1,021,003 results match your criteria Ai Communications[Journal]


Correlation of von Willebrand factor and platelets with acute ischemic stroke etiology and revascularization outcome: an immunohistochemical study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are key components of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) emboli. We aimed to investigate the CD42b (platelets)/vWF expression, its association with stroke etiology and the impact these components may have on the clinical/procedural parameters.

Methods: CD42b/vWF immunostaining was performed on 288 emboli collected as part of the multicenter STRIP Registry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Topography regulates the responses of water partitioning to climate and vegetation seasonality.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 17:156028. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center for Water Resources and Environment, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

This study investigates the relationships between water partitioning, climate and vegetation dynamics, and their influencing factors, using a method combining scenario analysis and a modified Choudhury's formula that considers climate and vegetation seasonality. Comparing the results in ten major catchments in southwestern China with similar climate and vegetation but drastically different topography, shows that the climate and vegetation seasonality jointly control the variance in the catchment parameter n of the Choudhury's formula (R = 0.81 ± 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antibody evasion of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 sub-lineages.

Cell Host Microbe 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages-BA.1, BA.1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genuine lethal infection of a wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) with high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b, in Germany, 2022.

Vet Microbiol 2022 May 13;270:109461. Epub 2022 May 13.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Despite the increasing frequency of avian influenza (AI) cases in wild birds in Europe during the last decade, doves and pigeons were not recognized to be part of the AI epidemiology. Here we describe a natural, lethal HPAIV infection of subtype H5N1, clade 2.3. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Patients and Nontransplant Patients With Aggressive Lymphoma: A Prospective Cohort Analysis.

JCO Oncol Pract 2022 May 20:OP2100694. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: This study assessed the long-term quality of life (QOL) of patients with aggressive lymphoma subtypes treated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) compared with those without history of transplant.

Methods: Patient-reported QOL measures were prospectively gathered from patients enrolled in the Iowa/Mayo Specialized Program of Research Excellence Molecular Epidemiology Resource cohort with aggressive lymphoma subtypes. QOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Profile of Mood States instruments and with a numeric rating scale for overall QOL and spiritual QOL. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Advanced molecular approaches in male infertility diagnosis.

Biol Reprod 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

"CI Parhon" National Institute of Endocrinology, Bucharest, Romania.

In the recent years a special attention has been given to a major health concern namely to male infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse, taken into account the statistics that highlight that sperm counts have dropped by 50-60% in recent decades. According to the WHO, infertility affects approximately 9% of couples globally, and the male factor is believed to be present in roughly 50% of cases, with exclusive responsibility in 30%. The aim of this manuscript is to present an evidence-based approach for diagnosing male infertility that includes finding new solutions for diagnosis and critical outcomes, retrieving up-to-date studies and existing guidelines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influenza chimeric hemagglutinin structures in complex with broadly protective antibodies to the stem and trimer interface.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 20;119(21):e2200821119. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.

SignificanceSequential vaccination with chimeric hemagglutinins (cHAs) that contain the same stem, but different head domains, can direct the antibody immune response to the conserved stem region. Structural information on cHAs is limited to one example containing a group 1 stem. Here, X-ray and electron microscopy structures revealed that cHAs cH4/3 and cH15/3, which contain a group 2 stem, with broadly protective stem antibody 31. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MERS-CoV endoribonuclease and accessory proteins jointly evade host innate immunity during infection of lung and nasal epithelial cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 20;119(21):e2123208119. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

SignificanceMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes highly lethal respiratory disease. MERS-CoV encodes innate immune antagonists, including accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b, unique to the merbeco lineage of betacoronaviruses, and the nsp15 protein endoribonuclease (EndoU), conserved among all coronaviruses. While mutation of each antagonist protein alone has little effect on innate immunity, infections with recombinant MERS-CoVs with mutations of EndoU in combination with either NS4a or NS4b activate innate signaling pathways and are attenuated for replication. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between mobility and road traffic injuries during COVID-19 pandemic-The role of attendant factors.

PLoS One 2022 20;17(5):e0268190. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India.

This study investigates the important role of attendant factors, such as road traffic victims' access to trauma centres, the robustness of health infrastructure, and the responsiveness of police and emergency services in the incidence of Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) during the pandemic-induced COVID-19 lockdowns. The differential effects of the first and second waves of the pandemic concerning perceived health risk and legal restrictions provide us with a natural experiment that helps us differentiate between the impact of attendant factors and the standard relationship between mobility and Road Traffic Injuries. The authors use the auto-regressive recurrent neural network method on two population levels-Tamil Nadu (TN), a predominantly rural state, and Chennai, the most significant metropolitan city of the state, to draw causal inference through counterfactual predictions on daily counts of road traffic deaths and Road Traffic Injuries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Machine Learning Hidden Symmetries.

