3,210 results match your criteria Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems[Journal]

The effects of grazer exclosure duration on soil microbial communities on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 24:156238. Epub 2022 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Alashan Desert Eco-Hydrology Experimental Research Station, Northwest Institute of Ecology and Environmental Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

While determining the response of soil microbes to grazer exclosure duration is critical to understanding ecosystem restoration processes, few studies have focused on this issue. With seasonal grazing as a control, microbes of alpine grassland soils under 5, 13, 22, and 39 years of grazer exclosure situated in the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, were examined. Microbial diversity was determined through Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and an internal transcription spacer (ITS). Read More

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Radiation effects in the forest ecosystems: Acute irradiation.

J Environ Radioact 2022 May 24;250:106908. Epub 2022 May 24.

Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 109 km, Obninsk, Kaluga region, Russia.

The paper comprehensively brings together key data on radiation effects observed in the Russian studies with an acute forest irradiation. The experiments were based on the ecosystem approach, including an assessment of the radiation impacts based on a variety of the endpoints. The effects at the cellular level were observed at the lowest doses: a double increase of the chromosome aberrations in the apical meristem of pine were found at the site with the absorbed dose of 2. Read More

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Towards Predictions of Interaction Dynamics between Cereal Aphids and Their Natural Enemies: A Review.

Insects 2022 May 20;13(5). Epub 2022 May 20.

LAE, Université de Lorraine, INRAE, F-68000 Colmar, France.

(1) Although most past studies are based on static analyses of the pest regulation drivers, evidence shows that a greater focus on the temporal dynamics of these interactions is urgently required to develop more efficient strategies. (2) Focusing on aphids, we systematically reviewed (i) empirical knowledge on the drivers influencing the dynamics of aphid-natural enemy interactions and (ii) models developed to simulate temporal or spatio-temporal aphid dynamics. (3) Reviewed studies mainly focus on the abundance dynamics of aphids and their natural enemies, and on aphid population growth rates. Read More

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Effects of urbanization on woody plant phylogenetic diversity and its associations with landscape features in the high latitude northern hemisphere region, Northeast China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 23:156192. Epub 2022 May 23.

Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology (MOE), College of Chemistry, Chemistry Engineering and Resource Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China; Urban Forests and Wetland Group, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun 130102, China. Electronic address:

Urbanization is one of the primary drivers of terrestrial modification, with marked biological homogenization worldwide but relatively poor knowledge of woody phylogenetic diversity. Here, we investigated 943 plots, about 93,000 woody plants from 130 species in Northeast China, and calculated six phylogenetic diversity indexes, and urbanization landscape metrics; the responses of phylogenetic diversity to urbanization and its coupling relationship with landscape features were explored at 25 km × 25 km, 50 km × 50 km and 75 km × 75 km grid scales. We found that urbanization had enhanced the evolutionary distinctiveness of woody plants, characterizing as increasing Faith phylogenetic diversity (FPD) and their mean pairwise distance (MPD) while decreasing the mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD); these trends were independent of landscape scales and gymnosperm inclusion or not. Read More

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Dynamic Conservation in Risk Society: A Case Study of COVID-19 Pandemic Risk in Kashan Qanat Irrigated Agriculture.

Front Public Health 2022 9;10:882943. Epub 2022 May 9.

Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

In the present age, the world agricultural heritage can inspire agroecology and sustainable agriculture. But various risks have threatened, eroded and forgotten this heritage, so dynamic conservation of this heritage is essential. In this study, "Qanat Irrigated Agricultural Heritage Systems, Kashan, Iran" which has been registered worldwide in the face of corona pandemic risks has been selected as a case study. Read More

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Recommendations for environmental risk assessment of gene drive applications for malaria vector control.

Malar J 2022 May 25;21(1):152. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Building on an exercise that identified potential harms from simulated investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive for malaria vector control, a series of online workshops identified nine recommendations to advance future environmental risk assessment of gene drive applications. Read More

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Effects of temporal floral resource availability and non-crop habitats on broad bean pollination.

Landsc Ecol 2022 30;37(6):1573-1586. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany.

