187,588 results match your criteria African journal of primary health care & family medicine[Journal]


Survival Advantage of African American Dialysis Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Causes Related to APOL1.

Cardiorenal Med 2019 Apr 17;9(4):212-221. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Kidney Disease Branch, NIDDK, Bethesda, Maryland, USA,

Background: Observational studies show that African American (AA) dialysis patients have longer survival than European Americans. We hypothesized that apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variation, associated with nephropathy in AAs, contributes to the survival advantage in AA dialysis patients.

Methods: We examined the association between race and mortality among 37,097 adult dialysis patients, including 54% AAs and 46% European Americans from a large dialysis organization (entry period from July 2001 to June 2006, follow-up through June 2007), within each cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) category associated with APOL1 renal risk variants using Cox proportional hazard models. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/496472
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496472DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Generation of ERK-independent Human and Non-Human Primate Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2019 Apr 17:e85. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

The production of human organs inside human-animal interspecies chimeras might one day comprise a viable strategy for generating patient-specific organs, but such experiments will require human chimera-competent pluripotent stem (PS) cells. The stabilization of PS cell self-renewal in serum-free medium and ERK blockade might be critical for capturing primate chimera-competent pluripotency. It has recently been shown that shielding primate cells from the activation of ERK, WNT, and PKC signaling is crucial for deriving African green monkey ERK-independent PS cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpsc.85DOI Listing

Longitudinal relations between trauma-related psychological distress and physical aggression among urban early adolescents.

J Clin Psychol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

There is convincing evidence that trauma-related psychological distress and aggressive behavior are highly related among adolescents. The evidence is less clear regarding the direction of this relation.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal longitudinal relations between trauma-related distress and physical aggression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22781DOI Listing

Effects of water supplementation of an organic acid-trace mineral complex on production and slaughter parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and macronutrient digestibility in growing ostriches.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran 14159-4-4341, Iran.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of water supplementation of organic acid-chelated trace minerals (OTM) on production traits, carcass characteristics, intestinal histomorphology, and nutrient digestibility in African ostrich chicks from 8 to 12 mo of age. A total of 20 growing ostriches, with almost similar body weight (73.4 to 75. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez221DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cerebral inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in microglia, astrocytes and neurons in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215070. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Malaria Research Unit, UMR 5246 CNRS, Claude-Bernard Lyon-1 University, Villeurbanne, France.

To study the anatomo-biochemical substrates of brain inflammatory processes, Wistar male rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. With this reproducible animal model of human African trypanosomiasis, brain cells (astrocytes, microglial cells, neurons) expressing the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme were revealed. Immunohistochemistry was achieved for each control and infected animal through eight coronal brain sections taken along the caudorostral axis of the brain (brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215070PLOS

Chronic kidney disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an urban cohort.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215575. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nephrology Training Program at Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Our purpose was to understand the genesis of CKD in HIV patients from a large urban clinic in Houston, Texas, USA, and to characterize progression of CKD in the cohort. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215575PLOS

Evolutionary history of burrowing asps (Lamprophiidae: Atractaspidinae) with emphasis on fang evolution and prey selection.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214889. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Atractaspidines are poorly studied, fossorial snakes that are found throughout Africa and western Asia, including the Middle East. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses and divergence dating approaches to investigate evolutionary relationships and biogeographic patterns of atractaspidines with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1). We sampled 91 individuals from both atractaspidine genera (Atractaspis and Homoroselaps). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214889PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 17;13(4):e0007343. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; St. Paul, MN, United States of America.

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Recent studies identified mutations in ZIKV infecting humans that arose coincident with the outbreak in French Polynesia and were stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007343DOI Listing

Apparent interference with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by liposomal amphotericin B in a patient with disseminated blastomycosis receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Drake University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Des Moines, IA.

Purpose: We describe the use of liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B deoxycholate in a critically ill patient with pulmonary blastomycosis receiving both venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).

Summary: A 50-year-old African American man presented for dyspnea and cough and was noted to have blastomycosis on bronchoscopy. He developed respiratory failure and acute kidney injury, requiring mechanical ventilation, ECMO, and CRRT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz054DOI Listing

Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180479. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180479DOI Listing

Euphausiacea diversity in a trans-oceanic transect through the South Atlantic Ocean: the first Atlantic record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180034. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica/PPGOFQG, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8 , Campus Carreiros, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.

Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil-Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180034DOI Listing

Glaucoma in Phacomatosis Pigmentovascularis in a Young African Male: A Case Report.

J Glaucoma 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis has previously almost exclusively been reported in Asians and in dermatological journals. In this report, we present a case of a young black South African male referred to our eye clinic.

Case Presentation: A 15-year-old male patient presented with gradual, painless loss of vision in his right eye. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001264DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pilot Evaluation of a Conservation Corps Program for Young Adults.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2019 Apr 17:306624X19843424. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 University of California, Irvine, USA.

Education and employment programs may be effective at reducing problem behaviors among at-risk young adults. This pilot study evaluated whether participants in a Conservation Corps program ( N = 100) showed changes in antisocial behavior, gang membership, and substance use during the program. Participants were young adults between 18 and 24 years who were predominantly male (60%) and ethnic minority (62% Latino; 31% African American). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19843424DOI Listing

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0171DOI Listing

Metformin modifies disparity in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in men with type 2 diabetes but without chronic liver diseases.

Cancer Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), San Antonio, Texas.

Background: We assessed racial/ethnic disparity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence among men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but without chronic liver diseases (CLD), and whether metformin use modified the disparity.

Methods: Study cohort: the nationwide Veterans Administration Health Care System electronic medical records among 40-89 years old men with T2D; without CLD, cancer, cardiovascular or renal diseases previously; insulin and thiazolidinedione naive. Logistic regression analyses compared HCC incidence between race/ethnicity groups under no metformin use adjusted for covariates and inverse propensity score weights (IPSW) for race/ethnicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cam4.2142
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2142DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Characteristics of melanoma in white and nonwhite children, adolescents, and young adults: Analysis of a pediatric melanoma institutional registry, 1995-2018.

Pediatr Dermatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program, Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, California.

Objectives: To characterize clinical differences among nonwhite/multiethnic vs white children, adolescents, and young adults with melanoma or atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including atypical Spitz tumors.

Patients And Methods: A cohort of 55 patients (< 25 years of age) prospectively followed from 1995 to 2018 in the Stanford Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program was analyzed for differences in clinical presentation, including skin phototype, race/ethnicity, age, sex, tumor/melanoma characteristics, and outcome.

Results: Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females) were classified as nonwhite (predominantly skin phototype IV) and of Hispanic, Asian, or Black/African American ethnicity, and 38 patients (21 males and 17 females) were classified as white (predominantly phototypes I/II). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.13836DOI Listing

Barriers and Facilitators of PrEP Adherence for Young Men and Transgender Women of Color.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Craig A. Dalsimer Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We aimed to discover barriers and facilitators of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in young men and transgender women of color who have sex with men (YMSM/TW). Short-term and sustained adherence were measured by urine tenofovir concentration and pharmacy refills, respectively. Optimal adherence was defined as having both urine tenofovir concentration consistent with dose ingestion within 48 h and pharmacy refills consistent with ≥ 4 doses per week use. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-y
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Nephrotic Syndrome in South African Children: Changing Perspectives in the New Millennium.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Apr 12;4(4):522-534. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

The epidemiological landscape of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in South Africa has changed drastically in the New Millennium. Although the pattern of disease in the 3 main non-Black racial groups (White, Indian, and Mixed race) mirror that seen in Western countries, Black African children show a pattern of disease that is at variance with these 3 racial groups. The incidence of infectious diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus associated nephropathy has sharply declined to being almost extinct in Black children in the New Millennium whereas HIV-related nephropathy surfaced. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451079PMC

A spatial database of lowland cropping systems in Benin, Mali and Sierra Leone.

Data Brief 2019 Jun 26;24:103876. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551 Bouaké 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

This paper presents data collected in 2013, 2014 and 2015 on the cultural practices and agronomic performance of cropping systems in 500 lowland rice fields located in five regions of three West African countries, Benin, Mali and Sierra Leone. Data were collected in two stages. In the first stage, the main regions containing inland valleys were identified in each of the three countries and the most cultivated inland valley in each region was selected. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449772PMC

Etorphine-Ketamine Constant Rate Infusion for Maintenance of Anaesthesia in a Compromised White Rhinoceros ().

Case Rep Vet Med 2019 12;2019:4309043. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

A subadult white rhinoceros bull presented for oesophageal endoscopic evaluation and foreign body removal under general anaesthesia. The animal had a history of nasal and oral regurgitation of water and ingesta with weight-loss for 6 days prior to the procedure and had been diagnosed with oesophageal obstruction caused by a bailing wire. Anaesthesia was induced with intramuscular etorphine and azaperone delivered remotely by dart, followed by an intravenous bolus of ketamine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4309043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434309PMC

Dentinogenesis imperfecta in Osteogenesis imperfecta type XI in South Africa: a genotype-phenotype correlation.

BDJ Open 2019 11;5. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

2University of the Western Cape/University of Cape Town Collaborative Dental Genetics Clinic, Red Cross Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The maxillofacial and dental manifestations of Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have significant implications in terms of management. Although the occurrence of abnormal dentine in some forms of OI is well documented, there is scant information on the association of abnormal dentine in the Black African persons with phenotypic OI III and genotypic OI XI in South Africa.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytic study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41405-019-0014-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459848PMC

Race and socioeconomic disparity in treatment and outcome of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with fracture: Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 1998-2009.

Spinal Cord 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Florida, Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Study Design: A retrospective national administrative database study.

Objective: Advances in treatment of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with fracture (TCSCIF) have led to significant improvements in clinical outcomes; however, progress in healthcare is seldom ubiquitous across demographic groups. Therefore, we explored if disparities in treatment and outcome after TCSCIF exist across race and socioeconomic status. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41393-019-0280-6DOI Listing

Development and validation of a prediction model for active tuberculosis case finding among HIV-negative/unknown populations.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6143. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

A prediction model of prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in HIV negative/unknown individuals was developed to assist systematic screening. Data from a large TB screening trial were used. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed in the South African (SA) training dataset, using TB symptoms and risk factors as predictors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42372-xDOI Listing

Select sequencing of clonally expanded CD8 T cells reveals limits to clonal expansion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305;

To permit the recognition of antigens, T cells generate a vast diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences. Upon binding of the TCR to an antigen-MHC complex, T cells clonally expand to establish an immune response. To study antigen-specific T cell clonality, we have developed a method that allows selection of rare cells, based on RNA expression, before in-depth scRNA-seq (named SELECT-seq). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902649116DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Illness representations and coping practices for self-managing hypertension among sub-Saharan Africans: A comparative study among Ghanaian migrants and non-migrant Ghanaians.

Patient Educ Couns 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Hypertension (HTN) control is a major obstacle among sub-Saharan African populations partly due to poor self-management. We explored and compared how persons' social and physical context shapes their illness representations regarding HTN and the coping strategies they develop and adapt to mitigate challenges in self-managing HTN.

Methods: A cross sectional multisite qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among 55 Ghanaians with HTN living in The Netherlands and urban and rural Ghana. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07383991193013
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of Caregiver's Race and Ethnicity on Acceptance of Passive Immobilization for Their Child's Dental Treatment.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2019 Jan;86(1):3-9

Clinical professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA.

To determine if caregivers' race and ethnicity impact their willingness to accept passive immobilization for their child's dental treatment and to determine if a detailed description of passive immobilization will make caregivers more likely to accept the technique.
Caregivers of one- to 11-year-old patients were recruited in a university pediatric dental clinic. They completed two surveys and reviewed a written and pictorial description of passive immobilization. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2019

Living with systemic lupus erythematosus in South Africa: a bitter pill to swallow.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2019 Apr 16;17(1):65. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Rheumatic Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often has a profound negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In the absence of any qualitative studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we undertook a study to explore living experiences, perceptions and unmet needs of South African patients with SLE.

Methods: Twenty-five women with SLE consented to participate in the study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12955-019-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-019-1132-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sequence-based identification of Anopheles species in eastern Ethiopia.

Malar J 2019 Apr 16;18(1):135. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: The recent finding of a typically non-African Anopheles species in eastern Ethiopia emphasizes the need for detailed species identification and characterization for effective malaria vector surveillance. Molecular approaches increase the accuracy and interoperability of vector surveillance data. To develop effective molecular assays for Anopheles identification, it is important to evaluate different genetic loci for the ability to characterize species and population level variation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2768-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Spatial and temporal trends of cesarean deliveries in Uganda: 2012-2016.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Apr 16;19(1):132. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

African Field Epidemiology Network, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Cesarean section (CS) is an important intervention in complicated births when the safety of the mother or baby is compromised. Despite worldwide concerns about the overutilization of CS in recent years, many African women and their newborns still die because of limited or no access to CS services. We evaluated temporal and spatial trends in CS births in Uganda and modeled future trends to inform programming. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2279-6DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Feasibility of a behavioral automaticity intervention among African Americans at risk for metabolic syndrome.

BMC Public Health 2019 Apr 16;19(1):413. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Assistant Vice President for Translational Science and Clinical Research Innovation, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 48201, USA.

Background: Targeting habit-development (behavioral automaticity) as part of healthy lifestyle behavior change interventions may improve the adoption and maintenance of healthful behaviors. Few studies, however, have evaluated the feasibility of using a habit-development approach to foster the adoption of recommended physical activity and dietary behaviors. We report quantitative and qualitative data from a feasibility study evaluating a habit-formation intervention to foster healthy dietary and physical activity habits among middle aged African Americans with metabolic syndrome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6675-7DOI Listing

Outcomes of Psychoeducation and a Text Messaging Adherence Intervention Among Individuals With Hypertension and Bipolar Disorder.

Psychiatr Serv 2019 Apr 17:appips201800482. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland (Levin, Sajatovic, Rahman, Aebi, Cassidy, Blixen, Klein, Fuentes-Casiano); Neurological and Behavioral Outcomes Center (Levin, Sajatovic, Tatsuoka, Blixen) and Department of Medicine (Rahman), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (Depp, Cushman, Johnston, Moore); Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland (Eskew).

Objective: This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of psychoeducation plus an automated text messaging intervention (Individualized Texting for Adherence Building-Cardiovascular [iTAB-CV]) to improve adherence to antihypertensives and bipolar disorder medication.

Methods: After a psychoeducation program, iTAB-CV was administered for 2 months. In month 1, participants received one educational-motivational and one mood rating text daily. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800482DOI Listing

Psychiatric Manifestations With Sacubitril/Valsartan: A Case Report.

J Pharm Pract 2019 Apr 16:897190019842700. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

1 University of Texas at Tyler, Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, Tyler, TX, USA.

Sacubitril/valsartan is an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Valsartan is well studied, but sacubitril has much left to understand. This report describes a 31-year-old African American female diagnosed with HFrEF who presented with a 7-day history of psychiatric symptoms following a dose increase in sacubitril/valsartan. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0897190019842700DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Polyphenol-Rich Extract from an Endemic Medicinal Plant from Reunion Island, Inhibits the Early Stages of Dengue and Zika Virus Infection.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 15;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Université de la Réunion, INSERM U1187, CNRS UMR 9192, IRD UMR 249, Unité Mixte Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, Plateforme Technologique CYROI, Sainte Clotilde, 97490 La Réunion, France.

The recent emergence and re-emergence of viral infections transmitted by vectors, such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV), is a cause for international concern. These highly pathogenic arboviruses represent a serious health burden in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with these viral infections, antiviral therapies are missing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081860DOI Listing

Racial differences in retinal neurodegeneration as a surrogate marker for cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Apr 3;31:141-147. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

The Sastry Family Foundation, Advanced Imaging Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4201 St. Antoine, Detroit, MI, USA; Multiple Sclerosis Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has both an inflammatory and a neurodegenerative component, with gray matter (GM) atrophy being an important contributor to disability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may serve as a prognostic tool for neuroaxonal health by measuring ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness. There is a paucity of literature regarding the effects of race on pathobiology of MS, as racial minorities are underrepresented in research studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Pathogenic potential to humans of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from wild boars in Poland.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Apr 10;300:8-13. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Epizootiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland.

