90 results match your criteria Agricultural History[Journal]


"It was a Long Way from Perfect, but it was Working": The Canning and Home Production Initiatives in Greene County, Georgia, 1940-1942 .

Authors:
Clifford M Kuhn

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):68-90

Georgia State University.

During the early 1940s Greene County, Georgia's, Unified Farm Program, a model undertaking coordinating the efforts of federal, state, and local agencies, attracted national attention, largely through the work of sociologist Arthur Raper. At the core of the program was the effort to raise the standard of living for the county's rural poor through increasing home-farm production and improving diet. The initiative entailed active intervention by Farm Security Administration farm and home supervisors and illustrates the tension between the desire to promote independence among poor farmers and the impulse to closely supervise and monitor them. Read More

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October 2016

The Role of Blacks in Establishing Cattle Ranching in Louisiana in the Eighteenth Century .

Authors:
Andrew Sluyter

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):41-67

Louisiana State University.

A longstanding assumption posits that white ranchers from the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti, provided the knowledge to establish the first cattle ranches in Louisiana in the mid-eighteenth century, that blacks merely provided the labor, and that the herding ecology involved was the same as that of the Acadian ranchers who followed. Reconstruction of the locations of the first major ranches and the backgrounds of their owners and slaves, however, reveals that none of them came to Louisiana from Saint-Domingue and that the ranches occupied the western margin of the Atchafalaya basin, an environment quite different than the prairies of southwestern Louisiana later inhabited by Acadian ranchers. While the sources cannot yield a complete account of the process through which cattle ranching became established, they do suggest that none of the white ranchers brought relevant experience from the Caribbean or France, that some of the blacks might have brought such experience from Africa, and that people of African, European, native, and mixed origins all contributed knowledge and creativity, as well as labor, in founding a distinctive herding ecology that differed substantially from that of the subsequent Acadian ranches Read More

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October 2016

Dubious Heritage: Tobacco, History, and the Perils of Remembering the Rural Past .

Authors:
Evan P Bennett

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):23-40

Florida Atlantic University.

In 1994 the Virginia legislature created a vehicle license plate to memorialize the state's long history of tobacco agriculture. Other states have likewise created plates to allow drivers to voice support for farmers. Like Virginia's "Tobacco Heritage" plate, many use traditional imagery and direct appeals to the history of agriculture. Read More

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October 2016

The Journal of James Wilson: An Insight into Life in North East Scotland Toward the End of the Nineteenth Century .

Authors:
Peter Hillis

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):1-22

Strathclyde University.

In the nineteenth century many farmers kept a diary of the farming year to record such features as the weather, crop yields, animal husbandry, and prices. Research into church and people in the parishes of Fordyce and Portsoy in North East Scotland led to the discovery of a four-volume journal kept by James Wilson, a farmer in the Banffshire Parish of Deskford between 1879 and 1892. This journal provides a detailed picture of many aspects of rural life including farming, family, neighbors, religion, friends, and entertainment. Read More

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October 2016

Supply and Demand: The Mutual Dependency of Children's Institutions and The American Farmer .

Authors:
Megan Birk

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):78-103

University of Texas-Pan American.

The family farm played an important role in the development of a welfare system for dependent children in the United States. This became increasingly true in the second half of the nineteenth century as the population of institutionalized children grew alongside the desire to place those children into the homes of families. Farm families, which held a special place in the ideology of a self-sufficient United States, partnered with institutions and child-placing agencies to house tens of thousands of dependent children. Read More

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October 2016

"Selling" the Farm: New Frontier Conservation and the USDA Farm Recreation Policies of the 1960s.

Authors:
Laura R Kolar

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):55-77

University of Virginia.

In May 1962 leaders from a variety of federal agencies and independent organizations gathered to "exchange ideas about the future course of American conservation policy." Central to the agenda discussed were certain Kennedy administration agricultural conservation programs that sought to apply the ideology of multiple use, which formed the heart of public land conservation policy for private lands. Key policymakers, most notably Agriculture Secretary Orville Freeman, used the conference and the subsequent years to argue that adjusting agricultural lands to new uses that still retained an agrarian foundation, such as on-farm recreation, would solve multiple societal problems, including rural poverty, the disappearance of the small farm, agricultural surplus, lack of outdoor recreational space for urban and suburban Americans, and urban blight. Read More

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October 2016

Laboratory versus Farm: The Triumph of Laboratory Science in Belgian Agriculture at the End of the Nineteenth Century .

