Geriatric Research Education & Clinical Center & Infectious Diseases Section, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 10701 East Blvd, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA ; Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Clostridium difficile infection, the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea, disproportionately affects older adults. The two most important risk factors for developing C. difficile infection are antimicrobial exposure and age >65 years old. Read More
Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. Read More
Clinical Cardiovascular Research Laboratory for the Elderly, Center for Advanced Cardiac Care, Division of Cardiology, Columbia College of Physicians & Surgeons, 622 West 168th Street, PH 12-1291, NY, USA.
Aims: In the USA, transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis usually results from 'wild-type' transthyretin (senile cardiac amyloidosis [SCA]) or the V122I variant.
Patients & Methods: We compared presentations and outcomes among SCA and V122I patients referred to the Center for Advanced Cardiac Care at Columbia University Medical Center (NY, USA) between 2001 and 2012.
Results: V122I patients were younger (mean: 71 years, standard deviation [SD]: 7) than SCA patients (mean: 77, SD: 6; p = 0. Read More
Major depression is disproportionately common among elderly adults receiving home healthcare and is characterized by greater medical illness, functional impairment, and pain. Depression is persistent in this population and is associated with numerous poor outcomes such as increased risk of hospitalization, injury-producing falls, and higher health care costs. Despite the need for mental health care in these patients, significant barriers unique to the home healthcare setting contribute to under-detection and under-treatment of depression. Read More
AIMS: Caregiver distress can affect mood and cognition. Meditation can be used to reduce stress. This pilot study explored whether yogic meditation could change regional cerebral metabolism in distressed caregivers. Read More
Over 1.5 million people live in 16,000 nursing homes in the USA and experience an average of 2 million infections a year. Infections have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, rehospitalization, extended hospital stay and substantial healthcare expenses. Read More
Thurston Arthritis Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3300 Thurston Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA ; Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual's socioeconomic circumstances. Read More
Adjuvant chemotherapy and targeted therapies comprise two salient practice-changing improvements in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite the fact that these improvements have been largely data-driven, the following questions arise: what is the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer? What is the role of targeted agents, such as erlotinib and bevacizumab, in older non-small-cell lung cancer patients? These questions are relevant because the current median age of lung cancer patients at diagnosis in the USA is 69 years, and the number of older patients developing this malignancy is increasing. This review provides guidance on how best to approach the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and targeted therapies in older patients with this disease. Read More
AIMS: The current study sought to explore the relationship between state and trait anxiety and delayed verbal memory performance in APOE-4 carriers and noncarriers who were aged 50 years and above. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: The study was a retrospective analysis of 267 participants aged 50 years and above who had completed genetic testing for APOE status, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that included three delayed verbal memory measures (Wechsler Memory Scale - 3rd Edition, Logical Memory and Verbal Pairs subtests and the Buschke Selective Reminding Test). RESULTS: An inverse relationship was found between state anxiety and delayed verbal memory performance. Read More
Advancing age is a major risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Currently, there are no effective preventive strategies for cognitive decline. Since physicians have no drug therapies to offer, patients and families may turn to complementary and alternative medicine to preserve cognition. Read More
Evaluation of Craft S, Baker LD, Montine TJ, Minoshima S, Watson GS, Claxton A, et al. Intranasal Insulin Therapy for Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Arch Neurol. Read More
Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA ; Longevity Center Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.
Aims: In the current study, we explored the potential effects of hormone therapy (HT) on language functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women and compared them with men of similar ages.
Materials & Methods: Language functioning on tasks of verbal fluency and object naming was examined in 100 participants (mean age: 61.9 years; 33 HT users, 15 HT non-users and 52 men) at baseline and follow-up (mean follow-up time period: 2. Read More
The incidence of most common cancers increases with age. This occurs in association with, and is possibly caused by a decline in immune function, termed immune senescence. Although the size of the T-cell compartment is quantitatively maintained into older age, several deleterious changes (including significant changes to T-cell subsets) occur over time that significantly impair immunity. Read More
Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the population in developed countries. Advancing age is the most powerful risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD-related mortality increases markedly in older individuals. Procedures for patients with CVD, including percutaneous coronary intervention, aortic valve replacement and implantable cardioverter defibrillators were all initially validated in younger individuals but are increasingly being applied in older adults who for the most part have been significantly understudied in clinical trials. Read More
VA Research Service, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine & the Baltimore Geriatric Research, Education & Clinical Center (GRECC), VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA,
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically over the last several decades. Obesity and physical inactivity increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Obesity and low levels of physical fitness are also associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Read More
Age-related bone loss is progressive and can lead to osteoporosis. While it is accepted that both dietary calcium and vitamin D are important and beneficial for skeletal health, the impact of dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone balance remains controversial. Contrary to the hypothesis that increasing dietary protein contributes to bone loss, research supports the notion that protein may play a pivotal role in maintenance of bone health by several mechanisms; for example, increasing dietary protein increases IGF-1, calcium absorption, muscle strength and mass, all of which could potentially benefit the skeleton. Read More
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. Read More
The fastest growing segment of the US population, and that of other developed countries, is the oldest-old (aged >85 years). Many children born after the year 2000 in countries with the longest lived residents may live to see their 100th birthday. The combination of reduced mortality along with reduced fertility in developed countries is producing 'population aging', and the comorbidities associated with aging are becoming important public health issues. Read More
There is both popular and scientific interest in keeping the brain young and avoiding cognitive impairment and dementia. Older adults may be able to modify their cognitive health status through certain health behaviors. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential impact that cognitive activity may have on cognitive health outcomes in late life. Read More
Driving is a complex activity that always becomes impaired at some point in older adults with degenerative dementia. Over time, disruption of the visual processing circuits of the brain that link the occipital and prefrontal regions, particularly in the right hemisphere, leads to increasing degrees of driving impairment that ultimately preclude safe driving. Neuropsychological tests of visuospatial ability, executive function and attention that tap into the integrity of these brain regions provide the clinician with important information regarding the need for a formal determination of driving competence. Read More
Depression is a debilitating mental disorder that frequently occurs in older adults, especially in those with vascular diseases. Nutritional factors have the potential to decrease the occurrence of late-life depression but have not been adequately studied. Low folate levels, disturbed omega-3 fatty acid metabolism and obesity have been associated with depression, and may be causal factors. Read More
Severe acute respiratory disease caused by respiratory virus infections in individuals aged 65 years and older and in high-risk adults, such as those with chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, is associated with increased hospitalization and mortality rates. Epidemiological studies have identified influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus as the most frequent causes of virus-induced respiratory disease in elderly and high-risk adults. Studies in both humans and animal models have established fundamental defects in cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in aged individuals. Read More
The aim of this review is to present age-related changes in the bone marrow and thymus and their effects in later life. Age-related hematologic changes are marked by a decline in marrow cellularity, increased risk of myeloproliferative disorders and anemia, and a decline in adaptive immunity. The exact mechanisms that produce these changes remain undefined. Read More
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada and, Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer & Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-1601, USA, Tel.: +1 604 806 9153, ,
Influenza is foremost among all infectious diseases for an age-related increase in risk for serious complications and death. Determining the benefit of current influenza vaccines is largely limited to epidemiologic studies, since placebo-controlled trials of influenza vaccines are no longer considered ethical in the older adult population. Vaccine effectiveness is calculated from the relative reduction in influenza outcomes in individuals who elect to be vaccinated compared with those who do not, the assumptions for which are diverse and have led to considerable controversy as to the exact benefit of influenza vaccination in older adults. Read More
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, and, Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Tel.: +1 310 794 4619, ,
Late-life mood disorders and cognitive aging are the most common reasons for using complementary and alternative therapies. The amount of rigorous scientific data to support the efficacy of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression or cognitive impairment is extremely limited. The areas with the most evidence for beneficial effects are exercise, herbal therapy (Hypericum perforatum), the use of fish oil, and, to a lesser extent, acupuncture and relaxation therapies. Read More
HIV is increasing in prevalence in the middle aged and older population owing to both increased longevity, and new infections in these populations. Highly active antiretrorival therapy (HAART) therapy may be less effective at restoring immune function in older patients compared with younger patients. There are significant toxicities associated with HAART therapy that, combined with decreased renal and liver function in older patients, may be more problematic in older HIV-infected patients. Read More
Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airway. The airway inflammation of asthma is typically an allergic inflammation characterized by cells and mediators described as a "Th2" inflammatory response. There is a growing body of evidence describing changes in the function of immune cells upon aging, a phenomenon referred to as "immunosenescence". Read More
Community-acquired pneumonia continues to have a significant impact on elderly individuals, who are affected more frequently and with more severe consequences than younger populations. As the population ages it is expected that the medical and economic impact of this disease will increase. Despite these concerns, little progress has been made in research specifically focusing on community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly. Read More
The purpose of this review is to describe how recent pharmacological and genetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in age-related sarcopenia and diastolic dysfunction. Treatment strategies are limited in the context of both of these conditions, although interventions, which include blockade of the RAS (using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers) are successful and lead to improvements in functional outcomes that are not necessarily mediated by hemodynamic effects of the drugs. Studies in animal models of sarcopenia and diastolic dysfunction point to ubiquitous effects of RAS blockade on multiple biological mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative damage and metabolic dysregulation. Read More