Phys Rev Lett 2022 May;128(18):180201

Department of Physics, Institute for AI and Fundamental Interactions, and Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

We present an automated method for finding hidden symmetries, defined as symmetries that become manifest only in a new coordinate system that must be discovered. Its core idea is to quantify asymmetry as violation of certain partial differential equations, and to numerically minimize such violation over the space of all invertible transformations, parametrized as invertible neural networks. For example, our method rediscovers the famous Gullstrand-Painlevé metric that manifests hidden translational symmetry in the Schwarzschild metric of nonrotating black holes, as well as Hamiltonicity, modularity, and other simplifying traits not traditionally viewed as symmetries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

5G, Big Data, and AI for Smart City and Prevention of Virus Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:189-214

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

With the development of urbanization, artificial intelligence, communication technology, and the Internet of Things, cities have evolved a new ecology from traditional city structures, that is, smart city. Combining 5G and big data, the applications of smart cities have been extended to every aspect of residents' lives. Based on the popularization of communication equipment and sensors, the great improvement in data transmission and processing technology, the production efficiency in medical field, industrial field, and security field has been improved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Predicting the Disease Severity of Virus Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:111-139

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented burden on global health and economic systems, promoting worldwide efforts to understand, control, and fight the disease. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical severity, effective risk factors, biomarkers, and models for predicting disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients are urgently needed to provide guidance for clinical intervention and management. In this chapter, we first describe the infection features of different COVID-19 strains and the potential of clinical features, cytokine storm and biomarkers in predicting the severity of COVID-19 patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Databases, Knowledgebases, and Software Tools for Virus Informatics.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:1-19

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Virus infection is a common social health issue. In the past decades, serious virus infectious events have caused great loss in people's life and the economics. The nature of rapid widespread and frequent variation increases the difficulty for precision viral prevention and treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

AI-based optimization for US-guided radiation therapy of the prostate.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Institute of Medical Technology and Intelligent Systems, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: Fast volumetric ultrasound presents an interesting modality for continuous and real-time intra-fractional target tracking in radiation therapy of lesions in the abdomen. However, the placement of the ultrasound probe close to the target structures leads to blocking some beam directions.

Methods: To handle the combinatorial complexity of searching for the ultrasound-robot pose and the subset of optimal treatment beams, we combine CNN-based candidate beam selection with simulated annealing for setup optimization of the ultrasound robot, and linear optimization for treatment plan optimization into an AI-based approach. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Artificial intelligence-based PET denoising could allow a two-fold reduction in [F]FDG PET acquisition time in digital PET/CT.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Baclesse Cancer Center, 3 Avenue Général Harris, 14076, Caen, France.

Purpose: We investigated whether artificial intelligence (AI)-based denoising halves PET acquisition time in digital PET/CT.

Methods: One hundred ninety-five patients referred for [F]FDG PET/CT were prospectively included. Body PET acquisitions were performed in list mode. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating the Components of Virtual Emergency Department.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 May;291:118-130

Computer Architecture & Operating System, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.

The prediction of the demography of Spain shows that Spain will experience an aging population soon. Aging is a condition of chronic disease resulting in overcrowding Emergency Department. Despite chronic diseases, Covid-19 became a serious issue for emergency Department staff and health care providers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Towards the Application of Machine Learning in Emergency Informatics.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 May;291:3-16

Peter L. Reichertz Institute for Medical Informatics of TU Braunschweig and Hannover Medical School, Braunschweig, Germany.

Emergency care is one of the cornerstone parts of the world health organization's action plan. Rapid response and immediate care are considered in agile emergency care. Artificial intelligence (AI) and informatics have been applied to fulfill these requirements through automated emergency technology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

WhyD tailors surface polymers to prevent premature bacteriolysis and direct cell elongation in .

Elife 2022 May 20;11. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.

Penicillin and related antibiotics disrupt cell wall synthesis in bacteria causing the downstream misactivation of cell wall hydrolases called autolysins to induce cell lysis. Despite the clinical importance of this phenomenon, little is known about the factors that control autolysins and how penicillins subvert this regulation to kill cells. In the pathogen (), LytA is the major autolysin responsible for penicillin-induced bacteriolysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-obesity effects of fucoidan in high-fat diet-fed mice vary with the gut microbiota structure.

Food Funct 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China.

Previous studies have indicated that fucoidan could resist high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulating the composition of gut microbiota. However, the outcome of dietary intervention may differ between individuals due to large inter-individual variability in gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the possible discrepancy of the anti-obesity effects of fucoidan supplementation in HFD-fed mice models with different gut microbiota communities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Forward single-cell sequencing into clinical application: Understanding of ageing and rejuvenation from clinical observation to single-cell solution.

Clin Transl Med 2022 May;12(5):e827

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Promoting the Importance of Recall Visits Among Dental Patients in India Using a Semi-Autonomous AI System.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 May;293:85-92

Dept. of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

In many developing countries like India, there is a widespread lack of general awareness about the importance of good oral health, which causes dental patients to neglect their oral hygiene, thus precipitating many long-term ailments. We developed an application that promotes the significance of regular dental checkups and oral health care by explaining to patients how these are intrinsic to overall health. Our application, in essence, extracts relevant health information from published scientific studies according to a patient's medical history and shares it with the patient at the discretion of the supervising dentist, thereby empowering patients to make more informed decisions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling Medical Guidelines by Prova and SHACL Accessing FHIR/RDF. Use Case: The Medical ABCDE Approach.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 May;293:59-66

Fraunhofer FOKUS, Berlin, Germany.

Decision-making based on so-called medical guidelines supported by semantic AI solutions is an essential and significant task for medical personnel in both a pre-clinical setting and an inner-clinical environment. Semantic representations of medical guidelines and Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) using Semantic Web technologies, i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Term Medical Resource Consumption of Radical Prostatectomy vs. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Old Patients With Prostate Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 3;9:843709. Epub 2022 May 3.

International Ph.D. Program in Biotech and Healthcare Management, School of Health Care Administration, College of Management, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: Few studies have compared the long-term medical resource consumption between radical prostatectomy (RP) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) among old (≥80 years) patients with localized prostate cancer (LPC), particularly in those at high risk of prostate adenocarcinoma.

Patients And Methods: The propensity score matching was conducted to investigate the medical expenditure of two therapeutic modalities (RP and IMRT) in elderly patients with high-risk LPC (HR-LPC). The generalized linear mixed and logistic regression models were employed to evaluate the number of postdischarge visits and medical reimbursement for urinary diseases or complications and the number of hospitalizations for treatment-related complications over 5 years after treatment, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Homologous or heterogenous vaccination boosters enhance neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant.

MedComm (2020) 2022 Jun 11;3(2):e143. Epub 2022 May 11.

Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center Guangzhou Medical University Guangzhou P. R. China.

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant of concern contains more than 30 mutations in the spike protein, with half of these mutations localized in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Emerging evidence suggests that these large number of mutations impact the neutralizing efficacy of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Communication about Alzheimer's disease and research among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2022 11;8(1):e12302. Epub 2022 May 11.

Institute for Research and Education to Advance Community Health Washington State University Seattle Washington USA.

Introduction: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people infrequently participate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research, despite the rapidly increasing population of AI/AN people aged 65 and older.

Methods: We surveyed 320 adults who identified as AI/AN at two Native-focused events and used ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression models to test associations between demographic factors and perceived risk of AD, knowledge about AD, and willingness to participate in research, along with preferred source of AD information.

Results: Willingness to participate in research was highest among those living in a city versus reservation and associated with perceived personal risk for AD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Study on the Effects of Cognitive Overloading and Distractions on Human Movement During Robot-Assisted Dressing.

Front Robot AI 2022 3;9:815871. Epub 2022 May 3.

School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

For robots that can provide physical assistance, maintaining synchronicity of the robot and human movement is a precursor for interaction safety. Existing research on collaborative HRI does not consider how synchronicity can be affected if humans are subjected to cognitive overloading and distractions during close physical interaction. Cognitive neuroscience has shown that unexpected events during interactions not only affect action cognition but also human motor control Gentsch et al. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Curvilinear Kirigami Skins Let Soft Bending Actuators Slither Faster.

Front Robot AI 2022 3;9:872007. Epub 2022 May 3.

Collaborative Robotics and Intelligent Systems Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

The locomotion of soft snake robots is dependent on frictional interactions with the environment. Frictional anisotropy is a morphological characteristic of snakeskin that allows snakes to engage selectively with surfaces and generate propulsive forces. The prototypical slithering gait of most snakes is lateral undulation, which requires a significant lateral resistance that is lacking in artificial skins of existing soft snake robots. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

On the Impact of Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence on Employers' Flexibility Requirements in Occupations-Empirical Evidence for Germany.

Front Artif Intell 2022 3;5:868789. Epub 2022 May 3.

Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has a high application potential in many areas of the economy, and its use is expected to accelerate strongly in the coming years. This is linked with changes in working conditions that may be substantial and entail serious health risks for employees. With our paper we are the first to conduct an empirical analysis of employers' increasing flexibility requirements in the course of advancing digitalization, based on a representative business survey, the IAB Job Vacancy Survey. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Credit Risk Modeling Using Transfer Learning and Domain Adaptation.

Front Artif Intell 2022 3;5:868232. Epub 2022 May 3.

Rich Data Corporation, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In the domain of credit risk assessment lenders may have limited or no data on the historical lending outcomes of credit applicants. Typically this disproportionately affects Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), for which credit may be restricted or too costly, due to the difficulty of predicting the Probability of Default (PD). However, if data from other related credit risk domains is available may be applied to successfully train models, e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF