333,835 results match your criteria Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment[Journal]

The inter-agency committee on radiation safety - 30 years of international coordination of radiation protection and safety matters.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

World Health Organization, Geneve, GE, SWITZERLAND.

The Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACRS) was constituted in 1990, as a forum for collaboration and coordination between international bodies with regards to radiation safety. It consists today of representatives of eight intergovernmental member organizations (EC, FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNSCEAR and WHO) and five observer non-governmental organizations (ICRP, ICRU, IEC, IRPA and ISO). The IACRS provides a platform for interaction between these relevant international bodies to contribute to a common understanding of the scientific basis and legal framework for the application of the system of radiation protection, towards global harmonization of radiation safety standards. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Promoting corn stover degradation via sequential processing of steam explosion and cellulase/lactic acid bacteria-assisted ensilage.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 10;337:125392. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Animal Science and Technology College, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

To improve the utilization efficiency of corn stover , steam explosion pretreatment and cellulase/lactic acid bacteria-assisted ensilage storage were conducted in sequence, mainly focusing on morphological structure, lignocellulose fraction, cellulose accessibility and degradation profile. The results showed that there was a synergistic effect of steam explosion and ensilage storage, where hemicellulose of corn stover was partly degraded during steam explosion processing (70%) or ensilage storage (20-40%). Meanwhile, its morphological structure was apparently broken, increasing cellulose accessibility (2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antimicrobial use, biosecurity, herd characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli in ten Finnish pig farms.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jun 10;193:105408. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated connections between antimicrobial use (AMU), biosecurity, and the numbers of pigs and staff in ten Finnish farrow-to-finish herds. Data on AMU in each herd were collected for 12 months. AMU was quantified as treatment incidences per 1000 days at risk (TI) using the consensus defined daily dose calculation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthesis and evaluation of trypanocidal activity of derivatives of naturally occurring 2,5-diphenyloxazoles.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Jun 12;42:116253. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan.

African trypanosomiasis is a zoonotic protozoan disease affecting the nervous system. Various natural products reportedly exhibit trypanocidal activity. Naturally occurring 2,5-diphenyloxazoles present in Oxytropis lanata, and their derivatives, were synthesized. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nitrogen fertilizer affects rhizosphere Cd re-mobilization by mediating gene AmALM2 and AmALMT7 expression in edible amaranth roots.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 6;418:126310. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

In-situ stabilization of Cd-contaminated farmland is a commonly used remediation technology. Yet, rhizosphere metabolites (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modification of ordered mesoporous carbon for removal of environmental contaminants from aqueous phase: A review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 30;418:126266. Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of water bodies by potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants has aroused extensive concerns worldwide. Thus it is significant to develop effective adsorbents for removing these contaminants. As a new member of carbonaceous material families (activated carbon, biochar, and graphene), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with larger specific surface area, ordered pore structure, and higher pore volume are being evaluated for their use in contaminant removal. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Foliar absorption and field herbicidal studies of atrazine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 7;418:126350. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Av. Três de Março 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Nanoparticles loaded with atrazine show weed control efficacy even with lower application doses of the active ingredient. Changes in the mode of action of the herbicide through the nanoformulation are key to understanding the efficiency of post-emergence activity of nanoatrazine. Here, we report the leaf absorption and translocation of nanoatrazine and atrazine employing radiometric techniques and compare their herbicidal effects in greenhouse and field conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oxidation induced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment reduces IgG/IgE binding capacity and improves the functionality of glycinin.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 12;363:130300. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. Electronic address:

The effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment times from 2 to 5 min at 40 kV on IgG/IgE binding capacity and functionality of soybean glycinin was examined. A substantial reduction in the binding capacity (91.64% for IgG and 81. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnosing Strongylus vulgaris in pooled fecal samples.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jun 8;296:109494. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Texas Tech University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Amarillo, TX, USA.

Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic intestinal helminth parasite infecting horses. The migrating larvae in the mesenteric blood vessels can cause non-strangulating intestinal infarctions, which have a guarded prognosis for survival. Infections are typically diagnosed by coproculture, but a PCR test is available in some countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Interaction of nanoplastics with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the aquatic environment: A special reference to eco-corona formation and associated impacts.

Water Res 2021 Jun 2;201:117319. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510641, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Nanoplastics (NPs) are plastic particles with sizes ranging between 1 and 1000 nm, exhibiting exceptional qualities such as large surface area, lightweight, durability; therefore, are widely used in cosmetics, paints, electronics, etc. NPs are inevitability released into the aquatic environment where they tend to interact with both, the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and other fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), respectively secreted by organisms (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sperm ultrastructure of Ruditapes variegata and Tapes literatus (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae, Tapetinae) from Pescadores, Taiwan.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 10;71:101575. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Life Science, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

In the present study, we have investigated the ultrastructures of the mature gonadal spermatozoa of R. variegata and T. literatus and presented comparisons with the Manila clam, R. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbial degradation of azo dyes by textile effluent adapted, Enterobacter hormaechei under microaerophilic condition.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 9;250:126805. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Geobiotechnology Laboratory, National College (Autonomous), (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, 620001, India; PG and Research Department of Botany, National College (Autonomous), Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, 620001, India.

Landmark and sustainable eco-friendly dye treatment processes are highly desirous to ameliorate their effect on the environment. The present study investigated the azo dye degradation efficiency of adapted Enterobacter hormaechei SKB 16 from textile effluent polluted soil in optimized culture conditions. The adapted bacteria strain was identified by standard microbiological and molecular techniques. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of slow versus rapid digesting carbohydrates on substrate oxidation in pre-pubertal children: A randomized crossover trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3718-3728. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, 79968, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Consumption of rapid digesting sugars by children are under increased scrutiny because of their contribution to unhealthy weight gain. Previous studies in adults and children have suggested that altering the blend of carbohydrates (CHOs) consumed may cause shifts in substrate utilization. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of consuming a slow digesting carbohydrate (SDC) and rapid digesting carbohydrate (RDC) on CHO and fat oxidation, glucose, and insulin responses at rest, during exercise, and post-exercise rest in pre-pubescent children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase RIPK regulates broad-spectrum ROS signaling in multiple layers of plant immune system.

Mol Plant 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the activity of respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) plays a vital role in multiple layers of the plant immune system, including pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (DTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). It is generally established that RBOHD was activated by different receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) in responses to different immune elicitors. In this study, we found that RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK), an RLCK VII subfamily member, contributes to ROS production in multiple layers of the plant immune system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microscopic and molecular detection of Deraiophoronema evansi (Lewis, 1882) in domestic Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) of Mongolia.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jun 12:102404. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Mongolian University of Life Science, Zaisan, 17042, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Electronic address:

Cameline filarosis is an important parasitic disease having an economic impact on the camel industry around the world. However, there has been no study on filarosis in Bactrian camels of Mongolia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detect and identify microfilariae of Deraiophoronema evansi (D. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of different rice farming practices on the bioavailability of mercury: A mesocosm experiment with common goldfish (Carassius auratus).

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111486. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Wetlands such as rice paddies are important ecosystems that provide habitat for a numerous range of species but are considered as a major source of mercury in the most toxic form of methylmercury. An in situ mesocosm experiment was conducted during the rice cultivation season of 2018 in rice paddies from the Ebro Delta (NE, Spain) to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. Common goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three types of rice-fields subject to different agricultural management (conventional or ecological agriculture) and different hydric practices (wet, dry) and were sampled monthly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of weather and increased atmospheric CO from 1892 to 2016 on simulated yields of UK wheat.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210250. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Computational and Analytical Sciences, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

Climate change effects on UK winter wheat grain yield are complex: warmer temperature, negative; greater carbon dioxide (CO) concentration, positive; but other environmental variables and their timing also affect yield. In the absence of long-term experiments where temperature and CO concentration were manipulated separately, we applied the crop simulation model Sirius with long-term daily meteorological data (1892-2016) for Rothamsted, Hertfordshire, UK (2007-2016 mean growing season temperature 1.03°C warmer than 1892-1991), and CO concentration over this period, to investigate the separate effects of historic CO and weather on simulated grain yield in three wheat cultivars of the modern era. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A New Approach to Food Safety Training: A Review of a Six-Step Knowledge Sharing Model.

J Food Prot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Clemson University Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences 223 Poole Agricultural Center UNITED STATES Clemson SC 29634 18646563652.

Significant resources including both human and financial capital have been dedicated to developing and delivering food handler training programs to meet government and organizational mandates. Even with the plethora of food safety-oriented training programs, there is scant empirical evidence documenting their effectiveness suggesting the need to rethink the design and delivery of food safety training for food handlers. One underlying assumption of most training programs is that food handlers engage in unsafe practices because of lack of knowledge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bacillus velezensis strain MBY2, a potential agent for the management of crown gall disease.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252823. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Protection and Improvement of Genetic Resources of Olive, Olive Tree Institute, Tunis, Tunisia.

The reduction of the use chemical pesticides in agriculture is gaining importance as an objective of decision-makers in both politics and economics. Consequently, the development of technically efficient and economically affordable alternatives as, e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Respirators, face masks, and their risk reductions via multiple transmission routes for first responders within an ambulance.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 Jun 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Community, Environment, and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Monitoring nitrogen leaching under different fertilizer applications during the early growth stage of sugarcane using GS3 sensors: A case study on Negros Island, Philippines.

Environ Technol 2021 Jun 15:1-34. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Research Development and Extension Department Agro-Based Laboratory, Sugar Regulatory Administration, Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines, Araneta street, Singcang, Bacolod city, Province of Negros Occidental, Republic of the Philippines.

Discipline: Agricultural engineering. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genomic reconstruction of the introduction and diversification of golden potato cyst nematode populations in Indonesia.

Phytopathology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Wageningen University & Research, 4508, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands;

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), the umbrella term for Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, co-evolved with their Solanaceous hosts in the Andeans. From there, PCN proliferated worldwide to virtually all potato production areas. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genetic Analysis Reveals Relationships Among Populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici from the Longnan, Longdong and Central Shaanxi Regions of China.

Phytopathology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Northwest A&F University, State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Xinong Road #22, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 712100.

Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Ramularia sphaeroidea on Vicia villosa var. glabrescens in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Lanzhou University, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, No. 768, Jiayuguan West Road, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 730020.

Hairy vetch is widely grown in southwestern China for green manure and forage. In December 2019, a leaf disease occurred on 80% plants of in an eight-hectare field in Qujing(N 25°28'12″, E 103°36'22″), Yunnan Province, China. The disease leaves had irregular, brown to dark brown leaf spots with white mold. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Improving rice eating and cooking quality by coordinated expression of the major starch synthesis-related genes, SSII and Wx, in endosperm.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, College of Agriculture, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.

Key Message: Coordinated regulation of amylose and amylopectin synthesis via manipulation of SSII-2, SSII-3 and Wx expression in endosperm can improve rice eating and cooking quality. With increasing rice consumption worldwide, many researchers are working to increase the yield and improve grain quality, especially eating and cooking quality (ECQ). The rice ECQ is mainly controlled by the expression of starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) in endosperm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mapping QTL associated with partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using a 13.2 K SNP array and SSR markers.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2P5, Canada.

Key Message: A stable and major QTL, which mapped to an approximately 20.0 cM region on pea chromosome 4, was identified as the most consistent region conferring partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches. Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches Drechs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Escherichia coli isolate from hospital sewage carries bla and bla.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Carbapenems, as the "last line of defense" against Gram-negative bacteria, are increasingly being challenged by drug-resistant bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterium, named AH001, was isolated from hospital sewage, and a modified Hodge test confirmed that this bacterium can produce carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed that this bacterium exhibits multidrug resistance against an additional seven antibiotics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HBI Transcription Factor-Mediated ROS Homeostasis Regulates Nitrate Signal Transduction.

Plant Cell 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Nitrate is both an important nutrient and a critical signaling molecule that regulates plant metabolism, growth, and development. Although several components of the nitrate signaling pathway have been identified, the molecular mechanism of nitrate signaling remains unclear. Here, we showed that the growth-related transcription factors HOMOLOG OF BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION2 INTERACTING WITH IBH1 (HBI1) and its three closest homologs (HBIs) positively regulate nitrate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcriptional upregulation of host-specific terpene metabolism in aphid-induced galls of Pistacia palaestina.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Plant Sciences, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Ramat Yishay, Israel.

Galling insects gain food and shelter by inducing specialized anatomical structures in their plant hosts. Such galls often accumulate plant defensive metabolites protecting the inhabiting insects from predation. We previously found that, despite a marked natural chemopolymorphism in natural populations of Pistacia palaestina, the monoterpene levels in Baizongia pistaciae induced galls is substantially higher than in leaves of their hosts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF