25,781 results match your criteria Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment[Journal]


Seven new species of from conifers in Norway, Poland, and Russia.

Mycologia 2020 Jul 7:1-23. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria , Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

During surveys of insect-associated mycobiomes in Norway, Poland, and Russia, isolates with affinity to (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) were recovered. In this study, eight known species as well as the newly collected isolates were compared based on morphology and DNA sequence data for four gene regions. The results revealed seven new species, described here as , and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1778375DOI Listing

Modeling sediment diagenesis processes on riverbed to better quantify aquatic carbon fluxes and stocks in a small watershed of the Mid-Atlantic region.

Carbon Balance Manag 2020 Jul 6;15(1):13. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, 20705-2350, USA.

Background: Despite the widely recognized importance of aquatic processes for bridging gaps in the global carbon cycle, there is still a lack of understanding of the role of riverbed processes for carbon flows and stocks in aquatic environments. Here, we added a sediment diagenesis and sediment carbon (C) resuspension module into the SWAT-C model and tested it for simulating both particulate organic C (POC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) fluxes using 4 years of monthly observations (2014-2017) in the Tuckahoe watershed (TW) in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-020-00148-1DOI Listing

The emergent interactions that govern biodiversity change.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham NC 27708.

Observational studies have not yet shown that environmental variables can explain pervasive nonlinear patterns of species abundance, because those patterns could result from (indirect) interactions with other species (e.g., competition), and models only estimate direct responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003852117DOI Listing

Pervasive duplication, biased molecular evolution and comprehensive functional analysis of the PP2C family in Glycine max.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jul 6;21(1):465. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, P. R. China.

Background: Soybean (Glycine max) is an important oil provider and ecosystem participant. The protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) plays important roles in key biological processes. Molecular evolution and functional analysis of the PP2C family in soybean are yet to be reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06877-4DOI Listing

Heterogenized Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids in PebaxRnew. Thermal, Gas Transport and Antimicrobial Properties.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, IPCB-CNR, via P. Gaifami 18, 95126 Catania, Italy.

Imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have interesting antimicrobial activity and their inclusion in a flexible film is ideal to take advantage of their properties in practical applications. Poly(ether-block-amide) (PebaxRnew) films were prepared by solution casting, loading two synthetized ILs (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl-5-sulfoisophthalate [Hdmim][DMSIP], IL1 and 1-octyloximethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [OOMmim][PF], IL2) up to 5 wt.%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12061419DOI Listing

Impact of plastic mulch film debris on soil physicochemical and hydrological properties.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 30;266(Pt 3):115097. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700, AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The plastic mulch films used in agriculture are considered to be a major source of the plastic residues found in soil. Mulching with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is widely practiced and the resulting macro- and microscopic plastic residues in agricultural soil have aroused concerns for years. Over the past decades, a variety of biodegradable (Bio) plastics have been developed in the hope of reducing plastic contamination of the terrestrial ecosystem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115097DOI Listing

The bacterial community and metabolome dynamics and their interactions modulate fermentation process of whole crop corn silage prepared with or without inoculants.

Microb Biotechnol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland and Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Multi-omics approach was adopted to investigate the modulation of bacterial microbiota and metabolome as well as their interactions in whole crop corn ensiling systems by inoculating homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum or heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri. Inoculations of the two different inoculants resulted in substantial differences in microbial community and metabolic composition as well as their dynamics in ensiled corn. Inoculants also altered the correlations of microbiota in different manners, and various keystone species were identified in corn silages with different treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13623DOI Listing

Using problem formulation for fit-for-purpose pre-market environmental risk assessments of regulated stressors.

EFSA J 2019 Jul 8;17(Suppl 1):e170708. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Bioscience - Kalø Aarhus University Denmark.

Pre-market/prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) contribute to risk analyses performed to facilitate decisions about the market introduction of regulated stressors. Robust ERAs begin with an explicit problem formulation, which involves among other steps: (1) formally devising plausible pathways to harm that describe how the deployment of a regulated stressor could be harmful; (2) formulating risk hypotheses about the likelihood and severity of such events; (3) identifying the information that will be useful to test the risk hypotheses; and (4) developing a plan to acquire new data for hypothesis testing should tests with existing information be insufficient for decision-making. Here, we apply problem formulation to the assessment of possible adverse effects of RNA interference-based insecticidal genetically modified (GM) plants, GM growth hormone coho salmon, gene drive-modified mosquitoes and classical biological weed control agents on non-target organisms in a prospective manner, and of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees in a retrospective manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.e170708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055725PMC

Impact of Different Trace Elements on the Growth and Proteome of Two Strains of , Class "Acidobacteriia".

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:1227. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, Netherlands.

represents one of the most dominant bacterial groups across diverse ecosystems. However, insight into their ecology and physiology has been hampered by difficulties in cultivating members of this phylum. Previous cultivation efforts have suggested an important role of trace elements for the proliferation of , however, the impact of these metals on their growth and metabolism is not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315648PMC

Holocene vegetation history and human impact in the eastern Italian Alps: a multi-proxy study on the Coltrondo peat bog, Comelico Superiore, Italy.

Veg Hist Archaeobot 2020 1;29(4):407-426. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, via Torino 155, 30172 Venice-Mestre, Italy.

The present study aims to reconstruct vegetation development, climate changes and human impact using an ombrotrophic peat core from the Coltrondo bog in the eastern Italian Alps. Evidence from pollen, micro-charcoal, major and trace elements, and lead isotopes from this 7,900 years old peat deposit has been combined, and several climatic oscillations and phases of human impact detected. In particular, human presence was recorded in this area of the Alps from about 650 cal bc, with periods of increased activity at the end of the Middle Ages and also at the end of the 19th century, as evidenced by both human-related pollen and the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00334-019-00749-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319406PMC
October 2019

Response of protist community dynamics and co-occurrence patterns to the construction of artificial reefs: A case study in Daya Bay, China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 27;742:140575. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China; National Fishery Resources and Environment Dapeng Observation and Experimental Station, Shenzhen 518120, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Fishery Ecology and Environment, Guangzhou 510300, China; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of South China Sea Fishery Resources & Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, Guangzhou 510300, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 511458, China.

Artificial reefs (ARs) are widely used for biodiversity conservation and coastal habitat restoration. Although protists play an important ecological role in marine ecosystems, the response of the protist community to ARs is still poorly understood. In the current study, an Illumina sequencing analysis of 18S rDNA was performed, and the diversity, community structure, and co-occurrence networks of protists in the ARs and open sea area (OW) in Daya Bay were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140575DOI Listing

Parks under attack: Brazil's Iguaçu National Park illustrates a global threat to biodiversity.

Ambio 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Av. André Araújo, 2936, Manaus, AM, CEP 69.067-375, Brazil.

National parks are under attack in many parts of the world, including Brazil, which the Convention on Biodiversity ranks as the world's most biodiverse country. Brazil has been experiencing an unprecedented environmental crisis, and the political situation in the country favors approval of environmentally damaging measures by both the legislative and executive branches of government. A new and largely unreported setback is a proposal in the National Congress for a road cutting the Iguaçu National Park in two. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01353-5DOI Listing

Unsung heroes: fixing multifaceted sustainability challenges through insect biological control.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2020 Jun 4;40:77-84. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Agrosavia, Palmira, Colombia.

Insects are indispensable actors within global agri-food systems and ensure the delivery of myriad ecosystem services. A progressive decline in insect numbers - as inflicted by habitat loss, pollution or intensive agriculture - can jeopardize a sustained provisioning of those services. Though we routinely disregard how insects help meet multiple sustainable development challenges, a gradual insect decline can have grave, long-lasting consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.05.012DOI Listing

Earthworm Eisenia andrei modulates oxidative stress in bean plants Vicia faba irrigated with treated wastewater.

