923,334 results match your criteria Ai Communications[Journal]


Chemists: AI is here, unite to get the benefits.

J Med Chem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

The latest developments in artificial intelligence(AI) have arrived into an existing state of creative tension between computational and medicinal chemists. At their most productive, medicinal and computational chemists have made significant progress in delivering new therapeutic agents into the clinic. However, the relationship between these communities has the prospect of being weakened by application of over-simplistic AI methods which, if they fail to deliver, will reinforce unproductive prejudices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00163DOI Listing

Structure-based drug repositioning explains ibrutinib as VEGFR2 inhibitor.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(5):e0233089. Epub 2020 May 27.

Biotechnology Center (BIOTEC), Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Many drugs are promiscuous and bind to multiple targets. On the one hand, these targets may be linked to unwanted side effects, but on the other, they may achieve a combined desired effect (polypharmacology) or represent multiple diseases (drug repositioning). With the growth of 3D structures of drug-target complexes, it is today possible to study drug promiscuity at the structural level and to screen vast amounts of drug-target interactions to predict side effects, polypharmacological potential, and repositioning opportunities. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233089PLOS

Improvements in Patient Monitoring for the Intensive Care Unit: Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, (corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health), Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, DE.

Background: Due to demographic change and, more recently, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the importance of modern intensive care units (ICU) is becoming apparent. One of the key components of an ICU is the continuous monitoring of patients' vital parameters. However, existing advances in informatics, signal processing, or engineering that could alleviate the burden on ICUs have not yet been applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19091DOI Listing

Artificial Intelligence-Based Neural Network for the Diagnosis of Diabetes: Model Development.

Authors:
Yue Liu

JMIR Med Inform 2020 May 27;8(5):e18682. Epub 2020 May 27.

The First People's Hospital of Fuyang, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province China, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing in China, and its impact on national health cannot be ignored. Smart medicine is a medical model that uses technology to assist the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to apply artificial intelligence (AI) in the diagnosis of diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18682DOI Listing

Distinct peripheral blood molecular signature emerges with successful tacrolimus withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients.

Am J Transplant 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational Transplant Research Center, New York, New York, USA.

Tacrolimus (Tac) is an effective anti-rejection agent in kidney transplantation, but its off-target effects make withdrawal desirable. Although studies indicate that Tac can be safely withdrawn in a subset of kidney transplant recipients, immune mechanisms that underlie successful vs unsuccessful Tac removal are unknown. We performed microarray analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) RNA from subjects enrolled in the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-09 study in which we randomized stable kidney transplant recipients to Tac withdrawal or maintenance of standard immunosuppression beginning 6 months after transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15979DOI Listing

[Establishment of a recombinase-aided isothermal amplification assay for nucleic acid detection of and its preliminary application].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2020 Mar;32(2):168-173

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology of National Health Commission, Shanghai 200025, China.

Objective: To establish a rapid nucleic acid detection technique for identification of based on the recombinase aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and assess its diagnostic efficiency.

Methods: The mitochondrial gene sequence of (GenBank accession number: AB018440) was used as a target sequence. The primers were designed according to the RAA reaction principle and synthesized, and RAA was performed using the generated primers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2019284DOI Listing

Mortality under early access to antiretroviral therapy vs. Eswatini's national standard of care: the MaxART clustered randomized stepped-wedge trial.

HIV Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Directorate Office, Ministry of Health, Mbabane, Eswatini.

Objectives: Current WHO guidelines recommend the treatment of all HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to improve survival and quality of life, and decrease infection of others. MaxART is the first implementation trial of this strategy embedded within a government-managed health system, and assesses mortality as a secondary outcome. Because primary findings strongly supported scale-up of the 'treat all' strategy (hereafter Treat All), this analysis examines mortality as an additional indicator of its impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12876DOI Listing

A possible role for inducible arginase isoform (AI) in the pathogenesis of chronic venous leg ulcer.

J Cell Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine (QU Health), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Chronic venous ulcer (CVU) is a major cause of chronic wounds of lower extremities and presents a significant financial and resource burden to health care systems worldwide. Defects in the vasculature, matrix deposition, and re-epithelialization are the main histopathological changes believed to impede healing. Supplementation of the amino acid arginine that plays a crucial role in the interactions that occur during inflammation and wound healing was proven clinically to improve acute wound healing probably through enhancing activity of inducible arginase (AI) locally in the wounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29812DOI Listing

Guanosine, a guanine-based nucleoside relaxed isolated corpus cavernosum from mice through cGMP accumulation.

Purinergic Signal 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, 13083-881, Brazil.

In corpus cavernosum (CC), guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is converted into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to induce erection. The action of cGMP is terminated by phosphodiesterases and efflux transporters, which pump cGMP out of the cell. The nucleotides, GTP, and cGMP were detected in the extracellular space, and their hydrolysis lead to the formation of intermediate products, among them guanosine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-020-09702-5DOI Listing

A novel computed tomography perfusion-based quantitative tool for evaluation of perfusional abnormalities in migrainous aura stroke mimic.

Neurol Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Clinical Unit of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University Hospital and Health Services of Trieste - ASUGI, University of Trieste, Strada di fiume, 447 -, 34149, Trieste, Italy.

Background: Migrainous aura (MA) represents the third most common stroke mimic (SM). Advanced neuroimaging is pivotal in the assessment of patients with focal neurological acute symptoms. We investigated brain perfusion alterations in MA-SM patients using a novel CT perfusion (CTP)-based quantitative approach in order to improve differential diagnosis between MA and acute stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04476-5DOI Listing

Artificial intelligence in gastroenterology: where are we heading?

Front Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Big Data Decision Analytic Cancer, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is coming to medicine in a big wave. From making diagnosis in various medical conditions, following the latest advancements in scientific literature, suggesting appropriate therapies, to predicting prognosis and outcome of diseases and conditions, AI is offering unprecedented possibilities to improve care for patients. Gastroenterology is a field that AI can make a significant impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0742-4DOI Listing

Implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiology: hindering and facilitating factors.

Eur Radiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, University Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in clinical radiology in The Netherlands.

Materials And Methods: Using an embedded multiple case study, an exploratory, qualitative research design was followed. Data collection consisted of 24 semi-structured interviews from seven Dutch hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06946-yDOI Listing

Arterial Hypertension in Children.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department for Pediatric Cardiology, University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension in children is mainly based on individual experience, but there is evidence that blocking the angiotensin system reduces systolic and diastolic blood when compared to placebo, and these drugs are safe to use for a short duration, also in children under 6 years of age. Blocking the angiotensin system either by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or by antagonizing the angiotensin 1 receptor is effective, but did not display a consistent dose-response relationship with escalating doses, but the effective doses are known. Calcium channel antagonists are effective antihypertensives in children, but the evidence is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2020_359DOI Listing

Olfactory signals from the main olfactory bulb converge with taste information from the chorda tympani nerve in the agranular insular cortex of rats.

Pflugers Arch 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8310, Japan.

Gustation and olfaction are integrated into flavor, which contribute to detection and identification of foods. We focused on the insular cortex (IC), as a possible center of flavor integration, because the IC has been reported to receive olfactory in addition to gustatory inputs. In the present report, we tested the hypothesis that these two chemosensory signals are integrated in the IC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02399-wDOI Listing

Reply: Can deep learning automatically predict fetal heart pregnancy with almost perfect accuracy?

Hum Reprod 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Melbourne IVF, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa084DOI Listing

Polar or Charged Residues Located in Four Highly Conserved Motifs Play a Vital Role in the Function or pH Response of a UPF0118 Family Na(Li)/H Antiporter.

Front Microbiol 2020 7;11:841. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Functionally uncharacterized UPF0118 family has been re-designated as autoinducer-2 exporter (AI-2E) family since one of its members, YdgG, was identified to function as an AI-2E. However, it's very likely that AI-2E family members may exhibit significantly distinct functions due to low identities between them. Recently, we identified one member of this family designated as UPF0118 to represent a novel class of Na(Li)/H antiporters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221264PMC

Efficacy and Side Effects of Drugs Commonly Used for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

Front Pharmacol 2020 8;11:658. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease of the prostate gland and is caused by benign hyperplasia of the smooth muscle cells and stromal cells in this important gland. BPH is also the most common disease underlying lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The incidence of BPH increases with age and affects more than half of all men 50 years or older. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225336PMC

Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitors and Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Front Pharmacol 2020 8;11:607. Epub 2020 May 8.

Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Objective: The relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and asthma is controversial. The goal of this study was to determine the association between PPI use in non-asthma subjects and their subsequent asthma prevalence.

Design: Nationwide, population-based cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227244PMC

A deep learning approach for designed diffraction-based acoustic patterning in microchannels.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8745. Epub 2020 May 26.

Dept. Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Acoustic waves can be used to accurately position cells and particles and are appropriate for this activity owing to their biocompatibility and ability to generate microscale force gradients. Such fields, however, typically take the form of only periodic one or two-dimensional grids, limiting the scope of patterning activities that can be performed. Recent work has demonstrated that the interaction between microfluidic channel walls and travelling surface acoustic waves can generate spatially variable acoustic fields, opening the possibility that the channel geometry can be used to control the pressure field that develops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65453-8DOI Listing

Gender imbalance in medical imaging datasets produces biased classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Research Institute for Signals, Systems and Computational Intelligence sinc(i), Universidad Nacional del Litoral-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET, Santa Fe CP3000, Argentina;

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for computer-aided diagnosis and image-based screening are being adopted worldwide by medical institutions. In such a context, generating fair and unbiased classifiers becomes of paramount importance. The research community of medical image computing is making great efforts in developing more accurate algorithms to assist medical doctors in the difficult task of disease diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919012117DOI Listing

ARTDeco: automatic readthrough transcription detection.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 May 26;21(1):214. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0640, USA.

Background: Mounting evidence suggests several diseases and biological processes target transcription termination to misregulate gene expression. Disruption of transcription termination leads to readthrough transcription past the 3' end of genes, which can result in novel transcripts, changes in epigenetic states and altered 3D genome structure.

Results: We developed Automatic Readthrough Transcription Detection (ARTDeco), a tool to detect and analyze multiple features of readthrough transcription from RNA-seq and other next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays that profile transcriptional activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03551-0DOI Listing

A Layer Jamming Actuator for Tunable Stiffness and Shape-Changing Devices.

Soft Robot 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Sant'Anna, Pontedera, Italy.

Changing the shape and the stiffness of a device in a dynamic and controlled way enables important advancements in the field of robotics and wearable robotics. Variable stiffness materials and technologies can be used to address this challenge. In particular, layer jamming actuation is a very promising technology, featured by high efficiency and low cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/soro.2019.0182DOI Listing

Artificial Intelligence Applied to a Robotic Dairy Farm to Model Milk Productivity and Quality based on Cow Data and Daily Environmental Parameters.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 24;20(10). Epub 2020 May 24.

Agricultural Production System Modelling Group, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Increased global temperatures and climatic anomalies, such as heatwaves, as a product of climate change, are impacting the heat stress levels of farm animals. These impacts could have detrimental effects on the milk quality and productivity of dairy cows. This research used four years of data from a robotic dairy farm from 36 cows with similar heat tolerance (Model 1), and all 312 cows from the farm (Model 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102975DOI Listing

Lung Tumor Cell-Derived Exosomes Promote M2 Macrophage Polarization.

Cells 2020 May 24;9(5). Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, USA.

Cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment (TME) by exosomes is known to promote tumor progression. Tumor promoting macrophages with an M2 phenotype are suppressors of anti-tumor immunity. However, the impact of tumor-derived exosomes in modulating macrophage polarization in the lung TME is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051303DOI Listing

Myxoma Virus-Encoded Host Range Protein M029: A Multifunctional Antagonist Targeting Multiple Host Antiviral and Innate Immune Pathways.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 23;8(2). Epub 2020 May 23.

Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the prototypic member of the genus of the family of viruses. In nature, MYXV is highly restricted to leporids and causes a lethal disease called myxomatosis only in European rabbits (). However, MYXV has been shown to also productively infect various types of nonrabbit transformed and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas their normal somatic cell counterparts undergo abortive infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020244DOI Listing

Targeting the Early Endosome-to-Golgi Transport of Shiga Toxins as a Therapeutic Strategy.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 May 22;12(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Institute for Cellular & Molecular Biology, and Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Shiga toxin (STx) produced by and closely related Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) synthesized by Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) are bacterial AB toxins. All three toxins target kidney cells and may cause life-threatening renal disease. While infections can be treated with antibiotics, resistance is increasing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050342DOI Listing

Seminal Plasma Induces Overexpression of Genes Associated with Embryo Development and Implantation in Day-6 Porcine Blastocysts.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 22;21(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, International Excellence Campus for Higher Education and Research "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

The infusion of boar seminal plasma (SP) before artificial insemination (AI) positively alters the expression of endometrial genes and pathways involved in embryo development. This study aimed to determine which transcriptome changes occur in preimplantation embryos in response to SP infusions during estrus. Postweaning estrus sows received 40-mL intrauterine infusions of either SP ( = 6) or BTS extender (control group; = 6) 30 min before each of two post-cervical AIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103662DOI Listing

Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming.

Molecules 2020 May 22;25(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2') cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. The exact nature of these cleavage sites, and their respective processing proteases, can determine whether the virus can cross species and the level of pathogenicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102424DOI Listing

Rous Sarcoma Virus Genomic RNA Dimerization Capability In Vitro Is Not a Prerequisite for Viral Infectivity.

Viruses 2020 May 22;12(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Retroviral Research, and Center for RNA Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Retroviruses package their full-length, dimeric genomic RNA (gRNA) via specific interactions between the Gag polyprotein and a "Ψ" packaging signal located in the gRNA 5'-UTR. Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) gRNA has a contiguous, well-defined Ψ element, that directs the packaging of heterologous RNAs efficiently. The simplicity of RSV Ψ makes it an informative model to examine the mechanism of retroviral gRNA packaging, which is incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050568DOI Listing

3-Hydroxytyrosol Promotes Angiogenesis In Vitro by Stimulating Endothelial Cell Migration.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 22;21(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", University of Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, Baronissi, 84081 Salerno, Italy.

Cardiovascular diseases, followed by strokes, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Despite its success in preventing cardiovascular diseases, the therapeutic potential of 3-Hydroxytyrosol (HT) for treating ischemic diseases is yet to be investigated in detail, especially with regard to ischemic heart disease, which is a major challenge for humans. We assessed that low concentrations (1-5 µM) of HT, generally achieved after the ingestion of olive oil, stimulate endothelial cells migration and angiogenesis in an in vitro model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103657DOI Listing

A Conserved Tryptophan in the Ebola Virus Matrix Protein C-Terminal Domain Is Required for Efficient Virus-Like Particle Formation.

Pathogens 2020 May 22;9(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

The Ebola virus (EBOV) harbors seven genes, one of which is the matrix protein eVP40, a peripheral protein that is sufficient to induce the formation of virus-like particles from the host cell plasma membrane. eVP40 can form different structures to fulfil different functions during the viral life cycle, although the structural dynamics of eVP40 that warrant dimer, hexamer, and octamer formation are still poorly understood. eVP40 has two conserved Trp residues at positions 95 and 191. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050402DOI Listing

Evaluation of a Novel Boron-Containing α-D-Mannopyranoside for BNCT.

Cells 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575, Ibaraki, Japan.

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a unique anticancer technology that has demonstrated its efficacy in numerous phase I/II clinical trials with boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) used as B delivery agents. However, continuous drug administration at high concentrations is needed to maintain sufficient B concentration within tumors. To address the issue of B accumulation and retention in tumor tissue, we developed MMT1242, a novel boron-containing α-d-mannopyranoside. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051277DOI Listing

Vaccinia Virus as a Master of Host Shutoff Induction: Targeting Processes of the Central Dogma and Beyond.

Pathogens 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. This phenomenon leads to the accumulation of viral proteins concurrently with a profound decline in global host protein synthesis, a phenomenon often termed "host shutoff." To induce host shutoff, a virus may target various steps of gene expression, as well as pre- and post-gene expression processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050400DOI Listing

The Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus NSm Protein is Dispensable for Growth In Vitro and Disease in Ifnar Mice.

Microorganisms 2020 May 21;8(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tri-segmented, tick-borne nairovirus that causes disease of ranging severity in humans. The CCHFV M segment encodes a complex glycoprotein precursor (GPC) that undergoes extensive endoproteolytic cleavage, giving rise to two structural proteins (Gn and Gc) required for virus attachment and entry, and to multiple non-structural proteins (NSm, GP160, GP85, and GP38). The functions of these non-structural proteins remain largely unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050775DOI Listing

Discovery of a Natural Product That Binds to the Protein Rv1466 Using Native Mass Spectrometry.

