21,113 results match your criteria Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment[Journal]


Ecological policy benefit valuation based on public feedback: Forest ecosystem services in Wuyishan nature reserve, China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 8;673:622-630. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental Health and Regulation, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

The spontaneous expansion of tea cultivation has led to the degradation of forest ecosystem services in the Wuyishan national nature reserve (WNNR). In 2008, the local government put forward the policy of "returning tea to forests" (RTTF) to protect the forest ecosystem. However, in order to measure its effects over the past ten years, it is necessary to accurately quantify the economic benefits of this ecological policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.076DOI Listing

Elevated temperature modulates rice pollen structure: a study from foothill of Himalayan agro-ecosystem in India.

3 Biotech 2019 May 11;9(5):175. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

3Forest Ecology and Climate Change Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand India.

Rice cultivation is practiced in various agro-climatic zones ranging from tropical to temperate. Anthesis is a critical stage for deciding productivity which is controlled by numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Elevated temperature is one of the key abiotic stresses that adversely modulate the pollen formation and structure, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1700-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459444PMC

Carnivore parvovirus ecology in the Serengeti ecosystem: vaccine strains circulating and new host species identified.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

Carnivore parvoviruses infect wild and domestic carnivores and cross- species transmission is believed to occur. However, viral dynamics are not well understood nor the consequences to wild carnivore populations of the introduction of new strains into wild ecosystems. To clarify the ecology of these viruses in a multi-host system such as the Serengeti ecosystem and identify potential threats for wildlife conservation we analyzed, through real-time PCR, 152 samples belonging to 14 wild carnivore species and 62 samples from healthy domestic dogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02220-18DOI Listing

PRRs and NB-LRRs: From Signal Perception to Activation of Plant Innate Immunity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 16;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

To ward off pathogens and pests, plants use a sophisticated immune system. They use pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), as well as nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) domains, for detecting nonindigenous molecular signatures from pathogens. Plant PRRs induce local and systemic immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081882DOI Listing

Neotropical cloud forests and páramo to contract and dry from declines in cloud immersion and frost.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213155. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Clouds persistently engulf many tropical mountains at elevations cool enough for clouds to form, creating isolated areas with frequent fog and mist. Under these isolated conditions, thousands of unique species have evolved in what are known as tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) and páramo. Páramo comprises a set of alpine ecosystems that occur above TMCF from about 11° N to 9° S along the Americas continental divide. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213155PLOS

[Effect of reduced nitrogen fertilization on carbon footprint in spring maize-late rice production system].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1397-1403

College of Environment and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

With the growing concerns on global climate change and food security, low carbon agriculture in food production attracts more attention. Low carbon agriculture needs to balance higher-level crop yields and lower greenhouse gas emission in production process. Improving nitrogen mana-gement may help mitigate greenhouse gas emission and achieve stable or higher crop yields in crop production systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.038DOI Listing

[Variation of community structure and function of rhizospheric denitrifiers at tillering and booting stages of rice].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1344-1350

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Regions/Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

We investigated the variation of denitrifying communities in rice rhizosphere at tillering and booting stages in comparison with bulk soils with a pot experiment. The techniques of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to measure the abundance and community composition of denitrifiers (narG and nosZ), respectively. The results showed that the potential denitrification activity in the rhizosphere at tillering stage was significantly lower than bulk soils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.022DOI Listing

[Impacts of one-off fertilization on nitrogen leaching and economic benefits for rice-rape rotation system].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1097-1109

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control/Joint Research Laboratory for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Research between Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and University of New Hampshire CAAS-UNH, Beijing 100081, China.

One-off fertilization is a new technology of one-time applying base fertilizer near the rhizosphere during whole crop cultivation period. It has the advantages of simplifying fertilization manage-ment and reducing labor costs, but its impacts on environment, such as leaching characteristics need further analysis. We set five treatments in the typical rice-rape rotation system in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including control treatment (CK), farmers' practice treatment (FP), optimal fertilizer treatment (OPT), one-off application of urea fertilizer treatment (UA) and one-off application of controlled release urea treatment (CRF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.021DOI Listing

The stoichiometric legacy of fire regime regulates the roles of micro-organisms and invertebrates in decomposition.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02732. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Griffith School of Environment and Science and the Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.

Decadal-scale increases in fire frequency have the potential to deplete ecosystems of essential nutrients and consequently impede nutrient-limited biological processes via stoichiometric imbalance. Decomposition, a fundamental ecosystem function and strong driver of future fire occurrence, is highly sensitive to nutrient availability and is, therefore, particularly important in this context. Here we show that forty years of quadrennial (4yB) and biennial (2yB) prescribed burning result in severely P- and N-depleted litter stoichiometry, respectively, relative to fire exclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2732DOI Listing

Aridity thresholds of soil microbial metabolic indices along a 3,200 km transect across arid and semi-arid regions in Northern China.

PeerJ 2019 9;7:e6712. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Soil microbial processes are crucial for understanding the ecological functions of arid and semi-arid lands which occupy approximately 40% of the global terrestrial ecosystems. However, how soil microbial metabolic activities may change across a wide aridity gradient in drylands remains unclear. Here, we investigated three soil microbial metabolic indices (soil organic carbon (SOC)-based microbial respiration, metabolic quotient, and microbial biomass as a proportion of total SOC) and the degree of carbon limitation for microbial respiration along a 3,200 km transect with a wide aridity gradient. Read More

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https://peerj.com/articles/6712
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461032PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Monitoring forest cover change within different reserve types in southern Ghana.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Apr 16;191(5):281. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Services, Accra, Ghana.

Rapid population and economic growth quickly degrade and deplete forest resources in many developing countries, even within protected areas. Monitoring forest cover change is critical for assessing ecosystem changes and targeting conservation efforts. Yet the most biodiverse forests on the planet are also the most difficult to monitor remotely due to their frequent cloud cover. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10661-019-7450-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7450-zDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Identification and Characterization of Herbicide Penoxsulam Transformation Products in Aqueous Media by UPLC-QTOF-MS.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, Heilongjiang, China.

Photodegradation is an important non-biodegradation process of pesticide degradation in aquatic environments. In this study, the effect of different forms of nitrogen on the photodegradation kinetics of penoxsulam was investigated. The photodegradation of penoxsulam was accelerated by NO and NO but was not affected by NH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02612-2DOI Listing

Nutrient availability alters the correlation between spring leaf-out and autumn leaf senescence dates.

Tree Physiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Leaf senescence (LS) affects tree fitness, species distribution and ecosystem structure and functioning. The drivers of LS and the processes underlying it have been studied, but the studies have mainly focused on environmental cues and have mainly been based on statistical analyses using in situ data sets. Experimental investigation and field verification of the processes and drivers are thus urgently needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpz041DOI Listing

Shifts in dominant tree mycorrhizal associations in response to anthropogenic impacts.

Sci Adv 2019 Apr 10;5(4):eaav6358. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Plant-fungal symbioses play critical roles in vegetation dynamics and nutrient cycling, modulating the impacts of global changes on ecosystem functioning. Here, we used forest inventory data consisting of more than 3 million trees to develop a spatially resolved "mycorrhizal tree map" of the contiguous United States. We show that abundances of the two dominant mycorrhizal tree groups-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal trees-are associated primarily with climate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav6358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457943PMC

Morphology and genome of a snailfish from the Mariana Trench provide insights into deep-sea adaptation.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Deep Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, China.

It is largely unknown how living organisms-especially vertebrates-survive and thrive in the coldness, darkness and high pressures of the hadal zone. Here, we describe the unique morphology and genome of Pseudoliparis swirei-a recently described snailfish species living below a depth of 6,000 m in the Mariana Trench. Unlike closely related shallow sea species, P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0864-8DOI Listing

The horse Y chromosome as an informative marker for tracing sire lines.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6095. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, 1210, Austria.

Analysis of the Y chromosome is the best-established way to reconstruct paternal family history in humans. Here, we applied fine-scaled Y-chromosomal haplotyping in horses with biallelic markers and demonstrate the potential of our approach to address the ancestry of sire lines. We de novo assembled a draft reference of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome from Illumina short reads and then screened 5. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42640-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42640-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465346PMC
April 2019
1 Read

The Construction and Optimization of Ecological Security Pattern in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 2;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Agriculture and Forestry Economic Management, School of Economic Management, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

Urban agglomerations have become a new geographical unit in China, breaking the administrative fortresses between cities, which means that the population and economic activities between cities will become more intensive in the future. Constructing and optimizing the ecological security pattern of urban agglomerations is important for promoting harmonious social-economic development and ecological protection. Using the Harbin-Changchun urban agglomeration as a case study, we have identified ecological sources based on the evaluation of ecosystem functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071190DOI Listing

Photodegradation of tefuryltrione in water under UV irradiation: Identification of transformation products and elucidation of photodegradation pathway.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 6;227:133-141. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, Heilongjiang, China. Electronic address:

Photodegradation is an important abiotic degradation process in the aquatic environment. In this study, the photodegradation of tefuryltrione in aqueous solution was investigated under UV-Visible irradiation. Effects of carbonate (CO), bicarbonate (HCO), nitrate (NO), hydrogen phosphate (HPO), potassium (K), and ammonium (NH) on the photodegradation kinetics of tefuryltrione were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.174DOI Listing

Rumen parameters of yaks (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Life Sciences, International Centre for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Yaks and indigenous Qaidam cattle and cattle-yak crosses (C × Y) graze on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) throughout the year, but yaks are raised at higher elevations than cattle. Yaks do not receive supplementary feed whereas cattle require supplementary feed during harsh winter. We hypothesized that yaks would cope with the severe conditions of the QTP better than cattle and utilize the pasture more efficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13095DOI Listing

Bioactive Products From Plant-Endophytic Gram-Positive Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2019 29;10:463. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico.

Endophytes constitute plant-colonizing microorganisms in a mutualistic symbiosis relationship. They are found in most ecosystems reducing plant crops' biotic and abiotic stressors by stimulating immune responses, excluding plant pathogens by niche competition, and participating in antioxidant activities and phenylpropanoid metabolism, whose activation produces plant defense, structural support, and survival molecules. In fact, metabolomic studies have demonstrated that endophyte genes associated to specific metabolites are involved in plant growth promotion (PGP) by stimulating plant hormones production such as auxins and gibberellins or as plant protective agents against microbial pathogens, cancer, and insect pests, but eco-friendly and eco-safe. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00463
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449470PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Interactions between rodents and weeds in a lowland rice agro-ecosystem: the need for an integrated approach to management.

Integr Zool 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines.

Rodents and weeds are identified as important pests to rice crops in Southeast Asia. The interaction between these two major pests is poorly documented. In temperate cereal systems seeds of grass weeds can be an important food source for rodents and weed cover along crop margins provide important refuge for rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12395DOI Listing

Quantifying Ecological Integrity of Terrestrial Systems to Inform Management of Multiple-Use Public Lands in the United States.

Environ Manage 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Bureau of Land Management, National Operations Center, Denver, CO, 80255, USA.

The concept of ecological integrity has been applied widely to management of aquatic systems, but still is considered by many to be too vague and difficult to quantify to be useful for managing terrestrial systems, particularly across broad areas. Extensive public lands in the western United States are managed for diverse uses such as timber harvest, livestock grazing, energy development, and wildlife conservation, some of which may degrade ecological integrity. We propose a method for assessing ecological integrity on multiple-use lands that identifies the components of integrity and levels in the ecological hierarchy where the assessment will focus, and considers existing policies and management objectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-019-01163-wDOI Listing

Taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to slag-based fertilizer amendment in rice cropping systems.

Environ Int 2019 Apr 10;127:531-539. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea; Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The effective utilization of slag-based Silicon fertilizer (silicate fertilizer) in agriculture to improve crop productivity and to mitigate environmental consequences turns it into a high value added product in sustainable agriculture. Despite the integral role of soil microbiome in agricultural production and virtually all ecosystem processes, our understanding of the microbial role in ecosystem functions and agricultural productivity in response to the silicate fertilizer amendment is, however, elusive. In this study, using 16S rRNA gene and ITS amplicon illumina sequencing and a functional gene microarray, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Qualifying the effects of single and multiple stressors on the food web structure of Dutch drainage ditches using a literature review and conceptual models.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands; Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen University and Research, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

In September 2017, a workshop was held at Wageningen University and Research to determine the current state of knowledge of multiple stressor effects on aquatic ecosystems and to assess how to improve prediction of these effects. We developed a theoretical framework that integrates species-level responses to stressors to predict how these effects propagate through higher levels of biological organisation. Here, we present the application of the framework for drainage ditch ecosystems in the Netherlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.497DOI Listing

Changes in fungal communities across a forest disturbance gradient.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

World Agroforestry Centre, East & Southern Africa Region, 13 Elm Road, Woodlands, Lusaka, Zambia

Deforestation has a substantial impact on above ground biodiversity, but the response of below ground soil fungi remains poorly understood. In a tropical montane rainforest in southwestern China, plots were established along a forest degradation gradient ranging from mature and regenerated forests to open land to examine the impacts of forest degradation and deforestation on ecosystem diversity and function. Here, we evaluate the changes in below ground fungal diversity and community composition using a metabarcoding approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00080-19DOI Listing

Developing stakeholder-driven scenarios on land sharing and land sparing - Insights from five European case studies.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Feistmantelstraße 4, 1180, Vienna, Austria.