Ecotoxicology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Higher Institute of Agronomy Chott-Meriem, University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia.

With respect to reducing the pressure on freshwater resources, treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation represents a sustainable alternative in agriculture. Due to their low quality and variable composition, TWW could entail harmful consequences for living organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aims to evaluate how earthworm (Eisenia andrei) can modulate oxidative stress in bean plants (Vicia faba) that are irrigated over a course of 60 days with two doses of TWW (50 and 100%) in addition to a control condition (0%) irrigated with distilled water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-020-02243-yDOI Listing

Moss-biocrusts strongly decrease soil surface albedo, altering land-surface energy balance in a dryland ecosystem.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 22;741:140425. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.

Land surface albedo measures the degree to which the sun's radiation is absorbed or reflected, and thus can be highly influential in global climate trends, local weather phenomena, and biological processes. As an extensive living cover in drylands, biocrusts cover substantial land surface but their potential influences on surface albedo and energy balance are underdocumented, and its temporal dynamic is virtually unknown. We continuously measured the surface albedo, land-surface energy balance, temperature and moisture of moss-biocrust covered soil and bare soil for two years, and measured the surface color and roughness of the two land cover types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140425DOI Listing

Effects of removal on the nutrient stoichiometry of -dominated grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

PeerJ 2020 23;8:e9239. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Qinghai Academy of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinghai, China.

Background: Stoichiometric relations drive powerful constraints in several fundamental ecosystem processes. However, limited studies have been conducted on the ecological stoichiometry of plants after the change of community composition induced by removal in alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Methods: We investigated the effects of removal on ecological stoichiometry by estimating the C:N:P stoichiometry in species, functional group and community levels of the ecosystem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319027PMC

Moving beyond the distinction between the bright and dark sides of termites to achieve sustainable development goals.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2020 Jun 4;40:71-76. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Sorbonne Université, UPEC, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Institut d'écologie et des sciences de l'environnement, IESS, FEST, F-75005 Paris, France; Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute, SFRI, Dong Nac, Tu Liem, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Termites are amongst the main macroinvertebrate decomposers in tropical ecosystems and they exert additional impacts through the creation of biostructures (mounds, galleries, sheetings, etc.) with different soil physical and chemical properties, thereby impacting positively on numerous ecosystem services for humankind. Unfortunately, this positive or 'bright' role of termites is often overshadowed by their 'dark' side, that is, their status as pests threatening agriculture and constructions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.05.010DOI Listing

[Effects of Biochar Application on Soil Microbial Nutrient Limitations and Carbon Use Efficiency in Lou Soil].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 May;41(5):2425-2433

Agrotechnical Promotion Station in Mianxian Country, Hanzhong 724200, China.

Soil microbial metabolism is vital for nutrient cycling and stability of an ecosystem. To elucidate the long-term effects of biochar application on nutrient limitations and carbon use efficiency (CUE) of soil microbial metabolisms, biochars pyrolyzed at 450℃ from trunks and branches of fruit trees under an oxygen-limited condition were mixed with the top Lou soils (0-20 cm) with application amounts of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 t·hm in 2012. Corn-wheat rotation was carried out afterwards for seven years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201911062DOI Listing

[Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Arable Land Soil of China].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Jun;41(6):2822-2833

College of Resources and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China.

Soil is an important component of the terrestrial ecosystem and an indispensable natural resource in agricultural production. Understanding the spatial distribution characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in arable land soil is important to safeguard the agriculture ecosystem and human health. Based on the collected data of heavy metal concentrations in arable land soil in various administrative regions of China since 2002, first, we selected and removed the abnormal values, then obtained the spatial distribution of the provinces by the Kriging method, and discussed the spatial distribution characteristics of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg) in arable land soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201910075DOI Listing

[Temporal and Spatial Variation Patterns of Picophytoplankton and Their Correlations with Environmental Factors During the Wet Season in East Lake Dongting].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Jun;41(6):2679-2687

Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in Midstream of Yangtze Plain, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Institute of Agro-Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

Picophytoplankton (<3 μm), comprising picocyanobacteria (PCY) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), are considerably important in the material circulation and energy flow of aquatic ecosystems. To explore the temporal and spatial variation patterns of picophytoplankton and their correlations with environmental factors in lotic Yangtze-connected lakes, field investigations were performed on a monthly basis during the wet season (May to August) in 2019 in East Lake Dongting, a Yangtze-connected lake. The results indicated that both the Chla biomass and abundances of picophytoplankton exhibited significant spatial and temporal variability (<0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201912223DOI Listing

Astragalus root extract improved average daily gain, immunity, antioxidant status and ruminal microbiota of early weaned yak calves.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Desert Animal Adaptations and Husbandry, Wyler Department of Dryland Agriculture, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Background: Early weaning in yak calves is being attempted to improve yak reproduction rate. However, this has to be done with caution because of the high mortality rate of calves due to the lack of nutrients and the harsh environmental conditions. Twenty-four weaned male yak calves were used in a 60 d feeding trial in which astragalus root extract (ARE) was supplemented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10617DOI Listing

Enhancing pollination is more effective than increased conventional agriculture inputs for improving watermelon yields.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 23;10(12):5343-5353. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Landscape and Biodiversity Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) Ås Norway.

Agricultural practices to improve yields in small-scale farms in Africa usually focus on improving growing conditions for the crops by applying fertilizers, irrigation, and/or pesticides. This may, however, have limited effect on yield if the availability of effective pollinators is too low. In this study, we established an experiment to test whether soil fertility, soil moisture, and/or pollination was limiting watermelon () yields in Northern Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319119PMC

Hydrology-driven responses of herbivorous geese in relation to changes in food quantity and quality.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 20;10(12):5281-5292. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Administrative Bureau of Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve Yueyang China.

East Dongting Lake is a Ramsar site and a particularly important wintering ground for herbivorous geese along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the water regime and has a significant impact on wetland ecosystems downstream. We studied the responses of two sympatric herbivorous goose species, the Lesser white-fronted goose and Bean goose , to habitat change by investigating their food conditions, habitat selection, and diet composition in the wintering periods of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, which had early and late water recession, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319142PMC

Does plant community plasticity mediate microbial homeostasis?

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 24;10(12):5251-5258. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Biological Sciences University of Texas at El Paso El Paso TX USA.

Microbial homeostasis-constant microbial element ratios along resource gradients-is a core ecological tenet, yet not all systems display homeostasis. We suggest investigations of homeostasis mechanisms must also consider plant-microbial interactions. Specifically, we hypothesized that ecosystems with strong plant community plasticity to changing resources will have homeostatic microbial communities, with less microbial resource cost, because plants reduce variance in resource stoichiometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319231PMC

Two new species of Ophiostomatales (Sordariomycetes) associated with the bark beetle from Poland.

MycoKeys 2020 17;68:23-48. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, 1431, Ås, Norway Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research Ås Norway.

Bark beetles belonging to the genus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are known vectors of fungi, such as the pathogenic species involved in alpine fir () mortality. Associations between hardwood-infesting species and fungi in Europe have received very little research attention. Ectosymbiotic fungi residing in and (Ophiostomatales, Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) were commonly detected in previous surveys of the -associated mycobiome in Poland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.68.50035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314864PMC

Microbiome definition re-visited: old concepts and new challenges.

Microbiome 2020 Jun 30;8(1):103. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

The field of microbiome research has evolved rapidly over the past few decades and has become a topic of great scientific and public interest. As a result of this rapid growth in interest covering different fields, we are lacking a clear commonly agreed definition of the term "microbiome." Moreover, a consensus on best practices in microbiome research is missing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00875-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329523PMC

Trace Element Bioaccumulation in Stone Curlew (, Linnaeus, 1758): A Case Study from Sicily (Italy).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 28;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Science, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy.

The study aimed to highlight the degree of trace element contamination along three sites of Sicily: the Magnisi peninsula (MP), located in proximity to the Augusta-Priolo-Melilli petrochemical plant; the Ragusa agro-ecosystem (RA), characterized by a rural landscape; and the Gela plain (GP), characterized by intensive agriculture and a disused petrochemical plant. We collected biological samples (abraded back feathers and blood) of the Stone Curlew ( Linnaeus, 1758) as well as soil samples to determine the trace elements concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se and V using ICP-MS analysis. The results found for the three sites show different trends of accumulation, which depend on the different management and geological characteristics of the areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134597DOI Listing

Selenium Enrichment Enhances the Quality and Shelf Life of Basil Leaves.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The biofortification of leafy vegetables with selenium (Se) is a good way to increase human dietary Se intake. In addition, selenium delays plant senescence by enhancing the antioxidant capacity of plant tissues, decreasing postharvest losses. We investigated the effects of selenium addition on the production and quality of sweet basil () leaves of two harvesting phases, hereafter referred to as cuts, during the crop cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060801DOI Listing

DNA metabarcoding effectively quantifies diatom responses to nutrients in streams.

Ecol Appl 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Nutrient pollution from human activities remains a common problem facing stream ecosystems. Identifying ecological responses to phosphorus and nitrogen can inform decisions affecting the protection and management of streams and their watersheds. Diatoms are particularly useful because they are a highly diverse group of unicellular algae found in nearly all aquatic environments and are sensitive responders to increased nutrient concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2205DOI Listing

Nitrogen futures in the shared socioeconomic pathways 4.

Glob Environ Change 2020 Mar;61:102029

Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, United Kingdom.

Humanity's transformation of the nitrogen cycle has major consequences for ecosystems, climate and human health, making it one of the key environmental issues of our time. Understanding how trends could evolve over the course of the 21 century is crucial for scientists and decision-makers from local to global scales. Scenario analysis is the primary tool for doing so, and has been applied across all major environmental issues, including nitrogen pollution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.102029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321850PMC

Leaf Nutrient Resorption in Lucerne Decreases with Relief of Relative Soil Nutrient Limitation under Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization with Irrigation.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 29;10(1):10525. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems; Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730020, P.R. China.

Leaf nutrient resorption is an important mechanism in adapting to adverse environments. However, few studies examine how nutrient resorption responds to phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization or to a shift in nutrient limitation due to water supply and fertilization. On the Loess Plateau of China, we treated lucerne (Medicago sativa L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65484-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324584PMC

Data from extensive comparative measurements of conventional, conservation and organic agricultures in southwestern France.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 7;31:105827. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

INRA, UMR 1248 AGIR, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.

This article present observational and experimental data describing a range of biotic and abiotic parameters that can be related to ecosystem services under contrasted types of crop management: conventional, conservation and organic agricultures. Ninety fields, either cultivated with winter wheat or fava bean, located in Southwestern France, near Toulouse, were monitored for two growing seasons (2014-2016). The dataset encompass data about crop pests (aphids, grain borer, bean beetles, slugs), crop pest natural enemies (hoverflies, parasitoids, predators), soil sensitivity to erosion, crop productivity, pathogenic fungal infection and root colonization by mycorrhiza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306603PMC

Genetic Analysis of Domestication Parallels in Annual and Perennial Sunflowers ( spp.): Routes to Crop Development.

Front Plant Sci 2020 12;11:834. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Parallels exist between the domestication of new species and the improvement of various crops through selection on traits which favor the sowing, harvest and retention of yield potential and the directed efforts to improve their agronomics, disease resistance and quality characteristics. Common selection pressures may result in the parallel selection of orthologs underlying these traits and homologies between crop species can be exploited by plant breeders to improve germplasm. Perennial grains and oilseeds are a class of proposed crops for improving the diversity and sustainability of agricultural systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304338PMC

Evaluating surface water quality using water quality index in Beiyun River, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is one of the most water-scarce regions in China, because of the frequent human activities. Water scarcity and pollution have weakened the service functions of water ecosystems and hindered the regional economic development. As the "lifeline" of the economic development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the water quality of Beiyun River has been widely concerned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09682-4DOI Listing

Abundance of kinless hubs within soil microbial networks are associated with high functional potential in agricultural ecosystems.