Authors:
Lyvia Diser

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):31-54

University of Leuven, Belgium.

During the 1870s Belgium followed the path of other European countries and created its first public agricultural laboratories under the direction of Arthur Petermann, a young German agricultural scientist. Petermann had been trained in the well-established European stations of renowned chemists such as Wilhelm Henneberg and Louis Grandeau. The mission of these laboratories was to acquaint the local farming community with the new scientific approach to farming, which included the use of chemical fertilizers. Read More

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October 2016

The Wichita Valley irrigation project: Joseph Kemp, boosterism, and conservation in northwest Texas, 1886-1939.

Authors:
Jahue Anderson

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):493-519

Texas Christian Univ., and Colorado State Univ., Global campus.

This is the story of failure: in this case, an irrigation project that never met its boosters' expectations. Between 1880 and 1930, Wichita Falls entrepreneur Joseph Kemp dreamed of an agrarian Eden on the Texas rolling plains. Kemp promoted reclamation and conservation and envisioned the Big Wichita River Valley as the "Irrigated Valley. Read More

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October 2012
2 Reads

The paradox of plows and productivity: an agronomic comparison of cereal grain production under Iroquois hoe culture and European plow culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Authors:
Jane Mt Pleasant

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):460-92

Cornell Univ.

Iroquois maize farmers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced three to five times more grain per acre than wheat farmers in Europe. The higher productivity of Iroquois agriculture can be attributed to two factors. First, the absence of plows in the western hemisphere allowed Iroquois farmers to maintain high levels of soil organic matter, critical for grain yields. Read More

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October 2012

Farm youth and Progressive agricultural reform: Dexter D. Mayne and the Farm Boy Cavaliers of America.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):437-59

Iowa State Univ.

In the early years of the twentieth century, rural America faced a population crisis as young people increasingly left farms for cities. Progressive reformers responded to this crisis with various suggestions meant to more firmly attach youngsters to their rural roots. Among the many solutions advocated were rural youth organizations. Read More

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October 2012

Wave of mutilation: the cattle mutilation phenomenon of the 1970s.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):398-417

Mississippi State University; Salt Lake Community College.

During the 1970s many small-scale cattle ranchers across the Midwest reported finding their cattle mutilated. The episode, often dismissed as mass hysteria or sensationalized reporting, demonstrates the growing dissatisfaction of many ranchers concerning government intrusiveness and restrictive policies. These frustrations found a release in response to the mutilation phenomenon during which ranchers vented their anger by taking direct aim at the federal government. Read More

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September 2011

Academic freedom or political maneuvers: Theodore W. Schultz and the oleomargarine controversy revisited.

Authors:
Paul Burnett

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):373-97

St. Thomas University, New Brunswick, Canada.

The oleomargarine controversy was a case of academic freedom in which nineteen researchers resigned from Iowa State College to protest pressure from the dairy industry to change their research findings. This article explores the ways in which the boundaries between science and politics were more blurred than they seemed at the time or in subsequent historical treatments. The argument begins with a history of the unique composition of agricultural economics research at Iowa State, refocuses the affair from a conflict between the state college and the dairy industry to one among a much larger number of actors, and concludes by demonstrating that one professor, Theodore Schultz, was in the process of transitioning to a new career in prescriptive policy work with private policy associations that ended up being opposed to the practices and policy goals of some of the farm organizations in question. Read More

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September 2011

Colonialism, planters, sugarcane, and the agrarian economy of Caguas, Puerto Rico, between the 1890s and 1930.

Authors:
José O Solá

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):349-72

Cleveland State University.

This article presents new research on the impact and consequences of the incorporation of Puerto Rico into the American economic sphere of influence and how much change truly took place during the first decades of the twentieth century. As reconstructed here, Puerto Rico's social and economic structure did change after the American invasion. However, a closer look at the data reveals that, contrary to the generally accepted conclusions, land tenure did not become concentrated in fewer hands. Read More

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September 2011

Nectar for the taking: the popularization of scientific bee culture in England, 1609-1809.

Authors:
Adam Ebert

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):322-43

Mount Mercy University, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

This essay expands and refines academic knowledge of English beekeeping during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Scientific beekeeping focused on improvement, which, in turn, depended on the dissemination of ideas and practices. This analysis, therefore, encompasses the mentalities and tactics of popularizers. Read More

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September 2011

"What we need is a crop ecologist": ecology and agricultural science in Progressive-era America.

Authors:
Mark D Hersey

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):297-321

Mississippi State University.

Though they are often seen as foils for each other, ecology and agricultural science co-evolved. With shared roots in late nineteenth-century botany, ecologists and agronomists fostered important connections during the Progressive era that have been largely overlooked despite a number of finely nuanced studies of ecology's origins. But if 'applied ecology' once effectively meant agriculture, over the course of the first decades of the twentieth century the relationship between ecology and scientific agriculture grew strained. Read More

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September 2011

British game shooting in transition, 1900-1945.

Authors:
John Martin

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):204-24

De Montfort University, Leicester.

This article explores the transformation of lowland game shooting from its heyday in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods to state-imposed rationalization during the Second World War. It evaluates the extent to which the interwar years constituted a period of depression or regeneration in the way the activity was organized and pursued, followed by an in-depth analysis of the impact of the Second World War. The study shows that the prevailing wisdom about the reasons for the decline of game shooting merits reappraisal, particularly in view of the unprecedented changes to the sport that resulted from the government's control and direction of food production during World War II. Read More

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The work of local culture: Wendell Berry and communities as the source of farming knowledge.

Authors:
Jeffrey Filipiak

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):174-94

When Wendell Berry and others criticize contemporary agriculture, their arguments are often dismissed as naive and grounded in longstanding agrarian myth, rather than engagement with contemporary problems. But Berry's proposals developed in response to a series of learning methods he encountered, and options for advocacy he explored, during the 1960s and 1970s. Agricultural institutions sought to assign more power to institutionalized scientific knowledge, shrinking the role of farmers. Read More

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June 2011
2 Reads

Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

Authors:
Marta Macedo

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):157-73

University of Lisbon.

It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Read More

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Under the trees: the Georgia peach and the quest for labor in the twentieth century.

Authors:
Tom Okie

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):72-101

University of Georgia.

The Georgia peach boom around the turn of the twentieth century was often hailed as a successful experiment in diversification. Peach growers, the story went, threw off the tyranny of King Cotton by pledging their allegiance to the "Queen of Fruits." This portrayal is partly true; unlike other proposed alternatives to cotton, peaches flourished in many places. Read More

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"We were all trespassers": George Edward Lemmon, Anglo-American cattle ranching, and the Great Sioux Reservation.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):50-71

South Dakota Department of Agriculture.

With the opening of the Black Hills to white settlement in the mid-1870s, thousands of fortune-seekers made their way into Dakota Territory. George Edward Lemmon, a man later renowned as one of the world's most accomplished cowboys, was among them. During the 1880s his employer, the Sheidley Cattle Company, grazed thousands of cattle in western Dakota Territory, many of them on Sioux Indian land. Read More

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"The herald of prosperity": tracing the boll weevil myth in Alabama.

Authors:
James C Giesen

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):24-49

Mississippi State University.

As scholars and singers have pointed out in monographs and folk songs, the cotton boll weevil was a devastating force on southern farming and rural life. No symbol is more indicative of this destruction than Enterprise, Alabama's boll weevil monument. This essay examines not how the cotton pest destroyed the region's staple crop, but how women and men across race and class lines understood the beetle's threat and used it to their advantage. Read More

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Abner Doubleday, Marc Bloch, and the cultural significance of baseball in rural America.

Authors:
David Vaught

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):1-20

Texas A&M University.

In 1907 baseball's promoters decreed that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday created the game in the village of Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Baseball thus acquired a distinctly rural American origin and a romantic pastoral appeal. Skeptics have since presented irrefutable evidence that America's pastime was neither born in the United States nor was a product of rural life. Read More

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March 2011
2 Reads

Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

Authors:
Samuel Garrido

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):224-43

Universitat Jaume I (Spain).

In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. Read More

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June 2010
4 Reads

The agriburb: recalling the suburban side of Ontario, California's agricultural colonization.

Authors:
Paul J P Sandul

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):195-223

Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Texas.

This essay spotlights the development of Ontario, California, in the last decades of the nineteenth century. It demonstrates that many agricultural communities in California, particularly so-called agricultural colonies, represent a unique rural suburban type labeled here as "agriburbs." Agriburbs, such as Ontario, were communities consciously planned, developed, and promoted based on the drive for profit in emerging agricultural markets. Read More

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A world of entrepreneurs: the establishment of international agribusiness during the Spanish pork and poultry boom, 1950-2000.

Authors:
Ernesto Clar

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):176-94

Univ. of Zaragoza.

The development of intensive livestock farming in Western Europe after 1950 has been somewhat overlooked by historians, except in a number of macroeconomic works. This process has generally been understood as the application of the American agribusiness model to the European livestock sector through the direct and vertical connection between large feed companies and local farmers. Spain is a good place to test this idea, given the phenomenal expansion experienced by its livestock sector in the second half of the twentieth century and the strong influence large multinational, particularly American, feed manufacturers had on this growth. Read More

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Reflections: whither agricultural history.

Authors:
David B Danbom

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):166-75

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June 2010
2 Reads

Farm crisis and rural revitalization in south-central New York during the early twentieth century.

Authors:
Grey Osterud

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):141-65

In contrast to both the critique of rural backwardness made by the Country Life Movement and the lament about rural declension expressed by proponents of agrarianism, the history of the Nanticoke Valley of south-central New York State demonstrates the possibilities for rural revitalization that lay in connections between the countryside and the city. In the early twentieth century, as long-settled families departed for urban employment, European immigrant families escaping the mines and mills bought abandoned farms. Motorized transport enabled farming families to send household members to the city each day and furnished them with a local market for their produce. Read More

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June 2010
3 Reads

Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

Authors:
Karl Lillquist

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):74-104

Central Washington Univ.

In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Read More

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June 2010
4 Reads

Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):46-73

Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.

Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. Read More

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The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

Authors:
Jason Manthorne

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):20-45

Univ. of Georgia.

Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. Read More

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Small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development.

Authors:
Anne Effland

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):1-19

Economic Research Service, USDA.

This address is an exploration of a lifetime of disparate and often conflicting observations about how different people view what is right and good for agriculture, food, and farmers around the world. The exploration utilizes the concept of wicked problems to focus on the issue of differing historical interpretations of global agricultural development. Sandra Batie defines wicked problems as "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" for which "there can be radically different views and understanding of the problem by different stakeholders, with no unique 'correct' view. Read More

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"So long as I can read": farm women's reading experiences in Depression-era South Dakota.

Authors:
Lisa R Lindell

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(4):503-27

Hilton M. Briggs Library, South Dakota State Univ.

During the Great Depression, with conditions grim, entertainment scarce, and educational opportunities limited, many South Dakota farm women relied on reading to fill emotional, social, and informational needs. To read to any degree, these rural women had to overcome multiple obstacles. Extensive reading (whether books, farm journals, or newspapers) was limited to those who had access to publications and could make time to read. Read More

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November 2009

"Hop to the top with the Iowa Chop": the Iowa Porkettes and cultivating agrarian feminisms in the Midwest, 1964-1992.

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(4):477-502

Illinois Coll., Jacksonville, IL

Over the course of twenty-eight years, between 1964 and 1991, members of the Iowa Porkettes, the women's auxiliary to the Iowa Pork Producer's Association (IPPA), promoted pork products in order to assert their roles as agricultural producers. For the members of the Porkettes, technological change and the growth of agribusiness provided new opportunities to challenge patriarchal hierarchies in agricultural organizations. Over time, as the overall number of hog farmers declined and the agricultural marketplace increasingly demanded professional expertise, the Porkettes transformed a women's auxiliary into a female-led commodity organization. Read More

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November 2009

"Not to intrude": a Danish perspective on gender and class in nineteenth-century dairying.

Authors:
Deborah Fink

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(4):446-76

Univ. of Minnesota

This study follows the thread of gender divisions in dairying in Denmark and the American Midwest in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Gender organization of dairying shifted at this time in diverse European and North American contexts. As agriculture mechanized and production scale increased, access to advanced education and international markets became critical. Read More

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November 2009

Telling stories: keeping secrets.

Authors:
Joan M Jensen

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(4):437-45

History Dept., New Mexico State Univ.

This article addresses the reticence of some farm women to share their experiences with historians and how that desire to keep secrets collides with the desire by scholars to tell the stories of these women. It argues that scholars must continue to struggle with the issue of which stories to tell publicly and which to keep private. The author discusses her own experience telling stories about rural women in the 1970s and the need to give voice to the heritage of rural women, especially of groups that have feared revealing their experiences. Read More

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November 2009
3 Reads

The intellectual legacy of Mary Neth's work on farm women and rural communities.

Authors:
Grey Osterud

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(4):430-36

Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements. Read More

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November 2009

Peasant friendly plant breeding and the early years of the green revolution in Mexico.

Authors:
Jonathan Harwood

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(3):384-410

Univ. of Manchester, UK

Despite their success in boosting cereals production overall, the Green Revolution programs of the 1950s and 1960s were often criticized for failing to achieve their declared aim of alleviating world hunger. Most critics argued that the programs had produced a technology unsuited to the needs of small peasant farmers. This paper explores why such inappropriate technology might have been developed, focusing on the early years of the Rockefeller Foundation's Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP). Read More

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November 2009

An unremembered diversity: mixed husbandry and the American grasslands.

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(3):352-83

Univ. of Michigan; Univ. of Saskatchewan

The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766303PMC
November 2009

Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

Authors:
David Carey

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(3):283-322

Univ. of Southern Maine

Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Read More

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November 2009

Breaking sod or breaking even? Flax on the northern Great Plains and Prairies, 1889-1930.

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(2):221-46

Univ. of Guelph

A new thirst for paint and color in cities made extensive flax production profitable in the northern Great Plains and Prairies and contributed to the cultivation of the most fragile grassland ecosystems. The production of flax seed for linseed oil became an early spin-off of the Prairie wheat economy but, unlike wheat, flax vanished from old land after one or two rotations and reappeared in districts with the most new breaking. Officials explained the migrant crop as preparing native grasslands for cultivation or exhausting soil in old land, but farmers brought flax to their new breaking for other reasons. Read More

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October 2009
1 Read

Colonial foresters versus agriculturalists: the debate over climate change and cocoa production in the Gold Coast.

Authors:
Joseph M Hodge

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(2):201-20

West Virginia Univ.

This article draws attention to the unfolding debate concerning forest cover loss, climatic change, and declining cocoa production in the Gold Coast (colonial Ghana) during the early twentieth century. It argues that, although desiccationist theory was prevalent, its acceptance among colonial authorities in the Gold Coast was far from hegemonic. There were important dissenting colonial voices, particularly among agriculturalists, who argued that declining cocoa yields were due to plant diseases, most notably cocoa swollen shoot disease. Read More

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October 2009

Good for a national cemetery: questions of land use and an 1888 Botanical Expedition across Northern Michigan.

Authors:
Joseph J Jones

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(2):174-200

Grand Valley State Univ.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, lumbermen logged the virgin pine forests of northern Michigan. The assumption was that the "plow would follow the axe," and agriculture would dominate the region as it did in the southern half of the state. When farming did not quickly take root, William James Beal and Liberty Hyde Bailey led an expedition of scientists and journalists on a trip across northern Michigan in June 1888 to collect botanical samples, to find a site for a state forest reserve, and to recommend appropriate farming enterprises. Read More

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October 2009

Landlords and tenants in the wake of abolition and ecological devastation in Brazil's Middle Paraíba Valley.

Authors:
John C Crocitti

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(2):143-73

San Diego Mesa College, San Diego.

This article uses Barra do Piraí as a case study of rural land tenure, production, consumption, and labor in Brazil's Middle Paraíba Valley during the half century following abolition of slavery in 1888. Dairy farming and railroad development distinguished Barra do Piraí from other coffee-producing areas that suffered from ecological devastation. By 1900 the land's loss of fertility precluded further plantation agriculture in Barra do Piraí, leading to the transition from lucrative coffee cultivation to dairy farming based on meager capital inputs. Read More

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October 2009

More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(1):79-102

Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. Read More

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October 2009
1 Read

Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

Authors:
Yixin Chen

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(1):51-78

This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Read More

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October 2009

"Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

Agric Hist 2009 ;83(1):5-28

This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. Read More

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October 2009
1 Read

The environmental origins of shifting cultivation: climate, soils, and disease in the nineteenth-century US South.

Agric Hist 2007 ;81(4):522-49

Farmers and planters in the antebellum South held large tracts of unimproved land because they practiced shifting cultivation. Southern cultivators burned tracts of forest growth to quickly release nutrients into the soil. After five or six years, when the soil had been depleted, the old field was abandoned for as long as twenty years. Read More

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September 2008

The Correll family and technological change in Australian agriculture.

Authors:
L Frost

Agric Hist 2001 ;75(2):217-41

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