Molecules 2020 May 21;25(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia.

Elucidation of the mechanism of action of compounds with cellular bioactivity is important for progressing compounds into future drug development. In recent years, phenotype-based drug discovery has become the dominant approach to drug discovery over target-based drug discovery, which relies on the knowledge of a specific drug target of a disease. Still, when targeting an infectious disease via a high throughput phenotypic assay it is highly advantageous to identifying the compound's cellular activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102384DOI Listing

[Comparison of the Clinical Effect of Uniportal Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy and Biportal Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Lobectomy in the Treatment of Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

Background: In recent years, the technique of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has been developed. As a new surgical method, its feasibility and safety have not been generally recognized. The aim of this study is to review the technology in the treatment of lung cancer patients in stage I to part of stage IIIa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.101.23DOI Listing

Development and validation of explainable AI-based decision-supporting tool for prostate biopsy.

BJU Int 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Urology, Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: To develop and validate a risk calculator for prostate cancer (PC) and clinically significant PC (csPC) using explainable artificial intelligence (XAI).

Materials And Methods: We used data of 3791 patients to develop and validate the risk calculator. We initially divided the data into development and validation sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15122DOI Listing

How Do I Reverse Oral and Parenteral Anticoagulants?

Hamostaseologie 2020 Jun 26;40(2):201-213. Epub 2020 May 26.

Klinik für Anästhesie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin und Schmerztherapie, Vivantes Klinikum, Im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany.

An understanding of reversal strategies alone is important to safely and effectively care for patients in cases of bleeding or invasive procedures. The recent diversification in the number of licensed anticoagulants makes an understanding of drug-specific reversal strategies essential. Intravenous or oral vitamin K can reverse the effect of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) within 12 to 48 hours and is indicated for any bleeding or an international normalized ratio >10 or 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1113-0557DOI Listing

Prostaglandin F influences pre-ovulatory follicle characteristics and pregnancy per AI in anovular dairy cows.

Theriogenology 2020 May 6;153:122-132. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, United States; DH Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, 32611-0910, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives were to determine the effects of a dose of PGF administered 2 days before timed artificial insemination (AI) on LH pulsatility, characteristics of the pre-ovulatory follicle, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in anovular dairy cows, particularly in cows not subjected to hyperthermia. In experiment 1, 2,011 lactating Holstein cows had ovaries scanned by ultrasound to determine corpus luteum (CL) presence and only those without a CL in two consecutive exams were enrolled (n = 437). Cows had the estrous cycle synchronized with an estradiol-progesterone based protocol starting on experiment Day -11 and timed AI on Day 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.04.038DOI Listing

Homogeneous fluorescent immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol and amantadine via the duplex FRET between carbon dots and WS nanosheets.

Food Chem 2020 May 20;327:127107. Epub 2020 May 20.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we proposed a duplex and homogeneous fluorescent immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of amantadine (AMD) and chloramphenicol (CAP) residue in chicken breast with both high sensitivity and short assay time. The immunoassay was based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between hapten-labeled carbon dots (CDs) and antibody-modified WS nanosheets. To achieve the duplex FRET, polyethyleneimine-functionalized blue and green emissive CDs with separated emission were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method and directly coupled with the haptens of AMD and CAP, serving as the energy donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127107DOI Listing

The anti-ageing effects of a natural peptide discovered by Artificial Intelligence.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Nuritas Ltd, Joshua Dawson House, Dawson St, Dublin 2, D02 RY95, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: As skin ages, impaired extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis and increased action of degradative enzymes manifests as atrophy, wrinkling and laxity. There is mounting evidence for the functional role of exogenous peptides across many areas, including in offsetting the effects of cutaneous ageing. Here, using an artificial intelligence (AI) approach, we identified peptide RTE62G (pep_RTE62G), a naturally occurring, unmodified peptide with ECM stimulatory properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12635DOI Listing

Deep-Learning-Based Characterization of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Breast Cancers From Histopathology Images and Multiomics Data.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 May;4:480-490

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Purpose: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their spatial characterizations on whole-slide images (WSIs) of histopathology sections have become crucial in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response prediction for different cancers. However, fully automatic assessment of TILs on WSIs currently remains a great challenge because of the heterogeneity and large size of WSIs. We present an automatic pipeline based on a cascade-training U-net to generate high-resolution TIL maps on WSIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00126DOI Listing

Highest-T organic enantiomeric ferroelectrics obtained by F/H substitution.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

College of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, People's Republic of China.

