenting with acute limb ischemia (ALI). However there has been little evaluation of this pathology in the nonagenarians. The objectives of this work were thus to evaluate the one-month and one-year mortality of the nonagenarians treated for ALI, which made possible to determine the one-year survival and to highlight the factors influencing the mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.05.073DOI Listing

Update on therapeutic approaches and emerging therapies for SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Jul 4:173348. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

United States International University-Africa, School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, P. O. Box 14634-00800, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in over 7,273,958 cases with almost over 413,372 deaths worldwide as per the WHO situational report 143 on COVID-19. There are no known treatment regimens with proven efficacy and vaccines thus far, posing an unprecedented challenge to identify effective drugs and vaccines for prevention and treatment. The urgency for its prevention and cure has resulted in an increased number of proposed treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173348DOI Listing

Dual-Motor-Task of Catching and Throwing a Ball During Overground Walking in Virtual Reality.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1661-1667

Virtual Reality is a versatile platform to study human behavior in simulated environments and to develop interventions for functional rehabilitation. In this work, we designed a dual-task paradigm in a virtual environment where both tasks demand motor skills. Twenty-one healthy adults (mean age: 24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2999352DOI Listing

Augmented curation of clinical notes from a massive EHR system reveals symptoms of impending COVID-19 diagnosis.

Elife 2020 Jul 7;9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

R&D, nference, Cambridge, United States.

Understanding temporal dynamics of COVID-19 patient symptoms could provide fine-grained resolution to guide clinical decision-making. Here, we use deep neural networks over an institution-wide platform for the augmented curation of clinical notes from 77,167 patients subjected to COVID-19 PCR testing. By contrasting Electronic Health Record (EHR)-derived symptoms of COVID-19-positive (COVID; n=2,317) versus COVID-19-negative (COVID; n=74,850) patients for the week preceding the PCR testing date, we identify anosmia/dysgeusia (27. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58227DOI Listing

Trends in Indicators of Injection Drug Use, Indian Health Service, 2010-2014: A Study of Health Care Encounter Data.

Public Health Rep 2020 Jul 7:33354920937284. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV transmission in the United States may increase as a result of increasing rates of opioid use disorder (OUD) and associated injection drug use (IDU). Epidemiologic trends among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons are not well known.

Methods: We analyzed 2010-2014 Indian Health Service data on health care encounters to assess regional and temporal trends in IDU indicators among adults aged ≥18 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920937284DOI Listing

Earliest infections predict the age distribution of seasonal influenza A cases.

Elife 2020 Jul 7;9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, United States.

Seasonal variation in the age distribution of influenza A cases suggests that factors other than age shape susceptibility to medically attended infection. We ask whether these differences can be partly explained by protection conferred by childhood influenza infection, which has lasting impacts on immune responses to influenza and protection against new influenza A subtypes (phenomena known as original antigenic sin and immune imprinting). Fitting a statistical model to data from studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE), we find that primary infection appears to reduce the risk of medically attended infection with that subtype throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.50060DOI Listing

Exogenous Adenosine Antagonizes Excitatory Amino Acid Toxicity in Primary Astrocytes.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine & Hunan Engineering Technology Center of Standardization and Function of Chinese Herbal Decoction Pieces, Changsha, 410208, China.

Excitatory toxicity is still a hot topic in the study of ischemic stroke, and related research has focused mainly on neurons. Adenosine is an important neuromodulator that is known as a "biosignature" in the central nervous system (CNS). The protective effect of exogenous adenosine on neurons has been confirmed, but its mechanism remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00876-5DOI Listing

Toward Implementing the ADC Model of Moral Judgment in Autonomous Vehicles.

Sci Eng Ethics 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Science Technology and Society Program, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, NC State University, 453 Withers Hall, 101 Lampe Dr, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

Autonomous vehicles (AVs)-and accidents they are involved in-attest to the urgent need to consider the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI). The question dominating the discussion so far has been whether we want AVs to behave in a 'selfish' or utilitarian manner. Rather than considering modeling self-driving cars on a single moral system like utilitarianism, one possible way to approach programming for AI would be to reflect recent work in neuroethics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-020-00242-0DOI Listing

AI-based investigation of molecular biomarkers of longevity.

Authors:
Ihor Kendiukhov

Biogerontology 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Business and Economics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany.

In this paper, I build deep neural networks of various structures and hyperparameters in order to predict human chronological age based on open-access biochemical indicators and their specifications from the NHANES database. In total, 1152 neural networks are trained and tested. The algorithms are trained and tested on incomplete data: missing values in data records are extrapolated by mean or median values for each parameter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-020-09890-yDOI Listing

Artificial Intelligence and Myocardial Contrast Enhancement Pattern.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2020 Jul 7;22(8):77. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, The 278th Baoguang Avenue, Xindu District, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610500, People's Republic of China.

Purpose Of Review: Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) are two important categories of AI algorithms. Nowadays, AI technology has been gradually applied to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), covering the fields of myocardial contrast enhancement (MCE) pattern and automatic ventricular segmentation. This paper mainly discusses the relationship between machine learning and deep learning based on AI and pattern of MCE in CMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-020-01306-0DOI Listing

Genetic and clinical predictors of arthralgia during letrozole or anastrozole therapy in breast cancer patients.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Female patients with breast cancer frequently develop arthralgia when treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI). Although the mechanism of AI-induced arthralgia is unknown, potential biomarkers have been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic predictors of AI-induced arthralgia in a prospective cohort of patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05777-1DOI Listing

Endocytoscopy: technology and clinical application in the lower GI tract.

Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 5;5:40. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Endocytoscopy (EC) is now one of the valuable technologies in diagnosing colorectal tumors. Providing ultra-high-resolution white light images (520×), endocytoscopy attains the so called virtual histology or optical biopsy, making it a promising tool to diagnose colorectal lesions. Recent studies about artificial intelligence (AI) or computer aided diagnosis (CAD) are also increasingly reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tgh.2019.12.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063490PMC

Artificial intelligence and COVID-19: A multidisciplinary approach.

Integr Med Res 2020 Sep 27;9(3):100434. Epub 2020 May 27.

College of Engineering and Computer Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic is taking a colossal toll in human suffering and lives. A significant amount of new scientific research and data sharing is underway due to the pandemic which is still rapidly spreading. There is now a growing amount of coronavirus related datasets as well as published papers that must be leveraged along with artificial intelligence (AI) to fight this pandemic by driving news approaches to drug discovery, vaccine development, and public awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2020.100434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255319PMC
September 2020

Dynamics in protein translation sustaining T cell preparedness.

Nat Immunol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

In response to pathogenic threats, naive T cells rapidly transition from a quiescent to an activated state, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a pulsed SILAC approach, we investigated the dynamics of mRNA translation kinetics and protein turnover in human naive and activated T cells. Our datasets uncovered that transcription factors maintaining T cell quiescence had constitutively high turnover, which facilitated their depletion following activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0714-5DOI Listing

Collective interactions augment influenza A virus replication in a host-dependent manner.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Infection with a single influenza A virus (IAV) is only rarely sufficient to initiate productive infection. Instead, multiple viral genomes are often required in a given cell. Here, we show that the reliance of IAV on multiple infection can form an important species barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0749-2DOI Listing

Quality of care for Black and Latina women living with HIV in the U.S.: a qualitative study.

Int J Equity Health 2020 Jul 6;19(1):115. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Ending the HIV epidemic requires that women living with HIV (WLWH) have access to structurally competent HIV-related and other health care. WLWH may not regularly engage in care due to inadequate quality; however, women's perspectives on the quality of care they receive are understudied.

Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and three in-depth interviews with Black (90%) and Latina (11%) WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in Atlanta, GA, Birmingham, AL, Brooklyn, NY, Chapel Hill, NC, Chicago, IL, and Jackson, MS from November 2017 to May 2018 (n = 92). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01230-3DOI Listing

Digging for care-seeking behaviour among gold miners in the Guyana hinterland: a qualitative doer non-doer analysis of social and behavioural motivations for malaria testing and treatment.

Malar J 2020 Jul 6;19(1):235. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Although Guyana has made significant progress toward malaria control, limited access to malaria testing and treatment services threatens those gains. Mining activities create breeding environments for mosquitoes, and the migrant and mobile mining populations are hard to reach with information and services. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) has trained volunteers to test and treat malaria cases in remote regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03289-3DOI Listing

Defining symptoms of malaria in India in an era of asymptomatic infections.

Malar J 2020 Jul 6;19(1):237. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in India. Data from surveys totaling 3031 participants at three sites revealed a high proportion of asymptomatic infections, complicating diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify differences in complaints and symptoms between sites, and factors associated with asymptomatic Plasmodium infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03310-9DOI Listing

Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) versus Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) in difficult to wean pediatric ARDS patients: a physiologic crossover study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jul 7;20(1):334. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is an innovative mode for assisted ventilation that improves patient-ventilator interaction in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of patient-ventilator interaction comparing NAVA with pressure support ventilation (PSV) in patients difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation after moderate pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS).

Methods: In this physiological crossover study, 12 patients admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with moderate PARDS failing up to 3 spontaneous breathing trials in less than 7 days, were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02227-1DOI Listing

Clinical outcome of arthroscopic internal drainage of popliteal cysts with or without cyst wall resection.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jul 6;21(1):440. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: This study aimed to compare the arthroscopic internal drainage of popliteal cysts alone or in combination with cyst wall resection in terms of clinical outcomes.

Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients with symptomatic popliteal cysts received arthroscopic treatment. Specifically, 20 of them received arthroscopic internal drainage (AI group) alone and 22 received arthroscopic internal drainage combined with cyst wall resection (AICR group) through double posteromedial portals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03453-5DOI Listing

Recent Advances in the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: To present an up-to-date survey of the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of otorhinolaryngology, with respect to opportunities, research challenges, and research directions.

Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and the Web of Science. We initially retrieved 458 articles; we excluded non-English publications and duplicates, which resulted in a total of 90 remaining studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21053/ceo.2020.00654DOI Listing

Effect of Oral Infection of Mayaro Virus on Fitness Correlates and Expression of Immune Related Genes in .

Viruses 2020 Jul 2;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, 200 9th St. Vero Beach, FL 32962, USA.

Mayaro virus is a mosquito-borne endemic to forests of tropical South America with a sylvatic cycle involving non-human primates and mosquitoes. Human infection with Mayaro virus causes a febrile illness and long-lasting arthralgia and cases are often associated with exposure to tropical forest habitats. Human movement between tropical forest habitats and urban settings may allow for imported cases and subsequent local transmission by domestic mosquito . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070719DOI Listing

The Diversity and Distribution of Viruses Associated with Mosquitoes from the Kimberley Region of Western Australia.

Viruses 2020 Jul 2;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, New York, NY 10034, USA.

Metagenomics revealed an impressive breadth of previously unrecognized viruses. Here, we report the virome of the Skuse mosquito, an important vector of pathogenic arboviruses in Australia. Mosquitoes were collected from three sites in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070717DOI Listing

The Impact of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 on the Sequential Steps of the Metastatic Process.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 25;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 1 via Montpellier, 00133 Rome, Italy.

In industrialized countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease. Most cancer patients die because of metastases, which consist of the self-transplantation of malignant cells in anatomical sites other than the one from where the tumor arose. Disseminated cancer cells retain the phenotypic features of the primary tumor, and display very poor differentiation indices and functional regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124526DOI Listing

An Artificial Intelligence Approach for Italian EVOO Origin Traceability through an Open Source IoT Spectrometer.

Foods 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia Agraria (CREA)-Centro di Ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni Agroalimentari, Via della Pascolare 16, 00015 Monterotondo (Rome), Italy.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents a crucial ingredient of the Mediterranean diet. Being a first-choice product, consumers should be guaranteed its quality and geographical origin, justifying the high purchasing cost. For this reason, it is important to have new reliable tools able to classify products according to their geographical origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9060834DOI Listing

Performance Analysis of Camera-based Object Detection for Automated Vehicles.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;20(13). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Automotive Technology, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany.

For a safe market launch of automated vehicles, the risks of the overall system as well as the sub-components must be efficiently identified and evaluated. This also includes camera-based object detection using artificial intelligence algorithms. It is trivial and explainable that due to the principle of the camera, performance depends highly on the environmental conditions and can be poor, for example in heavy fog. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133699DOI Listing

Chemerin Impairs In Vitro Testosterone Production, Sperm Motility, and Fertility in Chicken: Possible Involvement of Its Receptor CMKLR1.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

INRA UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, France CNRS UMR7247 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, France Université François Rabelais de Tours F-37041 Tours, IFCE F-37380 Nouzilly, France.

The chemokine chemerin is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of energy metabolism but also female reproductive functions in mammals. Its effects on male fertility are less studied. Here, we investigated the involvement of chemerin in chicken male reproduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071599DOI Listing

Fungal Metabolite Asperaculane B Inhibits Malaria Infection and Transmission.

Molecules 2020 Jul 1;25(13). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Biomolecular Sciences Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

Mosquito-transmitted parasites cause millions of people worldwide to suffer malaria every year. Drug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes make malaria hard to control. Thus, the next generation of antimalarial drugs that inhibit malaria infection and transmission are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133018DOI Listing

The Role of the Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Locus in Latency and Reactivation.