Context: Flowering plants can enhance wild insect populations and their pollination services to crops in agricultural landscapes, especially when they flower before the focal crop. However, characterizing the temporal availability of specific floral resources is a challenge.

Objectives: Developing an index for the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale according to the specific use by a pollinator. Read More

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Intra- and interspecies competition of blackgrass and wheat in the context of herbicidal resistance and environmental conditions in Poland.

Sci Rep 2022 May 24;12(1):8720. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Herbology and Plant Cultivation Techniques, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.), one of the most aggressive grass weeds in Europe, is also a strong competitor of crops. This study aimed to assess the impact of environmental conditions on the competition between (1) ACC-ase and ALS herbicide-resistant (BR) and herbicide-susceptible (BS) blackgrass biotypes, (2) BR and winter wheat cv. Read More

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Zeolite application increases grain yield and mitigates greenhouse gas emissions under alternate wetting and drying rice system.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 20:156067. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele 8830, Denmark.

Clinoptilolite zeolite (Z) has been widely used for reducing nutrient loss and improving crop productivity. However, the impacts of zeolite addition on CH and NO emissions in rice fields under various irrigation regimes are still unclear. Therefore, a three-year field experiment using a split-plot design evaluated the effects of zeolite addition and irrigation regimes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, grain yield, water productivity and net ecosystem economic profit (NEEP) in a paddy field. Read More

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Phylogenomic Analyses of Isolates from Honeybees and Bumblebees Reveal Taxonomic and Functional Diversity.

mSystems 2022 May 23:e0150021. Epub 2022 May 23.

Laboratory of Microbiology and BCCM/LMG Bacteria Collection, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent Universitygrid.5342.0, Ghent, Belgium.

is a genus of that lives in the gut of honeybees ( spp.) and bumblebees ( spp). It is part of a conserved microbiome that is composed of a few core phylotypes and is essential for bee health and metabolism. Read More

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Host Diversification May Split Epidemic Spread into Two Successive Fronts Advancing at Different Speeds.

Bull Math Biol 2022 May 22;84(7):68. Epub 2022 May 22.

Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences and Department of Biological Sciences, CAB632, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Host diversification methods such as within-field mixtures (or field mosaics, depending on the spatial scale considered) are promising methods for agroecological plant disease control. We explore disease spread in host mixtures (or field mosaics) composed of two host genotypes (susceptible and resistant). The pathogen population is composed of two genotypes (wild-type and resistance-breaking). Read More

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Building a UAV Based System to Acquire High Spatial Resolution Thermal Imagery for Energy Balance Modelling.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Plant Physiology and Plant Ecology, Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter K. u. 1., H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.

High spatial resolution and geolocation accuracy canopy evapotranspiration (ET) maps are well suited tools for evaluation of small plot field trials. While creating such a map by use of an energy balance model is routinely performed, the acquisition of the necessary imagery at a suitable quality is still challenging. An UAV based thermal/RGB integrated imaging system was built using the RaspberryPi (RPi) microcomputer as a central unit. Read More

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Farm vehicles approaching weights of sauropods exceed safe mechanical limits for soil functioning.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 16;119(21):e2117699119. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Environmental Systems Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

SignificanceMechanization has transformed agriculture over the past century, greatly improving crop production efficiency. However, the higher capacity has resulted in increased farm vehicle weights. We show that while machinery design maintains constant surface contact stresses, an insidious and largely overlooked threat of subsoil compaction has developed. Read More

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Characterization of area radioactive contamination of near-surface soil at the Sary-Uzen site in the Semipalatinsk test site.

J Environ Radioact 2022 May 12;249:106893. Epub 2022 May 12.

Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk, Russia.

The paper provides study of the radioactive contamination of near-surface soil at the Sary-Uzen site in the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). Increased values of natural radionuclides in the studied area were not detected, which indicates the absence of possible geochemical anomalies that could create an elevated radiation background. Radioactive contamination by technogenic radionuclides is caused by two factors. Read More

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Physiological and Growth Responses of Potato ( L.) to Air Temperature and Relative Humidity under Soil Water Deficits.