Empirical research on land sharing and land sparing has been criticized because preferences of local stakeholders, socio-economic aspects, a bundle of ecosystem services and the local context were only rarely integrated. Using storylines and scenarios is a common approach to include land use drivers and local contexts or to cope with the uncertainties of future developments. The objective of the presented research is to develop comparable participatory regional land use scenarios for the year 2030 reflecting land sharing, land sparing and more intermediate developments across five different European landscapes (Austria, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Spain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.050DOI Listing

Spatial and interspecies differences in concentrations of eight trace elements in wild freshwater fishes at different trophic levels from middle and eastern China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 11;672:883-892. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China. Electronic address:

There have been numerous studies on concentrations of trace elements in aquatic ecosystems, but few have been conducted at a large spatial scale. This study collected 410 samples of five wild freshwater fishes at different trophic levels from middle and eastern China. Concentrations of eight trace elements, chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and stable isotope ratios (δC and δN) were determined in dorsal muscle of fishes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.134DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Natural habitat fragments obscured the distance effect on maintaining the diversity of insect pollinators and crop productivity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

Heliyon 2019 Mar 28;5(3):e01425. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, 00153, Italy.

In tropical regions, habitat change and fragmentation partly occur due to urbanization. This change of land-use can affect many ecosystem services and their providers, such as pollination and pollinators. Within agricultural systems, monoculture systems and pesticide application are the most detrimental to pollinators and insect communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441823PMC

Genomic signatures of introgression between commercial and native bumblebees, , in western Iberian Peninsula-Implications for conservation and trade regulation.

Evol Appl 2019 Apr 11;12(4):679-691. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências Universidade de Lisboa Lisboa Portugal.

Human-mediated introductions of species may have profound impacts on native ecosystems. One potential impact with largely unforeseen consequences is the potential admixture of introduced with autochthonous species through hybridization. Throughout the world, bumblebees have been deliberately introduced for crop pollination with known negative impacts on native pollinators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439495PMC

Biodiversity loss in a Mediterranean ecosystem due to an extreme warming event unveils the role of an engineering gorgonian species.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 11;9(1):5911. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institut d'Ecologia Aquàtica, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071, Girona, Spain.

Stochastic perturbations can trigger major ecosystem shifts. Marine systems have been severely affected in recent years by mass mortality events related to positive thermal anomalies. Although the immediate effects in the species demography affected by mortality events are well known, information on the mid- to long-term effects at the community level is much less documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41929-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459914PMC

Update on the biology and ecology of Culicoides species in the South-West region of Cameroon with implications on the transmission of Mansonella perstans.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Apr 11;12(1):166. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background: Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratoponidae) are tiny, stout, blood-sucking flies with a near worldwide distribution. When present, they are often considered a biting nuisance but in addition, they are involved in the transmission of pathogens to humans, domestic and wild animals. Data on Culicoides species in the South-West region of Cameroon dates back to the 1950s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3432-9DOI Listing

Policy and Science for Global Health Security: Shaping the Course of International Health.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

EpiLab, Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Private Bag, 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

The global burden of infectious diseases and the increased attention to natural, accidental, and deliberate biological threats has resulted in significant investment in infectious disease research. Translating the results of these studies to inform prevention, detection, and response efforts often can be challenging, especially if prior relationships and communications have not been established with decision-makers. Whatever scientific information is shared with decision-makers before, during, and after public health emergencies is highly dependent on the individuals or organizations who are communicating with policy-makers. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/60
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020060DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Global effects of non-native tree species on multiple ecosystem services.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Cc. del Mar y Ambientales, Instituto Universitario de Investigación Marina (INMAR), Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, Universidad de Cádiz, E-11510, Puerto Real, Spain.

Non-native tree (NNT) species have been transported worldwide to create or enhance services that are fundamental for human well-being, such as timber provision, erosion control or ornamental value; yet NNTs can also produce undesired effects, such as fire proneness or pollen allergenicity. Despite the variety of effects that NNTs have on multiple ecosystem services, a global quantitative assessment of their costs and benefits is still lacking. Such information is critical for decision-making, management and sustainable exploitation of NNTs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12511DOI Listing

Influence of long term nitrogen limitation on lipid, protein and pigment production of in photoheterotrophic cultures.

PeerJ 2019 1;7:e6624. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Lahti, Finland.

Nitrogen limitation is considered a good strategy for enhancement of algal lipid production while conversely N repletion has been shown to result in biomass rich in proteins. In this study, the influence of long-term N limitation on fatty acid (FA), protein, chlorophyll , and carotenoid concentrations was studied in N limited cultures. Biomass composition was analyzed from three-time points from N starved late stationary phase cultures, exposed to three different initial N concentrations in the growth medium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448558PMC

Publisher Correction: Grassland dynamics in response to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2014.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 11;9(1):6181. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Urban Environment Systems, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41390-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458158PMC

Mikania Micrantha Wilt Virus Alters Insect Vector's Host Preference to Enhance Its Own Spread.

Viruses 2019 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in the Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

As an invasive weed, Kunth has caused serious damage to natural forest ecosystems in South China in recent years. Mikania micrantha wilt virus (MMWV), an isolate of the (GeMV), is transmitted by (Sulzer) in a non-persistent manner and can effectively inhibit the growth of . . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040336DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Reviewing historical traditional knowledge for innovative conservation management: A re-evaluation of wetland grazing.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 20;666:1114-1125. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institute of Ecology and Botany, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, 2163 Vácrátót, Hungary; Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy, 060031 Bucharest, Romania.

Wetlands are fragile, dynamic systems, transient at larger temporal scales and strongly affected by long-term human activities. Sustaining at least some aspects of human management, particularly traditional grazing, would be especially important as a way of maintaining the "necessary" disturbances for many endangered species. Traditional ecological knowledge represents an important source of information for erstwhile management practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.292DOI Listing

Small-scale interaction of iron and phosphorus in flooded soils with rice growth.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 5;669:911-919. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

In the rhizosphere of flooded paddy soils, the solubilization, efflux, and uptake of phosphorus (P) are highly intertwined with iron (Fe) redox cycling. However, the direct observation of Fe-P coupling in the rhizosphere is challenging. This study combined high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) techniques to capture the one-dimensional distributions of soluble reactive P (SRP), soluble Fe(II), and labile P and Fe in the root zone of rice (Oryza sativa L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.054DOI Listing

Cave Actinobacteria as Producers of Bioactive Metabolites.

Front Microbiol 2019 22;10:387. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Recently, there is an urgent need for new drugs due to the emergence of drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms and new infectious diseases. Members of phylum Actinobacteria are promising source of bioactive compounds notably antibiotics. The search for such new compounds has shifted to extreme or underexplored environments to increase the possibility of discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438885PMC

Impacts of land reclamation on tidal marsh 'blue carbon' stocks.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 25;672:427-437. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.

Tidal marsh ecosystems are among earth's most efficient natural organic carbon (C) sinks and provide myriad ecosystem services. However, approximately half have been 'reclaimed' - i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.345DOI Listing

Integrating Native Hawaiian tradition with the modern technology of aquaponics.

Glob Health Promot 2019 Apr;26(3_suppl):87-92

7 School of Social Work and Indigenous Wellness Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Prior to western arrival in 1778, Native Hawaiians possessed a sophisticated culture and resource management system conducive to an island ecosystem. However, disenfranchisement from ancestral lands and traditional food sources as a result of colonization led to Native Hawaiians being forced to abandon many of their traditional practices. Today, many Native Hawaiians experience food insecurity, placing them at further risk for obesity and other nutrition-related chronic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975919831241DOI Listing

Fish conservation in the land of steppe and sky: Evolutionarily significant units of threatened salmonid species in Mongolia mirror major river basins.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 27;9(6):3416-3433. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Community Ecology Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ Halle Germany.

Mongolia's salmonids are suffering extensive population declines; thus, more comprehensive fisheries management and conservation strategies are required. To assist with their development, a better understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of these threatened species would allow a more targeted approach for preserving genetic variation and ultimately improve long-term species recoveries. It is hypothesized that the unfragmented river basins that have persisted across Mongolia provide unobstructed connectivity for resident salmonid species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434579PMC

Differentiations of determinants for the community compositions of bacteria, fungi, and nitrogen fixers in various steppes.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 22;9(6):3239-3250. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Regions and Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem Research Station, Soil Molecular Ecology Section, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture Chinese Academy of Sciences Changsha China.

