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    Levamisole-Induced Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis with Negative Serology in a Cocaine User.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Jun 8;18:641-643. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Medicine, NYC Health + Hospital/Harlem, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    BACKGROUND Levamisole is a common adulterant of cocaine. It can cause agranulocytosis and cutaneous vasculitis that can possibly lead to cutaneous necrosis. In all reported cases of levamisole-induced vasculitis, it has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by a constellation of typical clinical features and a positive serum serology for ANCA levels, especially very high-titer p-ANCA levels, in the background of cocaine abuse. Read More

    Changes in Neutrophil Count After Antipsychotic Prescription Among a Retrospective Cohort of Patients With Benign Neutropenia.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Jun 5. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    From the *Department of Psychiatry, Bronx VA Medical Center, Bronx; †New York University School of Medicine; and ‡Department of Neurology, New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University School of Medicine, New York, NY.
    Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding the effect of antipsychotics on absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of patients with benign neutropenia (BN). We evaluated the change in ANC after atypical antipsychotic prescription (excluding clozapine) in a retrospective cohort of 22 patients with BN.

    Methods/procedures: Records of all patients with BN who were prescribed antipsychotics and who had ANC measured before and during antipsychotic treatment were obtained from Bronx VA Medical Center between 2005 and 2015 (inclusive). Read More

    Agranulocytosis - Sequelae of Chronic Cocaine Use: Case Series and Literature Review.
    Cureus 2017 May 3;9(5):e1221. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy Program, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Agranulocytosis is a rare condition with a reported incidence ranging from one to five cases per million population per year. Most commonly, agranulocytosis is secondary to chemotherapeutic agents, however, other medications have also been associated with it. An immune mediated destruction of circulating granulocytes and/or granulocyte precursors secondary to drug-dependent or drug-induced antibodies is the postulated mechanism. Read More

    Bone Marrow Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    QJM 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Background: Besides peripheral cytopenias, bone marrow abnormalities, such as fibrosis, pure red cell aplasia, and aplastic anemia have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting that bone marrow may be a target organ in SLE. Our objective was to describe this bone marrow involvement.

    Methods: This registry is a nationwide retrospective study. Read More

    Octreotide-Associated Neutropenia.
    Pharmacotherapy 2017 Jun;37(6):e32-e37
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York.
    Drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis are rare adverse events but can be fatal. Neutropenia can be induced by a myriad of drugs from almost every pharmacologic class. Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that has been used to treat variceal bleeding, acromegaly, and severe diarrhea associated with metastatic tumors, and to reduce symptoms in the setting of malignant bowel obstruction and pseudoobstruction. Read More

    Rare NOX3 Variants Confer Susceptibility to Agranulocytosis during Thyrostatic Treatment of Graves' Disease.
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology.
    Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of antithyroid drugs, with unknown etiology. The present study aimed to uncover genetic susceptibility and underlying mechanisms of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis (ATDAC). We studied two independent families with familial Graves' disease, of which several members developed ATDAC. Read More

    Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine: Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity.
    Toxicol Lett 2017 Jun 3;275:83-91. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Division of Molecular Toxicology, Amsterdam Institute for Molecules Medicines and Systems (AIMMS), Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. Read More

    A phase I study of cilengitide and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors.
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 Jun 5;79(6):1221-1227. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Purpose: Cilengitide is a potent and selective inhibitor of the integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5. The primary objective of this phase I clinical trial was to establish the maximum tolerated dose and determine safety/tolerability of cilengitide in combination with paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the preliminary clinical outcomes. Read More

    Current use and potential role of procalcitonin in the diagnostic work up and follow up of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients.
    Expert Rev Hematol 2017 Jun 24;10(6):543-550. Epub 2017 May 24.
    a Department of Oncology , A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Presidio Molinette , Torino , Italy.
    Introduction: Febrile neutropenia (FN) represents a life-threatening complication in hematological malignancies. Its etiology is most often due to infections even though FN of other origins, such as tumor-related fever and non-infectious inflammation, should rapidly be ruled out. Initially, C-reactive protein and, more recently, procalcitonin (PCT) have been proposed as useful biomarkers for differential diagnosis. Read More

    The incidence and risk factors of febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy-naïve lung cancer patients receiving etoposide plus platinum.
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 Jun 28;79(6):1229-1237. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Suntou-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.
    Purpose: This study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy-naïve Japanese patients treated systemically with etoposide plus platinum for lung cancer.

    Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of 244 patients who were monitored for febrile neutropenia through multiple cycles of the combination of etoposide with platinum, and the associations between incidence of febrile neutropenia and patient characteristics were evaluated.

    Results: Eighty-eight patients were treated with etoposide plus cisplatin and 156 were treated with etoposide plus carboplatin. Read More

    Deferiprone for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in thalassemia.
    Expert Rev Hematol 2017 Jun;10(6):493-503
    b Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Hematology and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics , Philadelphia , PA , USA.
    Introduction: Transfusional iron overload can lead to hepatic fibrosis, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure and a number of endocrinopathies. Deferiprone is an oral iron chelator approved for use in the United States as a second line agent for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in patients with thalassemia. Areas covered: This article will review the data regarding the efficacy of deferiprone for iron chelation and prevention and reversal of iron related complications, the drug's adverse effect profile, and the use of this drug in combination regimens. Read More

    Clozapine-Associated Agranulocytosis Treatment With Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Systematic Review.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    From the *Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; †Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; ‡Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol; §National Psychosis Service, and ∥Pharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust; and ¶Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London; and #Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Purpose/background: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. Read More

    More than 25 years of genetic studies of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.
    Pharmacogenomics J 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotic drugs prescribed to patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Approximately 1% of patients experience potential life-threatening adverse effects in the form of agranulocytosis, greatly hindering its applicability in clinical practice. The etiology of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA) remains unclear, but is thought to be a heritable trait. Read More

    [Recurrent pulmonary infection and oral mucosal ulcer].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Apr;19(4):452-457
    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
    An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Read More

    Severe Bone Marrow Suppression Accompanying Pulmonary Infection and Hemorrhage of the Digestive Tract Associated with Leflunomide and Low-dose Methotrexate Combination Therapy.
    J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2017 Jan-Mar;8(1):35-37
    Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    A 60-year-old male patient developed hyperpyrexia, cough, expectoration with blood-stained sputum, mouth ulcers, and suppurative tonsillitis after receiving 35 days of combination treatment with leflunomide (LEF) and low-dose methotrexate (MTX) for active rheumatoid arthritis. On admission, routine blood tests showed severe thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and decreased hemoglobin concentration compared with the relatively normal results of 1 month previously during the first hospitalization. Chest radiography revealed inflammation in both lungs, and a fecal occult blood test was positive. Read More

    BCL-2 as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2017 Mar;15(3):210-218
    Center for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Venetoclax (formerly ABT-199) was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of patients who have relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with the 17p deletion. Venetoclax has demonstrated marked activity as monotherapy as well as in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapies, B-cell receptor inhibitors, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies across the spectrum of CLL. The potency of venetoclax has been associated with a unique ability to induce deep (minimal residual disease-negative) complete remissions that appear to be durable. Read More

    Graves' disease in a 3 year-old patient with agranulocytosis due to anti-thyroid drugs: Radioiodine ablation therapy as an effective alternative.
    Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, España.
    The case is presented of a 3 year-old girl with mitochondrial disease (subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy of Leigh syndrome), v-stage chronic kidney disease of a diffuse mesangial sclerosis, as well as developmental disorders, and diagnosed with hyperthyroidism Graves-Basedow disease. Six weeks after starting the treatment with neo-carbimazole, the patient reported a serious case of agranulocytosis. This led to stopping the anti-thyroid drugs, and was treated successfully with (131)I ablation therapy. Read More

    The impact of a solitary kidney on tolerability to gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma patients: a retrospective study.
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 May 8;79(5):995-1001. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Pharmacy, Nagoya City University Hospital, 1-Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 467-8602, Japan.
    Purpose: There is little information on tolerability to cisplatin-based chemotherapies in patients with a solitary kidney after nephroureterectomy. We evaluated the impact of having a solitary kidney on tolerability to gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy in urothelial carcinoma patients.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated between August 2007 and November 2015. Read More

    Obstructive sleep apnea in a 5 month old with tonsillar hypertrophy secondary to congenital neutropenia: Case report and literature review.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 May 5;96:103-105. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Texas Children's Hospital, Otolaryngology, Houston, TX, USA; Baylor College of Medicine, Otolaryngology, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the primary surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (TAH). We present the case of a 5-month old male with congenital neutropenia who developed severe TAH during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). He had severe OSA, decreased oral intake, and failure to thrive (FTT) which all improved after undergoing a successful intracapsular T&A. Read More

    Autoimmune Neutropenia Updates: Etiology, Pathology, and Treatment.
    South Med J 2017 Apr;110(4):300-307
    From the Department of Internal Medicine, Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Jamaica, New York, the Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) is defined as a neutrophil count <1.5 × 10(9)/L caused by increased peripheral destruction of neutrophils from an underlying autoimmune mechanism in which autoantibodies are directed against a patient's own neutrophils. AIN has a multifactorial etiology ranging from an idiopathic primary phenomenon to secondary disorders associated with established autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Agranulocytosis and mixed-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia in primary sjögren's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.
    Int J Rheum Dis 2016 Dec 14;19(12):1351-1353. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
    Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that presents with sicca symptoms of the main mucosal surfaces. Patients with pSS have a broad spectrum of laboratory features, such as cytopenias and hypergammaglobulinemia. Although hematological abnormalities are usually seen in pSS patients, agranulocytosis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are rare. Read More

    A Case of Fatal Agranulocytosis That Developed in a Patient with β-Thalassemia Major Treated with Deferiprone.
    Hemoglobin 2016 Nov;40(6):435-437
    a Second Department of Internal Medicine , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital of Thessaloniki Hippokration , Thessaloniki , Greece.
    A 29-year-old male with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major (β-TM), splenectomized and on chelation therapy with deferiprone (DFP or L1) due to heart and liver hemosiderosis, presented with high fever and agranulocytosis. Deferiprone was discontinued and a broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was started intravenously. The patient remained febrile and showed no recovery of neutrophil count even after the initiation of granulocyte colony-stimulation factor (G-CSF). Read More

    Leukocytosis after Clozapine Treatment in a Patient with Chronic Schizophrenia.
    Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2016 Mar 1;53(1):87-88. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Psychiatry, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of psychotic disorders. Agranulocytosis is a well-established side effect of clozapine; clozapine has also been associated with other blood dyscrasias like leukocytosis, albeit rarely. In this paper, we aim to report a case of possible clozapine-associated leukocytosis in a 41-year-old woman. Read More

    Impact of Guidance on the Prescription Patterns of G-CSFs for the Prevention of Febrile Neutropenia Following Anticancer Chemotherapy: A Population-Based Utilization Study in the Lazio Region.
    BioDrugs 2017 Apr;31(2):117-124
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Via Cristoforo Colombo, 112, 00147, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Current guidelines recommend prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) for patients with cancer who are at greater risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) while receiving chemotherapy. G-CSF biosimilars are available and represent a savings opportunity; however, their uptake has thus far been low.

    Objective: Our objective was to evaluate prescribing patterns for G-CSFs in the prevention of chemotherapy-related FN and to evaluate the impact of regional guidance on G-CSF prescription. Read More

    Reticular dysgenesis: international survey on clinical presentation, transplantation, and outcome.
    Blood 2017 May 22;129(21):2928-2938. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Biotherapy Clinical Investigation Center, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
    Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis, and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Read More

    Tetraploidy acute myeloid leukaemia after chromosome 16 inversion.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 22;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Genetics, Hospital Universitario de Mostoles, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain.
    Our patient is a 36-year-old man referred by his general physician to the Department of Hematology because of mild neutropenia in a routine analysis at work. There was no history of previous diseases, and examination was normal. Blood investigations confirmed the neutropenia and showed elongation of prothrombin time. Read More

    Rescue pre-operative treatment with Lugol's solution in uncontrolled Graves' disease.
    Endocr Connect 2017 May 21;6(4):200-205. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of EndocrinologyMetabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Graves' disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Three therapies have been used for decades: pharmacologic therapy, surgery and radioiodine. In case of adverse events, especially agranulocytosis or hepatotoxicity, pre-treatment with Lugol's solution containing iodine/potassium iodide to induce euthyroidism before surgery could be advocated, but this has rarely been reported. Read More

    Dapsone-induced agranulocytosis-possible involvement of low-activity N-acetyltransferase 2.
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Šalata 3, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dapsone-induced agranulocytosis is a rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reaction (ADR). A 45-year-old male Caucasian patient developed agranulocytosis caused by dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone), which he was prescribed for leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Patient's treatment consisted of termination of dapsone, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor leading to prompt improvement of symptoms and normalization of laboratory blood values. Read More

    Methimazole associated eosinophilic pleural effusion: a case report.
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 Mar 21;18(1):16. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Serviço de Medicina 2, Hospital de Santa Maria - Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Avenida Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to thionamides have also been reported, two with propylthiouracil and three with carbimazole.

    Case Presentation: We report here a case of a 75-year-old man admitted because of unilateral pleural effusion. Read More

    Multiple Drug Hypersensitivity.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2017 18;172(3):129-138. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    ADR-AC, Bern, Switzerland.
    Multiple drug hypersensitivity (MDH) is a syndrome that develops as a consequence of massive T-cell stimulations and is characterized by long-lasting drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to different drugs. The initial symptoms are mostly severe exanthems or drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Subsequent symptoms due to another drug often appear in the following weeks, overlapping with the first DHR, or months to years later after resolution of the initial presentation. Read More

    Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk assessment.
    Arch Toxicol 2017 Jun 17;91(6):2303-2313. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. Read More

    Multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial of Genexol-PM® with Gemcitabine in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer.
    Anticancer Res 2017 03;37(3):1467-1473
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea
    This multicenter phase II clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of weekly Genexol-PM® and gemcitabine combination chemotherapy in patients with unresectable or metastatic biliary tract cancer.

    Patients And Methods: Patients received 100 mg/m(2) Genexol-PM® and 1,000 mg/m(2) gemcitabine intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 21 days.

    Results: Out of 39 patients, there were 10 partial responses (25. Read More

    [Evaluation of hemogram in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease: about 87 cases].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 20;25:240. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Équipe de Recherche en Hématologie, Laboratoire d'Hématologie, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université Mohammed V, Rabat, Maroc; Laboratoire Central d'Hématologie, Centre Hospitalier Ibn Sina, Rabat, Maroc.
    Homozygous sickle cell disease is one of the most frequent haemoglobinopathies in Morocco. Sickle cell disease is characterized by a large clinical and biological expression variability which depends on modulating genetic and environmental factors. Clinical manifestation includes regenerative anemia whose severity may vary among individuals. Read More

    Potential Mechanisms of Hematological Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients Receiving Clozapine in Combination With Proton Pump Inhibitors.
    J Psychiatr Pract 2017 Mar;23(2):114-120
    WICIŃSKI, WĘCLEWICZ, MIĘTKIEWICZ, MALINOWSKI, and GRZEŚK: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland KLONOWSKA: College of Engineering and Health, Warsaw, Poland.
    Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic which has proven efficacy in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Although clozapine therapy is associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, it is frequently used. One of the most common adverse drug reactions is gastroesophageal reflux disease which is an indication for treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Read More

    Neutropenia induced by high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin in treating neurosyphilis: Does it really matter?
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 13;11(3):e0005456. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Sexually Transmitted Disease Institute, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Prompt therapy with high-dose intravenous benzylpenicillin for a prolonged period is critical for neurosyphilis patients to avoid irreversible sequelae. However, life-threatening neutropenia has been reported as a complication of prolonged therapy with high doses of benzylpenicillin when treating other diseases. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, presentation, management and prognosis of benzylpenicillin-induced neutropenia in treating neurosyphilis based on a large sample of syphilis patients in Shanghai. Read More

    Chronic use of metamizole: not so safe after all?
    Neth J Med 2017 Mar;75(2):81-83
    Department of Gastroenetrology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Den Bosch, the Netherlands.
    Metamizole can be used in both short- and long-term pain relief therapies and has a relatively favourable safety profile compared with classic NSAIDs. Metamizole is also infamous because of its potential fatal adverse drug reaction, agranulocytosis. Although this risk varies, it is estimated to occur in less than one million metamizole prescriptions. Read More

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia blast crisis in a patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    Respir Investig 2017 Mar 12;55(2):181-183. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
    A 59-year-old woman with epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced lung adenocarcinoma was treated with afatinib after a diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Twenty-one weeks later, she developed agranulocytosis, and CMML subsequently progressed to blast crisis. After complete remission of CMML, gefitinib was initiated; however, agranulocytosis recurred. Read More

    [Leukopenia with unclear fever].
    Internist (Berl) 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Medizinische Klinik, Sana Krankenhaus Gerresheim, Sana Kliniken Düsseldorf GmbH, Gräulinger Str. 120, 40625, Düsseldorf, Deutschland.
    We report on a 77-year-old male patient with neutropenic fever as a result of a newly diagnosed agranulocytosis. The patient was taking metamizole, which is a well known cause of agranulocytosis. The diagnosis of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis as an underestimated side-effect of metamizole could be confirmed by a bone marrow biopsy. Read More

    Successful clozapine re-challenge in a patient with three previous episodes of clozapine-associated blood dyscrasia.
    BJPsych Open 2017 Jan 9;3(1):22-25. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    , BSc MBBS SFHEA PhD FRCPsych, National Psychosis Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, London, UK.
    A case is presented of a 30-year-old female with treatment-resistant schizoaffective disorder who was referred to a tertiary-level specialist psychosis service. We describe the history of clozapine trials and associated episodes of agranulocytosis and neutropenia, followed by the successfully tolerated third clozapine re-challenge within our service.