Plants (Basel) 2022 Apr 21;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Drought stress often occurs concurrently with heat stress, yet the interacting effect of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying on the physiology of potato plants remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the physiological and growth responses of potatoes to progressive soil drying under varied VPDs. Potato plants were grown either in four separate climate-controlled greenhouse cells with different VPD levels (viz. Read More

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Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses of the Effects of Exogenous Trehalose on Heat Tolerance in Wheat.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 6;23(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

Jia Xing Academy of Agricultural Science, Jiaxing 314016, China.

Trehalose can improve the tolerance of plants to various types of environmental stress. Nonetheless, information respecting the molecular networks of wheat seedlings to exogenous trehalose under heat stress is limited. Here, two wheat varieties pretreated with exogenous trehalose were selected to explore the molecular mechanism by which trehalose improves the heat tolerance of wheat ( L. Read More

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Grassland greening impacts on global land surface temperature.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 10;838(Pt 1):155851. Epub 2022 May 10.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China.

Grassland vegetation greenness has been increasing globally during the past decades. Although the vegetation coverage change could have significant effects on climate by affecting albedo and evapotranspiration (ET), the effects of global grassland greening on climate remain unclear due to the lack of long-term field observation data. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from high coverage grassland and adjacent low coverage grassland (divided according to the leaf area index) to quantify, for the first time, the biogeophysical effects of global grassland greening on surface temperatures. Read More

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Pinecone-derived magnetic porous hydrochar co-activated by KHCO and KFeO for Cr(VI) and anthracene removal from water.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 10;306:119457. Epub 2022 May 10.

School of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China; Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4888 Shengbei Rd, Changchun, 130102, China. Electronic address:

Herein, magnetic porous pinecone-derived hydrochar (MPHC) co-activated by KHCO and KFeO through one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis was innovatively synthesized for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and anthracene (ANT) removal from water. The analyses of characterization consequences and co-activation mechanisms not merely proved the high specific surface area (703.97 m/g) and remarkable microporous structures of MPHC caused by the synergistic chemical activation of KHCO and KFeO, but also testified successful loading of Fe and FeO on MPHC by the process of carbothermal reduction between KFeO and carbon matrix of hydrochar. Read More

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bZIP71 delays flowering by suppressing Ehd1 expression in rice.

J Integr Plant Biol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081, China.

Flowering time is a fundamental factor determining the global distribution and final yield of rice (Oryza sativa). Although diverse flowering time genes have been reported in this crop, the transcriptional regulation of its key flowering genes are poorly understood. Here, we report that a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, bZIP71, functions as a flowering repressor. Read More

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Biodiversity and yield trade-offs for organic farming.

Ecol Lett 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China.

Organic farming supports higher biodiversity than conventional farming, but at the cost of lower yields. We conducted a meta-analysis quantifying the trade-off between biodiversity and yield, comparing conventional and organic farming. We developed a compatibility index to assess whether biodiversity gains from organic farming exceed yield losses, and a substitution index to assess whether organic farming would increase biodiversity in an area if maintaining total production under organic farming would require cultivating more land at the expense of nature. Read More

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Diverse non-crop vegetation assemblages as banker plants for predatory mites in strawberry crop.

Bull Entomol Res 2022 Jun 23;112(3):389-398. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Non-crop plant diversity plays a fundamental role in the conservation of predatory mite (PM) and can be proposed as a banker plant system (BPS). BPSs provide plants that host natural enemies in greenhouses or field crops and may improve the efficiency of biological control. The aim of this study was to investigate if a diverse plant composition could be a suitable BPS for PMs in strawberry crops. Read More

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Interactions among multiple stressors vary with exposure duration and biological response.

Proc Biol Sci 2022 May 11;289(1974):20220348. Epub 2022 May 11.

Coastal and Marine Research Centre, Australian Rivers Institute, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 4222, Australia.

Coastal ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stressors. Effective management actions would be better informed from generalized predictions of the individual, combined and interactive effects of multiple stressors; however, few generalities are shared across different meta-analyses. Using an experimental study, we present an approach for analysing regression-based designs with generalized additive models that allowed us to capture nonlinear effects of exposure duration and stressor intensity and access interactions among stressors. Read More

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Detailed comparison between organic and conventional milk from Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Italy.