Environ Int 2020 Sep 25;142:105869. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Microbial taxa within complex ecological networks can be classified by their universal roles based on their level of connectivity with other taxa. Highly connected taxa within an ecological network (kinless hubs) are theoretically expected to support higher levels of ecosystem functions than less connected taxa (peripherals). Empirical evidence of the role of kinless hubs in regulating the functional potential of soil microbial communities, however, is largely unexplored and poorly understood in agricultural ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105869DOI Listing
September 2020

Re-estimating methane emissions from Chinese paddy fields based on a regional empirical model and high-spatial-resolution data.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 17;265(Pt A):115017. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

Quantifying methane (CH) emissions from paddy fields is essential for evaluating the environmental risks of the paddy rice production system, and improving the accuracy of CH modeling is a key issue that needs to be addressed. Based on a database containing 835 field measurements, both single national and region-specific models were established to estimate CH emissions from paddy fields considering different environmental factors and management patterns using 70% of the measurements. The remaining 30% of the measurements were then used for model evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115017DOI Listing

Mechanisms in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that enhance the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

J Appl Microbiol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia.

Nitrogen fixation is an important biological process in terrestrial ecosystems and for global crop production. Legume nodulation and N fixation has been improved using nodule-enhancing rhizobacteria (NER) under both regular and stressed conditions. The positive effect of NER on legume-rhizobia symbiosis can be facilitated by plant growth-promoting mechanisms, some of which remain to be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.14754DOI Listing

The presence of microcystins in the coastal waters of Nigeria, from the Bights of Bonny and Benin, Gulf of Guinea.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Cyanobacteria, Department of Biological Sciences, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Microcystins (MCs) are the most studied toxins of cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies worldwide. However, they are poorly documented in coastal waters in several parts of the world. In this study, we investigated the composition of cyanobacteria and the presence of microcystins (MCs) in several coastal aquatic ecosystems of Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09740-xDOI Listing

The impact of climate change and glacier mass loss on the hydrology in the Mont-Blanc massif.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 26;10(1):10420. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

BioGéosciences, UMR6282 CNRS/Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

The Mont-Blanc massif, being iconic with its large glaciers and peaks of over 4,000 m, will experience a sharp increase in summer temperatures during the twenty-first century. By 2100, the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and hydrosphere in the Alps is expected to lead to a decrease in annual river discharge. In this work, we modelled the twenty-first century evolution of runoff in the Arve river, downstream of Mont-Blanc's French side. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67379-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319973PMC

Emerging salt marshes as a source of Trichoderma arenarium sp. nov. and other fungal bioeffectors for biosaline agriculture.

J Appl Microbiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Fungal Genomics Group, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Aims: Sustainable agriculture requires effective and safe biofertilizers and biofungicides with low environmental impact. Natural ecosystems that closely resemble the conditions of biosaline agriculture may present a reservoir for fungal strains that can be used as novel bioeffectors.

Methods And Results: We isolated a library of fungi from the rhizosphere of three natural halotolerant plants grown in the emerging tidal salt marshes on the southeast coast of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.14751DOI Listing

Mutual thinking of Pakistan and India on regional air quality issue has never been more pressing.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Air pollution is the common enemy of Pakistan and India, with both countries experiencing the worst air pollution in the world. According to the World Air Quality Report in 2018, 22 cities in India and 2 cities in Pakistan are among the world's top 30 most polluted cities. Recently, it is estimated that 645,000 premature deaths in India, and 111,000 in Pakistan, are recorded every year (Lelieveld, 2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4292DOI Listing

Spider Mites Cause More Damage to Tomato in the Dark When Induced Defenses Are Lower.

