90 results match your criteria Agricultural History[Journal]


"It was a Long Way from Perfect, but it was Working": The Canning and Home Production Initiatives in Greene County, Georgia, 1940-1942 .

Authors:
Clifford M Kuhn

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):68-90

Georgia State University.

During the early 1940s Greene County, Georgia's, Unified Farm Program, a model undertaking coordinating the efforts of federal, state, and local agencies, attracted national attention, largely through the work of sociologist Arthur Raper. At the core of the program was the effort to raise the standard of living for the county's rural poor through increasing home-farm production and improving diet. The initiative entailed active intervention by Farm Security Administration farm and home supervisors and illustrates the tension between the desire to promote independence among poor farmers and the impulse to closely supervise and monitor them. Read More

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October 2016

The Role of Blacks in Establishing Cattle Ranching in Louisiana in the Eighteenth Century .

Authors:
Andrew Sluyter

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):41-67

Louisiana State University.

A longstanding assumption posits that white ranchers from the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti, provided the knowledge to establish the first cattle ranches in Louisiana in the mid-eighteenth century, that blacks merely provided the labor, and that the herding ecology involved was the same as that of the Acadian ranchers who followed. Reconstruction of the locations of the first major ranches and the backgrounds of their owners and slaves, however, reveals that none of them came to Louisiana from Saint-Domingue and that the ranches occupied the western margin of the Atchafalaya basin, an environment quite different than the prairies of southwestern Louisiana later inhabited by Acadian ranchers. While the sources cannot yield a complete account of the process through which cattle ranching became established, they do suggest that none of the white ranchers brought relevant experience from the Caribbean or France, that some of the blacks might have brought such experience from Africa, and that people of African, European, native, and mixed origins all contributed knowledge and creativity, as well as labor, in founding a distinctive herding ecology that differed substantially from that of the subsequent Acadian ranches Read More

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October 2016

Dubious Heritage: Tobacco, History, and the Perils of Remembering the Rural Past .

Authors:
Evan P Bennett

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):23-40

Florida Atlantic University.

In 1994 the Virginia legislature created a vehicle license plate to memorialize the state's long history of tobacco agriculture. Other states have likewise created plates to allow drivers to voice support for farmers. Like Virginia's "Tobacco Heritage" plate, many use traditional imagery and direct appeals to the history of agriculture. Read More

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October 2016

The Journal of James Wilson: An Insight into Life in North East Scotland Toward the End of the Nineteenth Century .

Authors:
Peter Hillis

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(2):1-22

Strathclyde University.

In the nineteenth century many farmers kept a diary of the farming year to record such features as the weather, crop yields, animal husbandry, and prices. Research into church and people in the parishes of Fordyce and Portsoy in North East Scotland led to the discovery of a four-volume journal kept by James Wilson, a farmer in the Banffshire Parish of Deskford between 1879 and 1892. This journal provides a detailed picture of many aspects of rural life including farming, family, neighbors, religion, friends, and entertainment. Read More

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October 2016

Supply and Demand: The Mutual Dependency of Children's Institutions and The American Farmer .

Authors:
Megan Birk

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):78-103

University of Texas-Pan American.

The family farm played an important role in the development of a welfare system for dependent children in the United States. This became increasingly true in the second half of the nineteenth century as the population of institutionalized children grew alongside the desire to place those children into the homes of families. Farm families, which held a special place in the ideology of a self-sufficient United States, partnered with institutions and child-placing agencies to house tens of thousands of dependent children. Read More

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October 2016

"Selling" the Farm: New Frontier Conservation and the USDA Farm Recreation Policies of the 1960s.

Authors:
Laura R Kolar

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):55-77

University of Virginia.

In May 1962 leaders from a variety of federal agencies and independent organizations gathered to "exchange ideas about the future course of American conservation policy." Central to the agenda discussed were certain Kennedy administration agricultural conservation programs that sought to apply the ideology of multiple use, which formed the heart of public land conservation policy for private lands. Key policymakers, most notably Agriculture Secretary Orville Freeman, used the conference and the subsequent years to argue that adjusting agricultural lands to new uses that still retained an agrarian foundation, such as on-farm recreation, would solve multiple societal problems, including rural poverty, the disappearance of the small farm, agricultural surplus, lack of outdoor recreational space for urban and suburban Americans, and urban blight. Read More

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October 2016

Laboratory versus Farm: The Triumph of Laboratory Science in Belgian Agriculture at the End of the Nineteenth Century .

Authors:
Lyvia Diser

Agric Hist 2012 ;86(1):31-54

University of Leuven, Belgium.

During the 1870s Belgium followed the path of other European countries and created its first public agricultural laboratories under the direction of Arthur Petermann, a young German agricultural scientist. Petermann had been trained in the well-established European stations of renowned chemists such as Wilhelm Henneberg and Louis Grandeau. The mission of these laboratories was to acquaint the local farming community with the new scientific approach to farming, which included the use of chemical fertilizers. Read More

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October 2016

The Wichita Valley irrigation project: Joseph Kemp, boosterism, and conservation in northwest Texas, 1886-1939.

Authors:
Jahue Anderson

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):493-519

Texas Christian Univ., and Colorado State Univ., Global campus.

This is the story of failure: in this case, an irrigation project that never met its boosters' expectations. Between 1880 and 1930, Wichita Falls entrepreneur Joseph Kemp dreamed of an agrarian Eden on the Texas rolling plains. Kemp promoted reclamation and conservation and envisioned the Big Wichita River Valley as the "Irrigated Valley. Read More

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October 2012

The paradox of plows and productivity: an agronomic comparison of cereal grain production under Iroquois hoe culture and European plow culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Authors:
Jane Mt Pleasant

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):460-92

Cornell Univ.

Iroquois maize farmers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced three to five times more grain per acre than wheat farmers in Europe. The higher productivity of Iroquois agriculture can be attributed to two factors. First, the absence of plows in the western hemisphere allowed Iroquois farmers to maintain high levels of soil organic matter, critical for grain yields. Read More

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October 2012

Farm youth and Progressive agricultural reform: Dexter D. Mayne and the Farm Boy Cavaliers of America.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(4):437-59

Iowa State Univ.

In the early years of the twentieth century, rural America faced a population crisis as young people increasingly left farms for cities. Progressive reformers responded to this crisis with various suggestions meant to more firmly attach youngsters to their rural roots. Among the many solutions advocated were rural youth organizations. Read More

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October 2012

Wave of mutilation: the cattle mutilation phenomenon of the 1970s.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):398-417

Mississippi State University; Salt Lake Community College.

During the 1970s many small-scale cattle ranchers across the Midwest reported finding their cattle mutilated. The episode, often dismissed as mass hysteria or sensationalized reporting, demonstrates the growing dissatisfaction of many ranchers concerning government intrusiveness and restrictive policies. These frustrations found a release in response to the mutilation phenomenon during which ranchers vented their anger by taking direct aim at the federal government. Read More

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September 2011

Academic freedom or political maneuvers: Theodore W. Schultz and the oleomargarine controversy revisited.

Authors:
Paul Burnett

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):373-97

St. Thomas University, New Brunswick, Canada.

The oleomargarine controversy was a case of academic freedom in which nineteen researchers resigned from Iowa State College to protest pressure from the dairy industry to change their research findings. This article explores the ways in which the boundaries between science and politics were more blurred than they seemed at the time or in subsequent historical treatments. The argument begins with a history of the unique composition of agricultural economics research at Iowa State, refocuses the affair from a conflict between the state college and the dairy industry to one among a much larger number of actors, and concludes by demonstrating that one professor, Theodore Schultz, was in the process of transitioning to a new career in prescriptive policy work with private policy associations that ended up being opposed to the practices and policy goals of some of the farm organizations in question. Read More

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September 2011

Colonialism, planters, sugarcane, and the agrarian economy of Caguas, Puerto Rico, between the 1890s and 1930.

Authors:
José O Solá

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):349-72

Cleveland State University.

This article presents new research on the impact and consequences of the incorporation of Puerto Rico into the American economic sphere of influence and how much change truly took place during the first decades of the twentieth century. As reconstructed here, Puerto Rico's social and economic structure did change after the American invasion. However, a closer look at the data reveals that, contrary to the generally accepted conclusions, land tenure did not become concentrated in fewer hands. Read More

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September 2011

Nectar for the taking: the popularization of scientific bee culture in England, 1609-1809.

Authors:
Adam Ebert

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):322-43

Mount Mercy University, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

This essay expands and refines academic knowledge of English beekeeping during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Scientific beekeeping focused on improvement, which, in turn, depended on the dissemination of ideas and practices. This analysis, therefore, encompasses the mentalities and tactics of popularizers. Read More

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September 2011

"What we need is a crop ecologist": ecology and agricultural science in Progressive-era America.

Authors:
Mark D Hersey

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(3):297-321

Mississippi State University.

Though they are often seen as foils for each other, ecology and agricultural science co-evolved. With shared roots in late nineteenth-century botany, ecologists and agronomists fostered important connections during the Progressive era that have been largely overlooked despite a number of finely nuanced studies of ecology's origins. But if 'applied ecology' once effectively meant agriculture, over the course of the first decades of the twentieth century the relationship between ecology and scientific agriculture grew strained. Read More

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September 2011

British game shooting in transition, 1900-1945.

Authors:
John Martin

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):204-24

De Montfort University, Leicester.

This article explores the transformation of lowland game shooting from its heyday in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods to state-imposed rationalization during the Second World War. It evaluates the extent to which the interwar years constituted a period of depression or regeneration in the way the activity was organized and pursued, followed by an in-depth analysis of the impact of the Second World War. The study shows that the prevailing wisdom about the reasons for the decline of game shooting merits reappraisal, particularly in view of the unprecedented changes to the sport that resulted from the government's control and direction of food production during World War II. Read More

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The work of local culture: Wendell Berry and communities as the source of farming knowledge.

