1,540 results match your criteria Africana Linguistica[Journal]


New and Interesting Fungi. 2.

Fungal Syst Evol 2019 Jun 5;3:57-134. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

One order, seven families, 28 new genera, 72 new species, 13 new combinations, four epitypes, and interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. Pseudorobillardaceae is introduced for (based on ). New genera include: (based on ) on twigs of (Germany); (based on ) on (Ukraine); (based on ) on fallen twigs of (Ukraine); (based on ) on (France) (incl. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2019.03.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235984PMC

Changes in the biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters in STZ-Induced diabetic rats and the ameliorative effect of fruit extract.

Heliyon 2020 May 21;6(5):e03989. Epub 2020 May 21.

Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Science Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa (UNISA), Florida Park, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Biochemical, hematological and histological changes are major observable clinical and pathological factors associated with . Derangement in the levels of these parameters increases the risk of the development of complications. In another hand, gastrointestinal intolerance due to the development of lactic acidosis on the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal microbiome is the toxic side effect of various synthetic antidiabetic agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243140PMC

Contagious Yawning in African Elephants Responses to Other Elephants and Familiar Humans.

Front Vet Sci 2020 8;7:252. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

While spontaneous yawning is common across all vertebrate classes, contagious yawning is less common and has been observed only in a few species of social animals. Interspecific contagious yawning in response to yawning by humans has been observed only by chimpanzees and dogs. After confirming additional occurrences of intraspecific contagious yawning in a group of captive African elephants previously studied, we further investigated the potential for the same group of elephants to engage in interspecific contagious yawning with familiar human handlers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225334PMC

Treponema spp., the dominant pathogen in the lesion of bovine digital dermatitis and its characterization in dairy cattle.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jun 25;245:108696. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Suncheon, Jeonnam 57922, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study examined the presence of Treponema in lesions using conventional PCR detection methods and investigated the microbiome by performing high-throughput DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) lesions were collected from 25 dairy farms in South Korea that were tested by PCR amplification using sets of one universal, one genus-specific, and three species specific Treponema PCR primers. Three BDD samples were randomly selected and normal tissue samples were submitted for 16S rRNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108696DOI Listing
June 2020
2.511 Impact Factor

First adult cyclophyllidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from teleost fishes: host switching beyond tetrapods in Africa.

Int J Parasitol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

DSI-NRF SARChI Chair (Ecosystem Health), Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa.

Tapeworms (Cestoda) of the order Cyclophyllidea include over 3,000 species of intestinal parasites of tetrapods, especially birds and mammals including humans. However, adults of cyclophyllideans have never been found in bony fishes, even though hundreds of thousands of these hosts have been examined for parasites globally over more than 250 years. In the present paper, we report on a unique example of host switching of a tapeworm from birds to teleost fish in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.03.007DOI Listing

Wildlife impacts and vulnerable livelihoods in a transfrontier conservation landscape.

Conserv Biol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Environmental Studies Program, University of Colorado, Sustainability, Energy and Environment Community, 4001 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO, 80309, U.S.A.

Interactions between humans and wildlife resulting in negative impacts are among the most pressing conservation challenges globally. In regions of smallholder livestock and crop production, interactions with wildlife can compromise human well-being and motivate negative sentiment and retaliation toward wildlife, undermining conservation goals. Although impacts may be unavoidable when human and wildlife land use overlap, scant large-scale human data exist quantifying the direct costs of wildlife to livelihoods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13480DOI Listing

Dog rabies control in West and Central Africa: A review.

Acta Trop 2020 May 10:105459. Epub 2020 May 10.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Rabies is a neglected but preventable zoonotic disease that predominantly affects the most vulnerable populations living in remote rural areas of resource-limited countries. To date, every country on the African mainland is considered endemic for dog-mediated rabies with an estimated 21'500 human rabies deaths occurring each year. In 2018, the United Against Rabies collaboration launched the Global Strategic Plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105459DOI Listing
May 2020
2.270 Impact Factor

Non-Invasive Assessment of Body Condition and Stress-Related Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Concentrations in African Elephants () Roaming in Fynbos Vegetation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 8;10(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.

Fynbos is a unique endemic vegetation type belonging to the Cape Floral Kingdom in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, representing the smallest of the six floral kingdoms in the world. Nowadays, only a few game reserves in this region support populations of African elephants (), and thus, little information exists regarding the suitability of the nutritionally poor Fynbos vegetation for these megaherbivores. Using already established non-invasive methods, the monitoring of individual body conditions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations, as a measure of physiological stress, was performed to examine a herd of 13 elephants in a Western Cape Province Private Game Reserve, during two monitoring periods (April and June 2018), following a severe drought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050814DOI Listing

Spatial geochemistry influences the home range of elephants.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 28;729:139066. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Centre for Environmental Geochemistry, Inorganic Geochemistry, British Geological Survey, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The unique geochemistry surrounding the Palabora Mining Company (PMC) land may act as a micronutrient hotspot, attracting elephants to the area. The PMC produces refined copper and extracts phosphates and other minerals. Understanding the spatial influence of geochemistry on the home range size of African elephants is important for elephant population management and conservation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139066DOI Listing

In Vitro Anti-Leishmanial Assessment of Some Medicinal Plants Collected from Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Authors:
Ibrahim Al Nasr

Acta Parasitol 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

College of Science and Arts at Uniazah, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: In the present work, a group of nine medicinal plants (Sonchus oleraceus, Echinops spinosissimus, Trichodesma africana, Pergularia tomentosa, Teucrium oliverianum, Blepharis ciliaris, Citrllus colocynthis, Cleome amblyocarpa and Aerva javanica) from eight different families were investigated for their in vitro anti-leishmanial activity against the promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania major. L. major is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is one of the major health problems in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries such as Iraq and Iran. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00205-2DOI Listing

Mountains of the Mist: A first plant checklist for the Bvumba Mountains, Manica Highlands (Zimbabwe-Mozambique).

PhytoKeys 2020 10;145:93-129. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Afromontane Research Unit & Department of Geography, University of the Free State, Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa University of the Free State Phuthaditjhaba South Africa.

The first comprehensive plant checklist for the Bvumba massif, situated in the Manica Highlands along the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border, is presented. Although covering only 276 km, the flora is rich with 1250 taxa (1127 native taxa and 123 naturalised introductions). There is a high proportion of Orchidaceae and Pteridophyta, with both groups showing a higher richness than for adjacent montane areas, which may be due to the massif's relatively high moisture levels as a result of frequent cloud cover. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.145.49257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165193PMC

Characterizing the landscape of movement to identify critical wildlife habitat and corridors.

Conserv Biol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.

Landscape planning that ensures the ecological integrity of ecosystems is critical in the face of rapid, human driven habitat conversion and development pressure. Wildlife tracking data provide unique and valuable information on animal distribution and location specific behaviors that can serve to increase the efficacy of such planning efforts. Given the spatio-temporal complexity inherent to animal movements, the interaction between movement behavior and a location is often oversimplified in commonly applied analyses of tracking data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13519DOI Listing

Candida africana vulvovaginitis: Prevalence and geographical distribution.

J Mycol Med 2020 Apr 5:100966. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Invasive Fungi Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Candida africana has been recovered principally as a causative agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) from different countries, which is likely to be misidentified as the typical Candida albicans or Candida dubliniensis. The current study aimed to characterize C. albicans species complex obtained from VVC based on conventional and molecular assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2020.100966DOI Listing

The COVID-19 Pandemic: a Call to Action to Identify and Address Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 06 18;7(3):398-402. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted and devastated the world. As the infection spreads, the projected mortality and economic devastation are unprecedented. In particular, racial and ethnic minorities may be at a particular disadvantage as many already assume the status of a marginalized group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00756-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166096PMC

Understanding the drivers of mortality in African savannah elephants.

Ecol Appl 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Conservation Information Monitoring Unit, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania.

Populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) have been declining due to poaching, human-elephant conflict, and habitat loss. Understanding the causes of these declines could aid in stabilizing elephant populations. We used data from the Great Elephant Census, a 19-country aerial survey of savannah elephants conducted in 2014 and 2015, to examine effects of a suite of variables on elephant mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2131DOI Listing

Hydroethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Attenuates Vincristine-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats.

Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci 2020 12;2020:7232579. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.

. The stem bark of the savanna tree (Hook) (family: Leguminosae) is used in the Ghanaian traditional medicine for the management of various pain-related diseases.

Objective: This study seeks to investigate the possible antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of the hydroethanolic stem bark extract of in a vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy model in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7232579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094176PMC
February 2020

Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 15;2020:3529081. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Biological and Physical Sciences, Moi University, Uasin Gishu County, P.O. Box 3900-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

The burden of neoplastic diseases is a significant global health challenge accounting for thousands of deaths. In Uganda, about 32,617 cancer cases were reported in 2018, accompanied by 21,829 deaths. In a view to identify some potential anticancer plant candidates for possible drug development, the current study was designed to compile the inventory of plants with reported anticancer activity used in rural Uganda and the evidences supporting their use in cancer therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3529081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102457PMC

Quantitative Evaluation of a Mexican and a Ghanaian Tabernaemontana Species as Alternatives to Voacanga africana for the Production of Antiaddictive Ibogan Type Alkaloids.

Chem Biodivers 2020 May 29;17(5):e2000002. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Delegación, Coyoacán, C.P., 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México, México.

In continuation of our efforts to provide quantitative information on antiaddictive ibogan type alkaloid-producing Tabernaemontana species, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to compare the alkaloid profiles of the barks and/or leaves of one Mexican and one African species - T. arborea and T. crassa, respectively, with the primary sources of commercially available semisynthetic ibogaine, Voacanga africana root and stem bark. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000002DOI Listing

Low prevalence of antifungal resistant in the complex causing vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Heliyon 2020 Mar 19;6(3):e03619. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Gynecology, Shahid Akbar Abadi Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The (.) complex includes , , and , with the last mentioned as an important emerging agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The aim of the study was to identify and and assess their drug susceptibility in vaginitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090347PMC

UNDERSTANDING PROLACTIN REGULATION AND DETERMINING THE EFFICACY OF CABERGOLINE AND DOMPERIDONE TO MITIGATE PROLACTIN-ASSOCIATED OVARIAN CYCLE PROBLEMS IN ZOO AFRICAN ELEPHANTS ( ).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Mar;51(1):13-24

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA.

Perturbations in serum prolactin secretion, both over- and underproduction, are observed in zoo African elephants () that exhibit abnormal ovarian cycles. Similar prolactin problems are associated with infertility in other species. Pituitary prolactin is held under constant inhibition by a hypothalamic-derived neurotransmitter, dopamine; thus, regulation by exogenous treatment with agonists or antagonists may be capable of reinitiating normal ovarian cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2019-0017DOI Listing

Population genomics of the widespread African savannah trees Afzelia africana and Afzelia quanzensis reveals no significant past fragmentation of their distribution ranges.

Am J Bot 2020 03;107(3):498-509

Evolutionary Biology and Ecology Unit, CP 160/12, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 avenue F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Premise: Few studies have addressed the evolutionary history of tree species from African savannahs. Afzelia contains economically important timber species, including two species widely distributed in African savannahs: A. africana in the Sudanian region and A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1449DOI Listing

gen. et sp. nov. and novelties in , and from wood in Germany.

MycoKeys 2020 2;63:119-161. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz Görlitz Germany.

During a survey on fungi associated with wood necroses of trees in Germany, strains belonging to the Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes were detected by preliminary analyses of ITS sequences. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (LSU, ITS, , , depending on genus) of 31 of the 45 strains from and reference strains revealed several new taxa, including , a new genus in the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes) with a collophorina-like asexual morph. Seven species (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) were treated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.63.46836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062850PMC

Patterns of genetic diversity in North Africa: Moroccan-Algerian genetic split in Juniperus thurifera subsp. africana.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 16;10(1):4810. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Institute of Dendrology Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035, Kórnik, Poland.

Juniperus thurifera is a key element of the forest communities in arid and semi-arid areas of the western Mediterranean. Previous genetic and morphological investigations suggested that Algerian populations are genetically more similar to European than to Moroccan populations and advocated their recognition at the variety rank. We aimed to investigate the spatial genetic structure in J. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61525-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075976PMC

Parasitological and histopathological diagnosis of a non-native fish ( sp.) with a noticeable presence in a natural Brazilian river environment.

J Parasit Dis 2020 Mar 28;44(1):201-212. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

AQUOS-Aquatic Organisms Health Laboratory, Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1346, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 Brazil.

Nile tilapia is an exotic species produced in Brazilian aquaculture. The aim of this study was to constitute a pathological diagnosis in sp. with a noticeable presence in a river in southern Brazil, and to verify the origin of these fish in this natural habitat, an environment with high sanitary precariousness due to discharges of industrial effluents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01184-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046855PMC

Extraction and characterisation of natural cellulose fibers from Kigelia africana.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 May 13;236:115996. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Centre for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy, Jyothy Institute of Technology, Thataguni Post, Bengaluru, 560082, India. Electronic address:

Kigelia africana also known as sausage plant, yields highly fibrous fruit with a hard shell. Many medicinal uses are reported for the extracts from the fruits, seeds and leaves of sausage trees. In this research, natural cellulose fibers were extracted from the fruit using NaOH and later bleached and characterized for their properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115996DOI Listing

Diurnal variation of salivary cortisol in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) under routine management conditions and in relation to a translocation event.

Zoo Biol 2020 May 5;39(3):186-196. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Bioscience Education and Zoo Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The present study assessed the diurnal variation in salivary cortisol in captive African elephants during routine management (baseline) and in relation to a potential stressor (translocation) to evaluate to what extent acute stress may affect diurnal cortisol patterns. Under baseline conditions, we collected morning and afternoon saliva samples of 10 animals (three zoos) on different days in two study periods (n = 3-10 per animal, daytime and period). Under stress conditions, we sampled the transported cow (newcomer) and the two cows of the destination zoo before and after the transport in the morning and afternoon (n = 3-9 per animal, daytime and transport phase), as well as after the first introduction of the newcomer to the bull (n = 1 per animal). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21537DOI Listing

Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and molecular profiling of Lam. on human breast cancer cell line.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Mar 5:1-6. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Metabolic profiling of the hexane extract and essential oil of Lam., an economically important agroforestry species, was performed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity was assessed in MCF-7 cancer cells using sulphorhodamine-B assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1736064DOI Listing
March 2020
0.919 Impact Factor

Mixing of pods and corn cob exerts contrasting effects on the production and quality of crude endoglucanase.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2020 Mar 4:1-10. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Recently, attention has shifted to the use of mixed lignocellulosic substrates for the production of cellulolytic enzymes. However, researchers have focused mainly on achieving increased enzyme yields while neglecting other properties of the enzymes when using such mixtures. In this first-ever report of the application of pod (PAP) in cellulase production, we investigated the effect of its combination with corn cob (CC), as an inducing carbon source, on the amounts and quality of crude endoglucanase produced by SS12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2020.1734939DOI Listing

'Remote' behavioural ecology: do megaherbivores consume vegetation in proportion to its presence in the landscape?

PeerJ 2020 19;8:e8622. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Classics and Archaeology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Examination of the feeding habits of mammalian species such as the African elephant () that range over large seasonally dynamic areas is exceptionally challenging using field-based methods alone. Although much is known of their feeding preferences from field studies, conclusions, especially in relation to differing habits in wet and dry seasons, are often contradictory. Here, two remote approaches, stable carbon isotope analysis and remote sensing, were combined to investigate dietary changes in relation to tree and grass abundances to better understand elephant dietary choice in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035871PMC
February 2020

Modification of African breadfruit (Treculia africana, Decne) kernel starch: Physicochemical, morphological, pasting, and thermal properties.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 26;153:79-87. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Chemical Sciences Department, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P. M. B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. Electronic address:

The need for starch to meet the ever-increasing industrial applications and its inherent problems in the native state have led to researches into unconventional starch sources and starch modifications, respectively. In this study, starch was isolated from African breadfruit kernels and modified to produce acetylated, AC, oxidized, OX, and acid-thinned, AT, starches. The effects of modifications on the native starch, NA, were examined through physicochemical, pasting, morphological and thermal properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.293DOI Listing

Accurate Sex Identification of Ancient Elephant and Other Animal Remains Using Low-Coverage DNA Shotgun Sequencing Data.

G3 (Bethesda) 2020 Apr 9;10(4):1427-1432. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Urbana IL, 61801.

Sex identification of ancient animal biological remains can benefit our understanding of historical population structure, demography and social behavior. Traditional methods for sex identification (, osteological and morphometric comparisons) may be ineffective when animal remains are not well preserved, when sex distinguishing characteristics have not yet developed, or where organisms do not exhibit sex-associated phenotypic dimorphisms. Here we adapt a method developed for human sex determination so that it can be used to identify the sex of ancient and modern animal taxa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144076PMC

Species distribution and susceptibility profiles of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis, emergence of C. lusitaniae.

Curr Med Mycol 2019 ;5(4):26-34

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background And Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate the epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC), as well as the antifungal susceptibility patterns of species isolates.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 260 women suspected of VVC from February 2017 to January 2018. In order to identify species isolated from the genital tracts, the isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using enzymes and sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/cmm.5.4.2062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034787PMC
January 2019

Exploration of Rapid Evaporative-Ionization Mass Spectrometry as a Shotgun Approach for the Comprehensive Characterization of (Lam) Benth. Fruit.

Molecules 2020 Feb 20;25(4). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, I-98168 Messina, Italy.

Rapid evaporative-ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) coupled with an electroknife as a sampling device was recently employed in many application fields to obtain a rapid characterization of different samples without any need for extraction or cleanup procedures. In the present research, REIMS was used to obtain a metabolic profiling of the fruit, thus extending the applicability of such a technique to the investigation of phytochemical constituents. In particular, the advantages of REIMS linked to a typical electrosurgical handpiece were applied for a comprehensive screening of this botanical species, by exploiting the mass accuracy and tandem MS capabilities of a quadrupole-time of flight analyzer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070896PMC
February 2020

Understanding neighborhood effects to increase restoration success of woody plant communities.

Ecol Appl 2020 Feb 21:e02098. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC, Sevilla, Spain.

Revegetation is the most common procedure in the restoration of disturbed areas; this practice usually aims at reconstructing plant communities that can last without further management. A low-cost strategy to assist these efforts is the application of ecological knowledge in the design of the restoration. Promoting ecological processes that enhance the functioning of the restored community could result in higher restoration success. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2098DOI Listing
February 2020

Food Insecurity and Micronutrient Status among Ghanaian Women Planning to Become Pregnant.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 13;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

We examined the association between food insecurity (FIS) and micronutrient status among Ghanaian women planning to become pregnant. A cross-sectional analysis was completed of 95 women aged 18-35 years, living in the Upper Manya Krobo District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were administered to collect sociodemographic and food security data; weight and height were measured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12020470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071299PMC
February 2020

Exploitation of ethnoecologically important wild trees by two ethnic groups in a community-based Hippopotamus Sanctuary in Northwestern Ghana.

J Environ Manage 2020 Feb 3;255:109917. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Institute of Geography, University of Cologne, Albertus Magnus Platz, D-50923, Cologne, Germany; Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Genscherallee 3, D-53113, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Use of wild tree species by smallholder farmers for various purposes is crucially important for their daily livelihoods. However, the growing demand for these natural resources could lead to their overexploitation and environmental change. The aims of this ethnobotanical research in the Wechiau Community-based Hippopotamus Sanctuary (WCHS) were to i) document wild tree species, uses and analyze their cultural importance, ii) investigate socio-demographic variables of smallholder farmers influencing their traditional knowledge on wild tree species and uses, and iii) examine smallholder farmers ' perceptions about the establishment of the WCHS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109917DOI Listing
February 2020

Can an herbivore affect where a top predator kills its prey by modifying woody vegetation structure?

Oecologia 2020 Mar 14;192(3):779-789. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR 5558, 69622, Villeurbanne, France.

In large mammal communities, little is known about modification of interspecific interactions through habitat structure changes. We assessed the effects of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) on features of woody habitat structure that can affect predator-prey interactions. We then explored how this can influence where African lions (Panthera leo) kill their prey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04617-9DOI Listing

Unilateral phacoemulsification in a captive African elephant ().

Open Vet J 2020 01 26;9(4):294-300. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

South Devon Veterinary Hospital, The Old Cider Works, Abbotskerswell TQ12 5GH, UK.

Background: The following case reports describe the clinical presentation, surgical protocol, post-operative care, and long-term follow-up of an African elephant () presenting with a unilateral cataract.

Case Description: A 42-year-old female African elephant presented for the assessment of ocular discomfort and visual deterioration in the left eye. Pre-surgical treatment included topical anti-inflammatory medication for 20 days prior to surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ovj.v9i4.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971354PMC
January 2020

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Sheka Zone of Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2020 Feb 5;16(1). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: People's classification, management, and use of plants represent attempt to attracting people from different academic disciplines. Many countries use traditional medicine for their primary healthcare system. Medicinal plants have been important components of healthcare systems since the time immemorial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-0358-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003439PMC
February 2020

A genus in disguise. Revision of the genus Fairmaire, 1899 with descriptions of nine new species (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Salcediini).

Zookeys 2020 9;901:1-81. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, Abt. Wirbellose Tiere, Bernastrasse 15, CH-3005, Bern, Switzerland Naturhistorisches Museum Bern Bern Switzerland.

This monograph on the genus Fairmaire, 1899 revises the nine described species Fairmaire, 1899, Alluaud, 1932, Alluaud, 1932, (Britton, 1947), Alluaud, 1930, (Oberthür, 1883), (Andrewes, 1920), and Baehr, 1998. The following nine new species are described: , , , , , , , , and Photographs of the habitus and male and female genitals are provided for all species. An identification key to the species is given. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.901.39432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965333PMC
January 2020

Sperm motility, kinematics, morphometry and morphology over two seasons in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

Reprod Fertil Dev 2020 Feb;32(4):425-438

Department of Medical Bioscience, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; and National Zoological Garden, South African National Biodiversity Institute, PO Box 754, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; and Corresponding author. Email:

This study aimed to address the lack of information on quantitative semen and sperm characteristics of free-ranging African elephants. Nineteen ejaculates were collected from 12 elephant bulls by means of electroejaculation in spring (Season 1, end of dry season, n=7) and in autumn (Season 2, end of rainy season, n=12). While most elephant cows are in oestrus in the rainy season, it is not evident whether sperm quality also improves during this period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD19182DOI Listing
February 2020

Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Permeation of and Its Isolated Compound Myrsinoside B.

Front Pharmacol 2019 8;10:1410. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Dermal aging is characterized by states of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and abnormal proteolytic degradation due to the action of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, 5-lipoxygenase, and elastase, respectively. Noteworthy elastase inhibition has previously been reported, and so this study aimed to investigate the ability of and myrsinoside B to reduce the activity of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and 5-lipoxygenase as supplementary mechanisms of action by which may reduce the appearance of wrinkles. The use of maltose microneedles were also investigated as a means to enhance the delivery of myrsinoside B into the skin as this is a crucial aspect to investigate when characterizing the efficacy of an active ingredient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960167PMC
January 2020

Exploring movement decisions: Can Bayesian movement-state models explain crop consumption behaviour in elephants (Loxodonta africana)?