Different types of steppes could provide heterogeneous habitat environments for underground microorganisms, but much less is known about how soil microbes fit the distinct habitats and what are the underlying mechanisms in shaping their community patterns.We simultaneously examined the community compositions and structures of soil bacteria, fungi, and diazotrophs across desert, typical, and meadow steppes in Inner Mongolia using high-throughput sequencing.The results showed that soil bacteria, fungi, and diazotrophs exhibited different distribution patterns across steppe types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434564PMC

Landscape genetic structure of reveals a putatively adaptive differentiation under strong gene flow in estuaries.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 28;9(6):3059-3074. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, and Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary Fudan University Shanghai China.

Estuarine organisms grow in highly heterogeneous habitats, and their genetic differentiation is driven by selective and neutral processes as well as population colonization history. However, the relative importance of the processes that underlie genetic structure is still puzzling. is a perennial grass almost limited in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent Qiantang River estuary. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ece3.4793
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434575PMC
March 2019
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Effects of plant functional group removal on structure and function of soil communities across contrasting ecosystems.

Ecol Lett 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901-83, Umeå, Sweden.

Loss of plant diversity has an impact on ecosystems worldwide, but we lack a mechanistic understanding of how this loss may influence below-ground biota and ecosystem functions across contrasting ecosystems in the long term. We used the longest running biodiversity manipulation experiment across contrasting ecosystems in existence to explore the below-ground consequences of 19 years of plant functional group removals for each of 30 contrasting forested lake islands in northern Sweden. We found that, against expectations, the effects of plant removals on the communities of key groups of soil organisms (bacteria, fungi and nematodes), and organic matter quality and soil ecosystem functioning (decomposition and microbial activity) were relatively similar among islands that varied greatly in productivity and soil fertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13266DOI Listing

The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe.

Ecol Lett 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, Germany.

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13265DOI Listing
April 2019
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A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.

Cover crops play an increasingly important role in improving soil quality, reducing agricultural inputs and improving environmental sustainability. The main objectives of this critical global review and systematic analysis were to assess cover crop practices in the context of their impacts on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balances (NGHGB) and crop productivity. Only studies that investigated the impacts of cover crops and measured one or a combination of: nitrogen leaching, soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrous oxide (N O), grain yield and nitrogen in grain of primary crop, and had a control treatment were included in the analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14644DOI Listing

Gut segments outweigh the diet in shaping the intestinal microbiota composition in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

AMB Express 2019 Apr 6;9(1):44. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, and State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Although dynamics of the complex microbial ecosystem populating the gastrointestinal tract of animals has profound and multifaceted impacts on host's metabolism and health, it remains unclear whether it is the intrinsic or extrinsic factors that play a more dominant role in mediating the composition of intestinal microbiota. To address this, we studied the impacts of two strikingly different diets on a herbivorous fish, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): a high-protein, low-fiber formula feed, and low-protein, high-fiber Sudan grass. After a 16-week feeding trial, microbial profiles of midgut and hindgut segments in both groups were compared. Read More

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https://amb-express.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13568
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0770-0DOI Listing
April 2019
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The ecosystem carbon sink implications of mountain forest expansion into abandoned grazing land: The role of subsoil and climatic factors.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 1;672:106-120. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Via San C. De Lellis s.n.c., 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Electronic address:

Woody encroachment is a widespread phenomenon resulting from the abandonment of mountain agricultural and pastoral practices during the last century. As a result, forests have expanded, increasing biomass and necromass carbon (C) pools. However, the impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) is less clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.329DOI Listing

Including aesthetic and recreational values in cost-effectiveness analyses of land use change based nitrogen abatement measures in Denmark.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 3;240:384-393. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

In recent years there has been an increased focus on including aspects such as greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity in cost-effectiveness analyses of nitrogen (N) abatement measures. Side-effects such as aesthetic and recreational benefits generated by the land use changes implied by some N abatement measures, such as afforestation and constructed wetlands, are included in ecosystem service approaches, but seldom explicitly in cost-effectiveness analyses. While several studies have estimated these values for e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.076DOI Listing
April 2019
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