J Chem Ecol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Section Molecular and Chemical Ecology, Department of Evolutionary and Population Biology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to cope with incidental variation (e.g. herbivory) and periodical variation (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-020-01195-1DOI Listing

Determination of glyphosate, AMPA and glufosinate by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in waters of the Santarém Plateau, Brazilian Amazon.

J Environ Sci Health B 2020 Jun 25:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Herbicide use, mainly glyphosate, has been intense in worldwide agriculture, including in the Brazilian Amazon region. This study aimed to validate a method for determining glyphosate and its degradation product, AMPA, and glufosinate by HPLC-FL in 58 water samples collected at the Santarém plateau region (), in the western of Pará state, Brazil. The method involves filtration and direct injection in the HPLC-FL for AMPA analysis, or previous concentration (10×) by lyophilization for glufosinate and glyphosate analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2020.1784668DOI Listing

Application of N tracing for estimating nitrogen cycle processes in soils of a constructed wetland.

Water Res 2020 Jun 15;183:116062. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Institute of Plant Ecology (IFZ), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Germany; School of Biology and Environmental Science and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, 4, Ireland.

Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) area technology for the attenuation of contaminants such as organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and sulphur (S) in water coming from point or diffuse sources. Currently there is a lack of knowledge on the rates of gross N transformations in soils of the ICW bed leading to losses of reactive N to the environment. In addition, the kinetics of these processes need to be studied thoroughly for the sustainable use of ICW for removal of excessive N in the treatment of waste waters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116062DOI Listing

Rumen Microbiota Distribution Analyzed by High-Throughput Sequencing After Oral Doxycycline Administration in Beef Cattle.

Front Vet Sci 2020 2;7:251. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Shandong Research Center for Technology of Reduction of Antibiotics Administered to Animal and Poultry, Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang, China.

The beef cattle rumen is a heterogenous microbial ecosystem that is necessary for the host to digest food and support growth. The importance of the rumen microbiota (RM) is also widely recognized for its critical roles in metabolism and immunity. The level of health is indicated by a dynamic RM distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280444PMC

An Overview of the Sociological and Environmental Factors Influencing Eating Food Behavior in Canada.

Front Nutr 2020 3;7:77. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

This review extensively discusses various socio environmental factors affecting eating behavior of the general public within Canada including the development and implementation of national policies. A framework representing the determinants of healthy eating can be grouped into four categories i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283517PMC

Bacterial Communities in Stream Biofilms in a Degrading Grassland Watershed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Front Microbiol 2020 5;11:1021. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, Polson, MT, United States.

Grassland is among the largest terrestrial biomes and is experiencing serious degradation, especially on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). However, the influences of grassland degradation on microbial communities in stream biofilms are largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we investigated the bacterial communities in stream biofilms in sub-basins with different grassland status in the Qinghai Lake watershed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290132PMC

Genomic Analysis of Diverse Members of the Fungal Genus Reveals Novel Lineages, Unique Genome Content and a Potential Bacterial Associate.

G3 (Bethesda) 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The genus represents an enigmatic group of fungi important in agriculture and widely distributed in natural arid ecosystems. Of the nine described species, two ( and ) are important pathogens on the roots of members of Cucurbitaceae in agricultural settings. The remaining seven species are capable of colonizing roots from a diverse host range without causing obvious disease symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.401489DOI Listing

Lignite effects on NH, NO, CO and CH emissions during composting of manure.

J Environ Manage 2020 Jun 20;271:110960. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Production of compost from cattle manure results in ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions, causing the loss of valuable nitrogen (N) and having negative environmental impacts. Lignite addition to cattle pens has been reported to reduce NH emissions from manure by approximately 60%. However, the effect of lignite additions during the manure composting process, in terms of gaseous emissions of NH, nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO), and methane (CH) is not clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110960DOI Listing