J Anim Ecol 2020 Apr 15;89(4):1055-1068. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Zoology Research and Administration Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Animal movements towards goals or targets are based upon either maximization of resource acquisition or risk avoidance, and the way animals move can reveal information about their motivation. We use hidden Markov models (HMMs) fitted in a Bayesian framework and hourly Global Positioning System fixes to distinguish animal movements into distinct states and analyse the influence of environmental variables on being in, and switching to, a particular state. Specifically, we apply our models to understand elephant movement decisions around agricultural fields, and crop consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13177DOI Listing

A chemometric assessment of essential oil variation of three Salvia species indigenous to South Africa.

Phytochemistry 2020 Apr 17;172:112249. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa; SAMRC Herbal Drugs Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Indigenous Salvia species from southern Africa are popular traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of conditions. They produce fragrant volatiles that can be isolated as essential oils. Some of these volatile organic compounds may play a role in the biological activities of the extracts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.112249DOI Listing

Evaluation of the leather fatliquoring potential of sulphonated aril cap oil.

Heliyon 2020 Jan 27;6(1):e03009. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

The synthesis, properties, characterization and sulphonation of aril cap oil were examined to establish its leather fatliquoring potential. The analysis of the aril cap oil before and after the completion of sulphonation process was carried out in order to confirm the modification of the oil. The physicochemical properties showed a marked difference between both analyzed oils as the melting point, acid value, free fatty acid, iodine value, saponification value and % SO of the unsulphonated/sulphonated oil were observed to be 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938921PMC
January 2020

Antioxidant activities of peptide hydrolysates obtained from the seeds of Decne (African breadfruit).

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2020 3;50(5):504-510. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Protein hydrolysates usually possess higher nutritive value than an equivalent mixture of free amino acids. This study was aimed at determining the antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates of seeds. Soluble protein was isolated from seed flour by alkaline solubilization and acid precipitation, and further hydrolyzed with three proteases (trypsin, pancreatin and pepsin) individually and in a sequential two- and three-protease systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2019.1709980DOI Listing
January 2020

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediment and Health Risk of Fish, Crab and Shrimp Around Atlas Cove, Nigeria.

J Health Pollut 2019 Dec 6;9(24):191204. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Applied Zoology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic contaminants and pose health risks to humans and the ecosystem due to their persistence in the environment.

Objectives: This study determined the concentrations of PAHs in sediment, two species of fish (Drepane africana and Pomadasys jubelini), crabs (Callinectes amnicola) and shrimps (Penaeus notialis) around the Atlas Cove jetty, Lagos, Nigeria.

Methods: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from fish, shrimp, and crabs that were purchased from local fishermen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-9.24.191204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905136PMC
December 2019

Effect of Indigenous and Introduced Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Phytochemical Content of Vegetatively Propagated (Hook. f.) Kalkman Provenances.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Dec 25;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Biotechnology Laboratory, Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), P. O. Box 20412, Nairobi 00200, Kenya.

bark contains phytochemical compounds used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. It has been shown that this plant establishes association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF are involved in nutrient uptake, which may also affect plant growth and secondary metabolites composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9010037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020206PMC
December 2019

Unloved, paraphyletic or misplaced: new genera and species of small to minute lucinid bivalves and their relationships (Bivalvia, Lucinidae).

Zookeys 2019 12;899:109-140. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK The Natural History Museum London United Kingdom.

Species identified as are paraphyletic in molecular analyses and a new generic name, , is introduced for a complex of three similar species from the northern Indian Ocean and Red Sea, from South East Asia, and from northern and north eastern Australia. from the Red Sea, previously synonymised with is recognised as a -like species but with a very short anterior adductor scar. from Karachi is similarly now recognised as a distinct species, probably related to but with oblique commarginal sculpture and a short adductor scar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.899.47070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926428PMC
December 2019

Identification of Cryptic Species of Four Complexes in a Culture Collection.

J Fungi (Basel) 2019 Dec 17;5(4). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Microbiology Research Institute, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa 11101, Honduras.

spp. are one of the most common causes of fungal infections worldwide. The taxonomy of is controversial and has undergone recent changes due to novel genetically related species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof5040117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958398PMC
December 2019