432,731 results match your criteria Ageing & Society [Journal]


Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pawpaw Pulp (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) at Different Ripening Stages.

J Food Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Chungnam Natl. Univ., 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.

In this study, the phenolic components, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, of the ripe and unripe fruit of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) extracted using five different solvents (distilled water, 95% methanol, 80% methanol, 95% ethanol, and 80% ethanol) were analyzed. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were the highest in the 95% ethanol (149. Read More

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December 2018

Higher gene expression stability during aging in long-lived giant mole-rats than in short-lived rats.

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of General Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Many aging-associated physiological changes are known to occur in short- and long-lived species with different trajectories. Emerging evidence suggests that numerous life history trait differences between species are based on interspecies variations in gene expression. Little information is available, however, about differences in transcriptome changes during aging between mammals with diverging lifespans. Read More

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December 2018

Social housing protects against age-related working memory decline independently of physical enrichment in rats.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 23;75:117-125. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Psychology Department, Providence College, Providence, RI, USA.

Longitudinal human studies suggest that as we age, sociality provides protective benefits against cognitive decline. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Rodent studies, which are ideal for studying cognition, fail to examine the independent effects of social housing while controlling for physical enrichment in all groups. Read More

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November 2018

Impairment in complex activities of daily living is related to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease-specific regions.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 26;75:109-116. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is an early clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neurobiology underlying IADL disruptions is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between IADL functioning and cortical atrophy across the AD spectrum. Read More

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November 2018

Chronic stress exposure and daily stress appraisals relate to biological aging marker p16.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 7;102:139-148. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, 300 Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, 502 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Previous research has linked exposure to adverse social conditions with DNA damage and accelerated telomere shortening, raising the possibility that chronic stress may impact biological aging pathways, ultimately increasing risk for age-related diseases. Less clear, however, is whether these stress-related effects extend to additional hallmarks of biological aging, including cellular senescence, a stable state of cell cycle arrest. The present study aimed to investigate associations between psychosocial stress and two markers of cellular aging-leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cellular senescence signal p16. Read More

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December 2018

Vascular burden and APOE ε4 are associated with white matter microstructural decline in cognitively normal older adults.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

White matter microstructure can be measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While increasing age is a predictor of white matter (WM) microstructure changes, roles of other possible modifiers, such as cardiovascular risk factors, APOE ε4 allele status and biological sex have not been clarified. We investigated 665 cognitively normal participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (age 50-95, 56. Read More

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December 2018

Frailty in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis patients of working age: a cross-sectional study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: The prevalence of frailty has been widely researched in the elderly population. However, data about people of working age are scarce. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of prefrailty and frailty in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of working age, and to assess factors associated with prefrailty/frailty. Read More

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November 2018

Response to "An objective criterion for stimulation intensity may be necessary to properly assess muscle contractile properties".

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec;120(6):3288

Neuromuscular Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario , London, Ontario , Canada.

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December 2018

Correlation of Cell-Surface CD8 Levels with Function, Phenotype and Transcriptome of Naive CD8 T Cells.

Immunology 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.

We have previously demonstrated co-receptor level-associated functional heterogeneity in apparently homogenous naive peripheral CD4 T cells, dependent on MHC-mediated tonic signals. Since maturation pathways can differ between naive CD4 and naive CD8 cells, we tested whether the latter showed similar co-receptor level-associated functional heterogeneity. We report that, when either polyclonal and TCR-transgenic monoclonal peripheral naive CD8 T cells from young mice were separated into CD8hi and CD8lo subsets, CD8lo cells responded poorly, but CD8hi and CD8lo subsets of CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes responded similarly. Read More

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December 2018
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Assessment of Instruments for Measurement of Delirium Severity: A Systematic Review.

JAMA Intern Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Aging Brain Center, Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Measurement of delirium severity has been recognized as highly important for tracking prognosis, monitoring response to treatment, and estimating burden of care for patients both during and after hospitalization. Rather than simply rating delirium as present or absent, the ability to quantify its severity would enable development and monitoring of more effective treatment approaches for the condition.

Objectives: To present a comprehensive review of delirium severity instruments, conduct a methodologic quality rating of the original validation study of the most commonly used instruments, and select a group of top-rated instruments. Read More

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December 2018

Cortisol levels among older people with and without depression and dementia.

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 17:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health,Vestfold Hospital Trust,Tønsberg,Norway.

ABSTRACTCortisol dysregulation has been reported in dementia and depression. Cortisol levels and its associates were investigated among older people living at home and in nursing homes, in a cross-sectional study. A sample of 650 older people, from the community (home and nursing homes) and specialized care (memory clinics and old age psychiatry wards), mean age 76. Read More

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December 2018

Measuring disease activity and response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

b Department of Musculoskeletal Biology , Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Clinical Sciences Centre, Aintree University Hospital , Liverpool.

Introduction: Effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires suppression of the underlying inflammation. Measurement of such inflammation, the disease activity, is mandatory to target treatment and maximize outcomes. However, this is not as straightforward as it may seem. Read More

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December 2018
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Examining criterion a: DSM-5 level of personality functioning as assessed through life story interviews.

Personal Disord 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.

The alternative model for personality disorders offers a two-part definition of personality pathology, separating personality functioning from traits. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition alternative model for personality disorders encapsulates the personality functioning criterion, and several methods have been used to assess it. Previous interview rating methods have overlapped with an assessment of personality traits and symptoms, biasing the assessment of functioning, and recently developed self-report instruments rely on the participant's awareness of their personality pathology. Read More

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December 2018
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Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Cycloaddition of Vinyloxetanes with Formaldehyde.

Org Lett 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging , Shanghai Jiao Tong University , 800 Dongchuan Road , Shanghai 200240 , People's Republic of China.

An efficient method for the enantioselective construction of tertiary 1,3-diols via Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic cycloaddition of vinyloxetanes with an abundant feedstock, formaldehyde, is developed. Using the palladium complex generated in situ from Pd(dba)·CHCl and phosphoramidite L3 as a catalyst under mild conditions, the process allows one to convert racemic 2-substituted 2-vinyloxetanes (1) to the corresponding 1,3-dioxanes (2) as methylene acetal protected tertiary 1,3-diols in high yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiovascular risk profiling of long-lived people shows peculiar associations with mortality compared with younger individuals.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy.

Aim: Centenarians represent a biological model of successful aging because they escaped/postponed most invalidating age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether a favorable cardiovascular risk profile increases the survival chances in long-lived people.

Methods: A total of 355 community-dwelling nonagenarians and centenarians living in Southern Italy were recruited in the study. Read More

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December 2018

Pill for this and a pill for that: A cross-sectional survey of use and understanding of medication among adults with multimorbidity.

Australas J Ageing 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

Objective: To understand the challenges managing medication use and knowledge of people living with multimorbidity.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 234 adults with multimorbidity, identified using retrospective hospital discharge data. Participants were recruited from two primary health organisations in New Zealand. Read More

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December 2018

Promising immunotherapy: Highlighting cytokine-induced killer cells.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

For many years, cancer therapy has appeared to be a challenging issue for researchers and physicians. By the introduction of novel methods in immunotherapy, the prospect of cancer therapy even more explained than before. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell-based immunotherapy demonstrated to have potentiality in improving clinical outcomes and relieving major side effects of standard treatment options. Read More

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December 2018
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Could problem lists summarize comprehensive geriatric assessments? A nationwide cross-sectional survey on geriatricians' attitudes towards problem lists.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Aim: The use of problem lists is encouraged to overcome the inconsistency in reporting comprehensive geriatric assessment results. The present study aimed to identify the latent variables influencing the use of geriatrician problem lists.

Methods: Surveys were sent to all geriatricians registered with the Japan Geriatrics Society (n = 1439) as of November 2015, and responses (n = 204) were analyzed with univariate and exploratory factor analyses. Read More

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December 2018

Chemicals, somatic mutations and neurodegeneration: Evidence from Western Pacific ALS-PDC.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Leija-Salazar and colleagues discuss current evidence for somatic mutations in neurodegeneration, focusing on sporadic, usually late-onset neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Somatic mutation, defined as any acquired post-zygotic change in the nuclear genome, has long been linked to chemically induced DNA damage, aging and cancer but little more than a theoretical basis exists to associate comparable phenomena with sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. Whereas specific exogenous mutagenic chemicals, such as the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1, the amine dye benzo(a)-pyrene, and a tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine, are key examples of proven mutagenic carcinogens [2], only broad exposure categories, such as tobacco smoke, have been linked positively with ALS and AD, and negatively with PD. Read More

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December 2018

Applicability of an elastic band exercise program to wheelchair-bound older adults with and without dementia: A self-rating survey.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Master Program of Long-Term Care in Aging, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Aim: To investigate the perceptions of wheelchair-bound older adults with and without dementia toward the Wheelchair-bound Senior Elastic Band exercise program, and to compare the differences of their perceptions to the program.

Methods: A descriptive and comparative design was applied. Data were derived from the experimental groups of two cluster-randomized controlled trials. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Nutrient biomarkers shape individual differences in functional brain connectivity: Evidence from omega-3 PUFAs.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.

A wealth of neuroscience evidence demonstrates that diet and nutrition play an important role in structural brain plasticity, promoting the development of gray matter volume and maintenance of white matter integrity across the lifespan. However, the role of nutrition in shaping individual differences in the functional brain connectome remains to be well established. We therefore investigated whether nutrient biomarkers known to have beneficial effects on brain structure (i. Read More

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December 2018

Rs1894720 polymorphism in MIAT increased susceptibility to age-related hearing loss by modulating the activation of miR-29b/SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: MIAT may be implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss (AHL). This study aimed to clarify the effect of a MIAT signaling pathway on the risk of AHL.

Methods: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, auditory brainstem response (ABR) and quantitative hair cell counts were used to compare the hearing functions in different groups of mice. Read More

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December 2018

Finding fault: Criticism as a care management strategy and its impact on outcomes for dementia caregivers.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Distinguished University Professor and Dean, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Despite a large literature on the stress process, little attention has focused on how caregivers for persons living with dementia (PLWDs) provide care and how this may impact care outcomes. Criticism is a management strategy caregivers may use to respond to behavioral symptoms. We consider whether criticism is associated with caregivers' mental health and service utilization. Read More

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December 2018

Dynamic homeostasis: From development to aging.

Authors:
Shosei Yoshida

Dev Growth Differ 2018 Dec;60(9):511

Division of Germ Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Japan.

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December 2018

Parkinson's Disease in the Era of Personalised Medicine: One Size Does Not Fit All.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic, Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, 100 Mallett St, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.

The concept of personalised medicine in Parkinson's disease has arrived where the implications of findings made in research are certain to have an increasing impact upon clinical practice. Disease heterogeneity in Parkinson's disease has been well described and lends itself to the construct of personalised medicine where it is hypothesised that a greater understanding of genetic and pathophysiological contributions may underpin the sub-groups described. This in turn has driven the development of potentially individualised disease-modifying therapies where, for example, we are beginning to see treatments that target patients with Parkinson's disease with specific genetic mutations. Read More

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December 2018

Keeping ribosomal DNA intact: a repeating challenge.

Chromosome Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Section of Oncogenetics, Department of Clinical Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, de Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

More than half of the human genome consists of repetitive sequences, with the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) representing two of the largest repeats. Repetitive rDNA sequences may form a threat to genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis due to the challenging aspects of their transcription, replication, and repair. Predisposition to cancer, premature aging, and neurological impairment in ataxia-telangiectasia and Bloom syndrome, for instance, coincide with increased cellular rDNA repeat instability. Read More

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December 2018

Role of Farnesoid X Receptor and Bile Acids in Hepatic Tumor Development.

Hepatol Commun 2018 Dec 1;2(12):1567-1582. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Metabolism National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health Bethesda MD.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and an association between altered bile acid (BA) metabolism, down-regulation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is a master regulator of BA metabolism, and hepatocarcinogenesis has been documented. While global FXR deficiency in mice results in spontaneous HCC with aging, the contribution of tissue-specific FXR deficiency to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, the prevalence of hepatic tumors, expression of genes related to tumorigenesis, and serum/liver BA levels were compared among male whole-body -null, hepatocyte-specific -null (), and enterocyte-specific -null () mice at the age of 3, 14, and 20 months. Read More

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December 2018

Use of hyaluronic acid gel filler to improve contact lens wear in patients with deep sunken superior sulcus.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 10;30(4):374-376. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Advanced Vision Care, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Deep sunken superior sulcus of the upper eyelid can result from aging, genetic, prostaglandin use, and prior aggressive upper blepharoplasty. If severe, it can cause exposure keratopathy, lagophthalmos, and giant fornix syndrome. We herein report on another milder manifestation of deep superior sulcus and its treatments. Read More

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December 2018

Experimental data in support of characterization of the CePO dispersion into transparent PMMA/PU IPNs by the sequential route.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 15;21:2350-2359. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom.

This article is focused on the complementary data referring to the article "Dispersion of upconverting nanostructures of CePO using rod and semi-spherical morphologies into transparent PMMA/PU IPNs by the sequential route". It contains the XPS data of CePO photographs and DSC thermograms of transparent PMMA/PU IPNs as well as with CePO dispersed in different wt.%, Confocal laser scanning micrographs, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical images of surface, and visual inspection (photographs) before and after aging of hybrid materials. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in Serine Racemase-Dependent Modulation of NMDA Receptor: Impact on Physiological and Pathological Brain Aging.

Front Mol Biosci 2018 28;5:106. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

UNICAEN, INSERM, COMETE, Normandie University, Caen, France.

The N-methyl-D-Aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are pivotal for the functional and morphological plasticity that are required in neuronal networks for efficient brain activities and notably for cognitive-related abilities. Because NMDARs are heterogeneous in subunit composition and associated with multiple functional regulatory sites, their efficacy is under the tonic influence of numerous allosteric modulations, whose dysfunction generally represents the first step generating pathological states. Among the enzymatic candidates, serine racemase (SR) has recently gathered an increasing interest considering that it tightly regulates the production of d-serine, an amino acid now viewed as the main endogenous co-agonist necessary for NMDAR activation. Read More

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November 2018

Family transfers and long-term care: An analysis of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

J Econ Ageing 2018 Nov;12:195-201

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

Background: Populations globally are ageing, resulting in increased need for long-term care. Where social welfare systems are insufficient, these costs may fall to other family members. We set out to estimate the association between long-term care needs and family transfers in selected low- and middle- income countries. Read More

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November 2018

Age and Periodontal Health - Immunological View.

Curr Oral Health Rep 2018 Dec 7;5(4):229-241. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV.

Purpose Of The Review: Aging clearly impacts a wide array of systems, in particular the breadth of the immune system leading to immunosenescence, altered immunoactivation, and coincident inflammaging processes. The net result of these changes leads to increased susceptibility to infections, increased neoplastic occurrences, and elevated frequency of autoimmune diseases with aging. However, as the bacteria in the oral microbiome that contribute to the chronic infection of periodontitis is acquired earlier in life, the characteristics of the innate and adaptive immune systems to regulate these members of the autochthonous microbiota across the lifespan remains ill defined. Read More

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December 2018

Lumbar stabilisation exercises versus back endurance-resistance exercise training in athletes with chronic low back pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2018 22;4(1):e000452. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Doctoral and Masters Programs in Rehabilitation Sciences UEL/UNOPAR, LAFUP-UNOPAR, Londrina-PR, Brazil.

Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is an important disorder in athletes that may negatively affect their performance in competitions. The literature usually recommends physiotherapy based on exercises for back pain management in athletes. Recent evidence suggests that interventions based on lumbar muscle stabilisation exercises (LMSE) and back endurance-resistance exercises (BERE) may improve back pain and function performance. Read More

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November 2018

Antioxidant properties of topical extract on UVB-induced photoaging in mice.

Dermatol Reports 2018 Oct 1;10(2):7597. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Virology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Indonesia.

, a genus of seaweed native to the Indo-Pacific region, has been known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits when consumed as food. Previous studies have reported 's potential as a strong antioxidant, but its effects on the skin in a topical preparation, especially its role in ultraviolet (UV) protection, have not been studied extensively. Our study investigated the protective effects of 0. Read More

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October 2018

Molecular mechanisms regulating lifespan and environmental stress responses.

Inflamm Regen 2018 10;38:22. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 2-2-3 Minatojima Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047 Japan.

Throughout life, organisms are subjected to a variety of environmental perturbations, including temperature, nutrient conditions, and chemical agents. Exposure to external signals induces diverse changes in the physiological conditions of organisms. Genetically identical individuals exhibit highly phenotypic variations, which suggest that environmental variations among individuals can affect their phenotypes in a cumulative and inhomogeneous manner. Read More

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December 2018

Caffeine Protects Skin from Oxidative Stress-Induced Senescence through the Activation of Autophagy.

Theranostics 2018 10;8(20):5713-5730. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Anti-Stress and Health Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China.

Skin cells are vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced senescence, which may lead to abnormal aging or aging-related disorders. Therefore, strategies that can ameliorate oxidative stress-induced senescence are expected to protect skin from damage, holding the promise of treating skin diseases in the clinic. This study aims to investigate whether caffeine, a well-known purine alkaloid, is able to prevent skin from oxidative stress-induced senescence, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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November 2018

Phenotypic heterogeneity of astrocytes in motor neuron disease.

Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 4;9(4):225-234. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Neuroscience and Pathobiology Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Nagoya University Nagoya Japan.

Accumulating evidence has shown that astrocytes do not just support the function of neurons, but play key roles in maintaining the brain environment in health and disease. Contrary to the traditional understanding of astrocytes as static cells, reactive astrocytes possess more diverse functions and phenotypes than previously predicted. In the present focused review, we summarize the evidence showing that astrocytes are playing profound roles in the disease process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Read More

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November 2018

The Epigenetics of Alzheimer's Disease: Factors and Therapeutic Implications.

Front Genet 2018 30;9:579. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder that imposes a great burden on the world. The mechanisms of AD are not yet fully understood. Current insight into the role of epigenetics in the mechanism of AD focuses on DNA methylation, remodeling of chromatin, histone modifications and non-coding RNA regulation. Read More

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November 2018

β-Glucan Differentiates Human Monocytes Into a Specific Subset of Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:2818. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Sepsis Control and Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

β-Glucan derived from cell walls of is a potent immune modulator. It has been shown to induce trained immunity in monocytes via epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming and to protect from lethal sepsis if applied prior to infection. Since β-glucan-trained monocytes have not been classified within the system of mononuclear phagocytes we analyzed these cells metabolically, phenotypically and functionally with a focus on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and compared them with naïve monocytes and other types of monocyte-derived cells such as classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Read More

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November 2018

Macrophages in the Aging Liver and Age-Related Liver Disease.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:2795. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

The number of individuals aged 65 or older is projected to increase globally from 524 million in 2010 to nearly 1. 5 billion in 2050. Aged individuals are particularly at risk for developing chronic illness, while being less able to regenerate healthy tissue and tolerate whole organ transplantation procedures. Read More

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November 2018

Aging Impairs Disengagement From Negative Words in a Dot Probe Task.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2361. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Aging, Culture, and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States.

Age differences in emotional processes have been of great interest. Previous studies using the dot probe task show that older adults can be more influenced by negative emotionally valenced faces than younger adults. Subsequent work has demonstrated two distinctive ways people engage with stimuli in this task, namely orienting to and disengaging from emotional stimuli. Read More

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November 2018

East Asian Young and Older Adult Perceptions of Emotional Faces From an Age- and Sex-Fair East Asian Facial Expression Database.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2358. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

There is increasing interest in clarifying how different face emotion expressions are perceived by people from different cultures, of different ages and sex. However, scant availability of well-controlled emotional face stimuli from non-Western populations limit the evaluation of cultural differences in face emotion perception and how this might be modulated by age and sex differences. We present a database of East Asian face expression stimuli, enacted by young and older, male and female, Taiwanese using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Read More

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November 2018

A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features.

Front Physiol 2018 30;9:1693. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Body composition (BC) is an emerging important factor for the characterization of metabolic status. The assessment of BC has been studied in various populations and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, endocrine diseases as well as physiological and paraphysiological conditions such as growth and aging processes, and physical training. A gold standard technique for the assessment of human BC at molecular level is represented by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is able to precisely assess the body mass (and areal bone mineral density-aBMD) on a regional and whole-body basis. Read More

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November 2018

Alterations of and Cytokines in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Combined Biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 29;10:392. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Center for Clinical Research on Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (), a transcription factor as key player for maintaining dopamine neuron functions and regulating neuroinflammation in the central nerves system, is a potential susceptibility gene for Parkinson's disease (PD). To ascertain whether the expression levels of gene and inflammatory cytokines are altered in patients with PD, we measured their mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 312 PD patients, 318 healthy controls (HC), and 332 non-PD neurological disease controls (NDCs) by quantitative real-time PCR. Our data showed that gene expression was significantly decreased in the PBMCs of PD as compared with that of HC and NDC ( < 0. Read More

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November 2018

Uncovering Biologically Coherent Peripheral Signatures of Health and Risk for Alzheimer's Disease in the Aging Brain.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 29;10:390. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, United States.

Brain aging is a multifaceted process that remains poorly understood. Despite significant advances in technology, progress toward identifying reliable risk factors for suboptimal brain health requires realistically complex analytic methods to explain relationships between genetics, biology, and environment. Here we show the utility of a novel unsupervised machine learning technique - Correlation Explanation (CorEx) - to discover how individual measures from structural brain imaging, genetics, plasma, and CSF markers can jointly provide information on risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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November 2018

Using High Frequency Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation to Modulate Face Memory Performance in Younger and Older Adults: Lessons Learnt From Mixed Findings.

Front Neurosci 2018 29;12:863. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been shown to improve a range of cognitive and perceptual abilities. Here we sought to examine the effects of a single session of tRNS targeted at the ventrolateral prefrontal cortices (VLPFC) on face memory in younger and older adults. To do so, we conducted three experiments. Read More

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November 2018

An update on postoperative delirium: Clinical features, neuropathogenesis, and perioperative management.

Curr Anesthesiol Rep 2018 07;8(3):252-262

Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We present a focused review on postoperative delirium for anesthesiologists, encompassing clinical features, neuropathogenesis, and clinical identification and management strategies based on risk factors and current delirium treatments.

Recent Findings: The literature on postoperative delirium is dominated by non-experimental studies. We review delirium phenotypes, diagnostic criteria, and present standard nomenclature based on current literature. Read More

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Frequency of metabolic syndrome and associated factors in institutionalized elderly individuals.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 30;13:2453-2464. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil,

Introduction: Population aging generally accompanies an increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS). Nursing homes have provided a solution for the decreased ability of elderly individuals for self-care and familial difficulties in meeting the health care needs of elderly individuals.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of MS and its associated factors in elderly individuals living in nursing homes. Read More

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November 2018

Maternal Age and Offspring's Educational Attainment.

J Marriage Fam 2018 Aug 22;80(4):853-870. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.

Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), the current study examines which maternal age at birth provides offspring with optimal opportunities for higher educational attainment. The results show that maternal age has a curvilinear relationship with offspring's educational attainment, i.e. Read More

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Is migration in later life good for wellbeing? A longitudinal study of ageing and selectivity of internal migration.

Area (Oxf) 2018 Dec 17;50(4):492-500. Epub 2018 May 17.

School of Social and Political Science University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.

Migration scholarship has recently paid attention to lifecourse and non-economic effects of moving house. Yet consideration of the effects of internal migration in later life has been relatively neglected despite their implications for social and spatial inequalities. Thus we address two questions: how trajectories of wellbeing in later life vary for movers and non-movers, and how the event of moving affects wellbeing. Read More

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December 2018