Authors:
Jeffrey Filipiak

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):174-94

When Wendell Berry and others criticize contemporary agriculture, their arguments are often dismissed as naive and grounded in longstanding agrarian myth, rather than engagement with contemporary problems. But Berry's proposals developed in response to a series of learning methods he encountered, and options for advocacy he explored, during the 1960s and 1970s. Agricultural institutions sought to assign more power to institutionalized scientific knowledge, shrinking the role of farmers. Read More

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Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

Authors:
Marta Macedo

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(2):157-73

University of Lisbon.

It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Read More

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Under the trees: the Georgia peach and the quest for labor in the twentieth century.

Authors:
Tom Okie

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):72-101

University of Georgia.

The Georgia peach boom around the turn of the twentieth century was often hailed as a successful experiment in diversification. Peach growers, the story went, threw off the tyranny of King Cotton by pledging their allegiance to the "Queen of Fruits." This portrayal is partly true; unlike other proposed alternatives to cotton, peaches flourished in many places. Read More

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"We were all trespassers": George Edward Lemmon, Anglo-American cattle ranching, and the Great Sioux Reservation.

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):50-71

South Dakota Department of Agriculture.

With the opening of the Black Hills to white settlement in the mid-1870s, thousands of fortune-seekers made their way into Dakota Territory. George Edward Lemmon, a man later renowned as one of the world's most accomplished cowboys, was among them. During the 1880s his employer, the Sheidley Cattle Company, grazed thousands of cattle in western Dakota Territory, many of them on Sioux Indian land. Read More

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"The herald of prosperity": tracing the boll weevil myth in Alabama.

Authors:
James C Giesen

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):24-49

Mississippi State University.

As scholars and singers have pointed out in monographs and folk songs, the cotton boll weevil was a devastating force on southern farming and rural life. No symbol is more indicative of this destruction than Enterprise, Alabama's boll weevil monument. This essay examines not how the cotton pest destroyed the region's staple crop, but how women and men across race and class lines understood the beetle's threat and used it to their advantage. Read More

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Abner Doubleday, Marc Bloch, and the cultural significance of baseball in rural America.

Authors:
David Vaught

Agric Hist 2011 ;85(1):1-20

Texas A&M University.

In 1907 baseball's promoters decreed that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday created the game in the village of Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Baseball thus acquired a distinctly rural American origin and a romantic pastoral appeal. Skeptics have since presented irrefutable evidence that America's pastime was neither born in the United States nor was a product of rural life. Read More

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Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

Authors:
Samuel Garrido

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):224-43

Universitat Jaume I (Spain).

In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. Read More

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The agriburb: recalling the suburban side of Ontario, California's agricultural colonization.

Authors:
Paul J P Sandul

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):195-223

Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Texas.

This essay spotlights the development of Ontario, California, in the last decades of the nineteenth century. It demonstrates that many agricultural communities in California, particularly so-called agricultural colonies, represent a unique rural suburban type labeled here as "agriburbs." Agriburbs, such as Ontario, were communities consciously planned, developed, and promoted based on the drive for profit in emerging agricultural markets. Read More

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A world of entrepreneurs: the establishment of international agribusiness during the Spanish pork and poultry boom, 1950-2000.

Authors:
Ernesto Clar

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):176-94

Univ. of Zaragoza.

The development of intensive livestock farming in Western Europe after 1950 has been somewhat overlooked by historians, except in a number of macroeconomic works. This process has generally been understood as the application of the American agribusiness model to the European livestock sector through the direct and vertical connection between large feed companies and local farmers. Spain is a good place to test this idea, given the phenomenal expansion experienced by its livestock sector in the second half of the twentieth century and the strong influence large multinational, particularly American, feed manufacturers had on this growth. Read More

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Farm crisis and rural revitalization in south-central New York during the early twentieth century.

Authors:
Grey Osterud

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(2):141-65

In contrast to both the critique of rural backwardness made by the Country Life Movement and the lament about rural declension expressed by proponents of agrarianism, the history of the Nanticoke Valley of south-central New York State demonstrates the possibilities for rural revitalization that lay in connections between the countryside and the city. In the early twentieth century, as long-settled families departed for urban employment, European immigrant families escaping the mines and mills bought abandoned farms. Motorized transport enabled farming families to send household members to the city each day and furnished them with a local market for their produce. Read More

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Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

Authors:
Karl Lillquist

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):74-104

Central Washington Univ.

In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Read More

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Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):46-73

Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.

Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. Read More

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The view from the cotton: reconsidering the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

Authors:
Jason Manthorne

Agric Hist 2010 ;84(1):20-45

Univ. of Georgia.

Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. Read More

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