Through the strategy of F/H substitution, we precisely designed the highest-Tc (phase transition temperature) organic enantiomeric ferroelectrics, (R)- and (S)-(N,N-dimethyl-3-fluoropyrrolidinium) iodide, of which the Tc reaches up to 470 K, far beyond those of other enantiomeric ferroelectrics and also the commercial ferroelectric BaTiO3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02547jDOI Listing

Optical Coherence Tomography-based Diabetic Macula Edema Screening with Artificial Intelligence.

J Chin Med Assoc 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is considered as a sensitive and non-invasive tool to evaluate the macular lesions. In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), the existence of diabetic macular edema (DME) can cause significant vision impairment and further intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is needed. However, the increasing number of DM patients makes it a big burden for clinicians to manually determine whether DME exists in the OCT images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000351DOI Listing

Artificial Intelligence-Assisted System in Postoperative Follow-up of Orthopedic Patients: Exploratory Quantitative and Qualitative Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 May 26;22(5):e16896. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Patient follow-up is an essential part of hospital ward management. With the development of deep learning algorithms, individual follow-up assignments might be completed by artificial intelligence (AI). We developed an AI-assisted follow-up conversational agent that can simulate the human voice and select an appropriate follow-up time for quantitative, automatic, and personalized patient follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16896DOI Listing

Reachable Set Estimation for Neural Network Control Systems: A Simulation-Guided Approach.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 May 14;PP. Epub 2020 May 14.

The vulnerability of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) against adversarial disturbances and attacks significantly restricts their applicability in safety-critical systems including cyber-physical systems (CPS) equipped with neural network components at various stages of sensing and control. This article addresses the reachable set estimation and safety verification problems for dynamical systems embedded with neural network components serving as feedback controllers. The closed-loop system can be abstracted in the form of a continuous-time sampled-data system under the control of a neural network controller. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.2991090DOI Listing

Type I interferon underlies severe disease associated with Junín virus infection in mice.

Elife 2020 May 26;9. Epub 2020 May 26.

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, United States.

Junín virus (JUNV) is one of five New World mammarenaviruses (NWMs) that cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The pathogenesis underlying AHF is poorly understood; however, a prolonged, elevated interferon-a (IFN-a) response is associated with a negative disease outcome. A feature of all NWMs that cause viral hemorrhagic fever is the use of human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) for cellular entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55352DOI Listing

Emerging Approaches to Functionalizing Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles.

Biochemistry 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

There has been a significant interest in developing cell membrane-coated nanoparticles due to their unique abilities of biomimicry and biointerfacing. As the technology progresses, it becomes clear that the application of these nanoparticles can be drastically broadened if additional functions beyond those derived from the natural cell membranes can be integrated. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the functionalization of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00343DOI Listing

HIV efficiently infects T cells from the endometrium and remodels them to promote systemic viral spread.

Elife 2020 May 26;9. Epub 2020 May 26.

Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, United States.

The female reproductive tract (FRT) is the most common site of infection during HIV transmission to women, but viral remodeling complicates characterization of cells targeted for infection. Here, we report extensive phenotypic analyses of HIV-infected endometrial cells by CyTOF, and use a 'nearest neighbor' bioinformatics approach to trace cells to their original pre-infection phenotypes. Like in blood, HIV preferentially targets memory CD4+ T cells in the endometrium, but these cells exhibit unique phenotypes and sustain much higher levels of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55487DOI Listing

HIV Antiretroviral Treatment and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Transgender Individuals.

Drugs 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

HIV prevalence is elevated among transgender populations with an estimated 13.7% of transgender adults living with HIV in the USA. In addition, transgender people experience significant disparities in biomedical HIV prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-020-01313-zDOI Listing
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