    Declaration Of Interest: None. Read More

    Emphasis on the early diagnosis of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis: retrospective analysis over 16 years at one Chinese center.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jul 24;40(7):733-740. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis is a rare but life-threatening adverse drug reaction that occurs in patients during the treatment of Graves' disease. We aimed to comprehensively examine data for patients with this rare complication and to improve the clinical safety of ATDs.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 hospitalized patients diagnosed with ATD-induced agranulocytosis between 2000 and 2015. Read More

    Aplastic Anemia and Severe Myelosuppression with Boceprevir or Simeprevir-Containing Hepatitis C Virus Treatment.
    Ann Hepatol 2017 March-April;16(2):312-317
    Liver Unit, Gastroenterology Department, Hospital del Mar, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.
    The addition of the new protease inhibitors (PIs) to peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), approved for chronic hepatitis C, has clearly improved sustained virological response (SVR) rates although several adverse events have been reported with this regimens, including mild hematological toxicity. Moreover, severe pancytopenia and aplastic anemia during triple therapy with telaprevir has recently been described in seven patients. We report here two cases of severe agranulocytosis/aplastic anemia using boceprevir or simeprevir in interferon-based combination and 2 additional cases of severe myelosupression in IFN-free therapy with sofosbuvir and simeprevir plus RBV. Read More

    Clinical Development of Histamine H4 Receptor Antagonists.
    Handb Exp Pharmacol 2017 ;241:301-320
    Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.
    The discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H4R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H4R in inflammation and pruritus. Read More

    [Influence of Next-Day Administration of Pegfilgrastim after FEC100 Chemotherapy in Japanese with Breast Cancer on Neutrophil Count].
    Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2017 Feb;44(2):149-152
    Dept. of Pharmacy, Japanese Red Cross Society Wakayama Medical Center.
    Febrile neutropenia(FN)is one of the serious treatment-related toxicities after FEC100(5-fluorouracil 500mg/m2, epiru- bicin 100mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2)chemotherapy for breast cancer. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor(GCSF) is used as a support therapy for FN. Thus, we evaluated retrospectively the safety of administering pegfilgrastim the day after FEC100 chemotherapy in Japanese patients with breast cancer as compared with lenograstim. Read More

    Empiric treatment against invasive fungal diseases in febrile neutropenic patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 20;17(1):159. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China.
    Background: The most optimal antifungal agent for empiric treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in febrile neutropenia is controversial. Our objective was evaluate the relative efficacy of antifungals for all-cause mortality, fungal infection-related mortality and treatment response in this population.

    Methods: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine in the assessment of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients.
    Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2017 Apr;77(2):130-134
    b Department of Medicine , Kuopio University Hospital , Kuopio , Finland.
    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been recognized as an independent prognostic factor for sepsis mortality in intensive care units. No data are available on kinetics or prognostic value of ADMA in hematological patients. We evaluated the ability of ADMA to act as a predictor for complicated course of febrile neutropenia, defined as bacteremia and/or septic shock in adult hematological patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. Read More

    Role of granule proteases in the life and death of neutrophils.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Jan 3;482(3):473-481. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Neutrophils constitute a crucial component of the innate immune defenses against microbes. Produced in the bone marrow and patrolling in blood vessels, neutrophils are recruited to injured tissues and are immediately active to contain pathogen invasion. Neutrophils undergo programmed cell death by multiple, context-specific pathways, which have consequences on immunopathology and disease outcome. Read More

    Efficacy of the oral mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus in relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma.
    Am J Hematol 2017 May 10;92(5):448-453. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Relapsed indolent lymphoma often becomes refractory to standard chemoimmunotherapy and requires new therapeutic strategies. Targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway in several types of lymphoma has shown preclinical and clinical efficacy providing the rationale to test this strategy in the treatment of relapsed/refractory indolent lymphomas. We investigated in a phase II open label clinical trial the efficacy and safety of single agent everolimus, an inhibitor of mTORC1, in patients with relapsed/refractory indolent lymphomas. Read More

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