Viruses 2020 Jul 1;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency, the means by which the virus persists indefinitely in an infected individual, is a major frontier of current research efforts in the field. Towards developing a comprehensive understanding of HCMV latency and its reactivation from latency, viral determinants of latency and reactivation and their host interactions that govern the latent state and reactivation from latency have been identified. The polycistronic locus encodes determinants of both latency and reactivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070714DOI Listing

Comparison of Aquatic Therapy vs. Dry Land Therapy to Improve Mobility of Chronic Stroke Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jul 1;17(13). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Medicine, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain.

One of the most serious and disabling problems of stroke is pain and a decrease in balance, with the consequent increased risk of falls. The aim of the randomized controlled trial study was to compare the efficacy of three different treatment proposals to improve pain, gait, and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty patients diagnosed with stroke were divided into three groups: the dry-land therapy group (control group) received sessions that included walking exercises and trunk mobility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134728DOI Listing

Sleep Duration, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance: Potential Role of Lipoprotein(a).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 30;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St Petersburg 197341, Russia.

Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is considered a genetic factor for cardiovascular disease playing an important role in atherogenesis and thrombosis, but the evidence about its association with sleep duration is controversial. We evaluated the relation between self-reported sleep duration and Lp(a). Among 1600 participants of the population-based sample, we selected 1427 subjects without previously known cardiovascular events, who answered the questions about their sleep duration; had valid lipid profile results (total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoproteins, Lp(a), apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), ApoB, and ApoB/ApoAI); and did not take lipid-lowering drugs (mean age 46 ± 12 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134680DOI Listing

Vimentin as a Multifaceted Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Viral Infections.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 30;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein that plays key roles in integration of cytoskeletal functions, and therefore in basic cellular processes such as cell division and migration. Consequently, vimentin has complex implications in pathophysiology. Vimentin is required for a proper immune response, but it can also act as an autoantigen in autoimmune diseases or as a damage signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134675DOI Listing

HIV-1 Persistence and Chronic Induction of Innate Immune Responses in Macrophages.

Viruses 2020 Jun 30;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E. Concord St., R512, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is chronic inflammation, which plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis. Acute HIV infection induces robust inflammatory responses, which are insufficient to prevent or eliminate virus in mucosal tissues. While establishment of viral set-point is coincident with downregulation of acute innate responses, systemic inflammatory responses persist during the course of chronic HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070711DOI Listing

Global Analysis of Small Non-Coding RNA Populations across Tissues in the Malaria Vector, .

Insects 2020 Jun 30;11(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biology and Geology, University of South Carolina-Aiken, Aiken, SC 29801, USA.

Malaria is a major global health problem, where the anautogenous female mosquito serves as a major vector. In order to combat this devastating disease, understanding mosquito physiology is paramount. Numerous studies in the vector field demonstrate that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play essential roles in numerous aspects of mosquito physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11070406DOI Listing

Chasing the Apomictic Factors in the Complex: Exploring Gene Expression Patterns in Microdissected Sexual and Apomictic Ovules.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;11(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), D-06466 Gatersleben, Germany.

Apomixis, the asexual reproduction via seeds, is associated to polyploidy and hybridization. To identify possible signatures of apomixis, and possible candidate genes underlying the shift from sex to apomixis, microarray-based gene expression patterns of live microdissected ovules at four different developmental stages were compared between apomictic and sexual individuals of the complex. Following predictions from previous work on mechanisms underlying apomixis penetrance and expressivity in the genus, gene expression patterns were classified into three categories based on their relative expression in apomicts compared to their sexual parental ancestors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11070728DOI Listing

Duration of Cellular and Humoral Responses after Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Healthy Female Adults with or without Prior Type 16 and/or 18 Exposure.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;8(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 500 Irvin Court Suite 200, Decatur, GA 30030, USA.

Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines aim to provide durable protection and are ideal to study the association of cellular with humoral responses. We assessed the duration and characteristics of immune responses provided by the quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine in healthy female adults with or without prior exposure with type 16 and 18 HPV. In a prospective cohort, vaccine naïve females received three doses of 4vHPV vaccine and were followed for two years to assess cellular (intracellular cytokine staining, proliferation and B cell ELISpot assays) and humoral (multiplex L1/L2 viral-like particles (VLP) and M4 ELISAs) responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030348DOI Listing

Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) Complex Proteins Facilitate Orthopoxvirus Entry, Fusion and Spread.

Viruses 2020 Jun 30;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 3033, USA.

Although orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are known to encode a majority of the genes required for replication in host cells, genome-wide genetic screens have revealed that several host pathways are indispensable for OPXV infection. Through a haploid genetic screen, we previously identified several host genes required for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection, including the individual genes that form the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. The COG complex is an eight-protein (COG1-COG8) vesicle tethering complex important for regulating membrane trafficking, glycosylation enzymes, and maintaining Golgi structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070707DOI Listing

Serum Metabolomic Alterations Associated with Cesium-137 Internal Emitter Delivered in Various Dose Rates.

Metabolites 2020 Jun 30;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Our laboratory and others have use radiation metabolomics to assess responses in order to develop biomarkers reflecting exposure and level of injury. To expand the types of exposure and compare to previously published results, metabolomic analysis has been carried out using serum samples from mice exposed to Cs internal emitters. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with CsCl solutions of varying radioactivity, and the absorbed doses were calculated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10070270DOI Listing

Effect of Sporulation Conditions Following Submerged Cultivation on the Resistance of Spores against Inactivation by HO.

Molecules 2020 Jun 30;25(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Chair of Food and Bioprocess Engineering, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany.

The resistance formation of spores in general and of in particular has long been the focus of science in the bio-defense, pharmaceutical and food industries. In the food industry, it is used as a biological indicator (BI) for the evaluation of the inactivation effects of hydrogen peroxide in processing and end packaging lines' sterilization. Defined BI resistances are critical to avoid false positive and negative tests, which are salient problems due to the variable resistance of currently available commercial BIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132985DOI Listing

A deep learning-based automated diagnostic system for classifying mammographic lesions.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(27):e20977

Division of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Screening mammography has led to reduced breast cancer-specific mortality and is recommended worldwide. However, the resultant doctors' workload of reading mammographic scans needs to be addressed. Although computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed to support readers, the findings are conflicting regarding whether traditional CAD systems improve reading performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020977DOI Listing

Near-Infrared Manipulation of Membrane Ion Channels via Upconversion Optogenetics.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jan 2;3(1):e1800233. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371, Singapore.

Membrane ion channels are ultimately responsible for the propagation and integration of electrical signals in the nervous, muscular, and other systems. Their activation or malfunctioning plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Using optogenetics to dynamically and spatiotemporally control ion channels has recently attracted considerable attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800233DOI Listing
January 2019

Avian influenza overview May - August 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Sep 27;16(9):e05430. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Between 16 May and 15 August 2018, three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry establishments and three HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks in wild birds were reported in Europe. Three low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) outbreaks were reported in three Member States. Few HPAI and LPAI bird cases have been detected in this period of the year, in accordance with the seasonal expected pattern of LPAI and HPAI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009402PMC
September 2018

Avian influenza overview August - November 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Dec 20;16(12):e05573. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Between 16 August and 15 November 2018, 14 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry establishments in Bulgaria and seven HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks, one in captive birds in Germany and six in wild birds in Denmark and the Netherlands were reported in the European Union (EU). No human infection due to HPAI A(H5N8) and A(H5N6) viruses have been reported in Europe so far. Seroconversion of people exposed during outbreaks in Russia has been reported in one study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009621PMC
December 2018

Reporting Avian Influenza surveillance.

EFSA J 2018 Nov 29;16(11):e05493. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Avian influenza viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds as well as humans. In poultry, depending on whether these viruses are of high pathogenicity (HPAI) or low pathogenicity (LPAI), the infection can cause different clinical signs, with HPAI causing high mortality in poultry flocks. In order to ensure early detection of avian influenza viruses, surveillance in poultry and wild birds is considered essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009584PMC
November 2018

Pest categorisation of .

EFSA J 2018 Jan 18;16(1):e05102. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of   (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) the Guatemalan potato tuber moth, for the EU. is a well-defined species which feeds exclusively on . It was first described from Costa Rica in 1973 and has spread through Central America and into northern South America via trade of seed potatoes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009430PMC
January 2018

Dietary reference values for vitamin K.

EFSA J 2017 May 22;15(5):e04780. Epub 2017 May 22.

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010012PMC

Avian influenza overview September - November 2017.

EFSA J 2017 Dec 22;15(12):e05141. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Between 1 September and 15 November 2017, 48 A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry holdings and 9 H5 HPAI wild bird events were reported within Europe. A second epidemic HPAI A(H5N8) wave started in Italy on the third week of July and is still ongoing on 15 November 2017. The Italian epidemiological investigations indicated that sharing of vehicles, sharing of personnel and close proximity to infected holdings are the more likely sources of secondary spread in a densely populated poultry area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010192PMC
December 2017
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