J Dairy Sci 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Several studies have reported gross composition differences between organic and conventional milk; however, most studies have not considered other factors such as breed and diet ingredients, which are known to influence milk composition. Thus, this study aimed to provide a detailed characterization of Holstein-Friesian cow milk from organic (ORG) and conventional (CONV) herds with similar diet ingredients and in the same geographic area. Bulk milk samples (n = 225) of 12 ORG and 12 CONV farms were collected from September 2019 to August 2020. Read More

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Purification mechanism of city tail water by constructed wetland substrate with NaOH-modified corn straw biochar.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 6;238:113597. Epub 2022 May 6.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Jingyue Street 2555, Changchun 130017, China; Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Renmin Street 5268, Changchun, 130024 Jilin, China. Electronic address:

The pollution of corn straw to the environment had attracted much attention. The preparation and alkali modification of corn straw biochar as the constructed wetland (CW) substrate was conducive to solving the environment pollution caused by straw and improving the purification effect of CW. The NaOH modification mechanism of corn straw biochar was analyzed by measuring the surface morphology, element content, specific surface area (SSA), pore volume, crystal structure, surface functional groups and CO adsorption. Read More

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Structure of a cereal purple acid phytase provides new insights to phytate degradation in plants.

Plant Commun 2022 03 19;3(2):100305. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

Grain phytate, a mixed metal ion salt of inositol hexakisphosphate, accounts for 60%-80% of stored phosphorus in plants and is a potent antinutrient of non-ruminant animals including humans. Through neofunctionalization of purple acid phytases (PAPhy), some cereals such as wheat and rye have acquired particularly high mature grain phytase activity. As PAPhy activity supplies phosphate, liberates metal ions necessary for seedling emergence, and obviates antinutrient effects of phytate, its manipulation and control are targeted crop traits. Read More

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Speciation of Cs, Sr, Am, and Pu artificial radionuclides in soils at the Semipalatinsk test site.

J Environ Radioact 2022 May 3;249:106867. Epub 2022 May 3.

Branch "Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology" of the NNC RK, Kurchatov, Kazakhstan.

This paper reports the speciation of Cs, Am, Sr and Pu in the soil samples of the Experimental Field (EF). The EF is a testing ground of the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site used for surface and atmospheric tests. The study revealed low mobility of artificial radionuclides in the EF site soils. Read More

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Pesticide contamination of fish ponds in relation to crop area in a mixed farmland-pond landscape (Dombes area, France).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Agroecology and Environment Research Unit, ISARA, 23 rue Jean Baldassini, 69364, Lyon Cedex 07, France.

Pesticides are still widely used by agriculture, leading to the exposure of surface water. This may be the case for fish ponds located in farmland landscapes. To address this issue, the present study investigated the contamination by pesticides of fish ponds located in the mixed agriculture-pond landscape of the Dombes area, France. Read More

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Combined effects of multi-land use decisions and climate change on water-related ecosystem services in Northeast China.

J Environ Manage 2022 Aug 2;315:115131. Epub 2022 May 2.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130102, China.

Land use intensification and climate change have resulted in substantial changes in the provision of ecosystem services, particularly in China that experienced sharp increases in population growth and demands for goods and energy. To protect the environment and restore the degraded ecosystems, the Chinese government has implemented multiple national ecological restoration projects. Yet, the combined effects of climate change and land use and land cover change (LULCC) over large spatial scales that brace multiple land use decisions and great environmental heterogeneity remain unclear. Read More

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Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid and rumen-protected methionine increased growth performance and meat quality of Tan lambs.

Anim Biosci 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Grassland Farming, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130102, China.

Objective: Tan lambs (n=36, 3 mo old, 19.1 ± 0.53 kg) were used to assess effects of dietary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and serum parameters. Read More

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Simulated global climate change benefits the nutritive value of oat grass.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2022 May 1. Epub 2022 May 1.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, China.

Numerous data demonstrate that global climate change affects crop yield and quality. However, the effect of climate change on the nutritive value of forage crops remains unclear. Oat grass (Avena sativa L. Read More

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