The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the wild boar population of north-eastern Poland, and to evaluate the potential health risk associated with wild boars carrying STEC/AE-STEC strains. In Poland, the African Swine Fever (ASF) virus has been a growing problem in domestic pigs and wild boars, one of the main reservoirs of the virus, because of this hunters, veterinary practitioners and foresters thus face a greater risk of coming into contact with animals. Rectal swabs samples were obtained from 152 wild boars hunter-harvested in the 2017/2018 season (autumn-winter) in north-eastern Poland. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.04.004DOI Listing

The Sub-Saharan Africa Conference on Stroke (SSACS): An idea whose time has come.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 29;400:194-198. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Stroke is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where an unprecedented rise in stroke burden is currently raging, has the highest age-standardized stroke incidence, stroke prevalence, and stroke mortality rates. This is in sharp contrast to the relative decline in stroke incidence in high-income countries over the past four decades through better awareness and control of vascular risk factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.026DOI Listing

Parent perceptions of restrictive feeding on the relationship between youth BMI z-score and weight control behavior use in African American youth: A mediational study.

Eat Behav 2019 Mar 29;33:67-72. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, PO Box 100165, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Background: Children with higher body weights engage in more healthy weight control behaviors (HWCBs) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs) compared to healthy weight peers. Parent restrictive feeding (parental attempts to limit what and how much children eat in an effort to manage youth weight) has also been associated with youth weight. However, there is limited research on parental feeding practices among non-Caucasian samples, despite evidence that parental feeding may function differently across races. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Inhibition of African swine fever virus infection by genkwanin.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Group of Antiviral Defense Mechanisms, Institute of Molecular of Biology of NAS, 0014, Yerevan, Armenia. Electronic address:

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease of pigs for which no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs are available. Recent outbreaks in EU countries and China have highlighted the critical role of antiviral research in combating this disease. We have previously shown that apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, possesses significant anti-ASFV activity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Discovery and validation of a prognostic proteomic signature for tuberculosis progression: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS Med 2019 Apr 16;16(4):e1002781. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: A nonsputum blood test capable of predicting progression of healthy individuals to active tuberculosis (TB) before clinical symptoms manifest would allow targeted treatment to curb transmission. We aimed to develop a proteomic biomarker of risk of TB progression for ultimate translation into a point-of-care diagnostic.

Methods And Findings: Proteomic TB risk signatures were discovered in a longitudinal cohort of 6,363 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected, HIV-negative South African adolescents aged 12-18 years (68% female) who participated in the Adolescent Cohort Study (ACS) between July 6, 2005 and April 23, 2007, through either active (every 6 months) or passive follow-up over 2 years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002781DOI Listing

[The challenges of the effectiveness of the planning process in the West African Health Systems].

Authors:
Issa Wone

Sante Publique 2019 November December;30(6):905-909

Health planning is one of the main activities in Health Systems management. It is considered as an important function by the health managers and technicians. Indeed, important resources and time are allocated to this activity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.187.0905DOI Listing

Cardiovascular risk factors among ART-experienced people with HIV in South Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25274

Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease & Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: People with HIV (PWH) are at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Screening for CVD risk factors is recommended but not routine in South African HIV clinics. We sought to describe the prevalence of CVD risk factors among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients in South Africa. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jia2.25274
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25274DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Haplotypes of CYP1B1 and CCDC57 genes in an Afro-Caribbean female population with uterine leiomyoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus, Bridgetown, Barbados.

Uterine leiomyomas (UL) are prevalent benign tumors, especially among women of African ancestry. The disease also has genetic liability and is influenced by risk factors such as hormones and obesity. This study investigates the haplotypes of the Cytochrome P450 1B1 gene (CYP1B1) related to hormones and coiled-coil domain containing 57 gene (CCDC57) related to obesity in Afro-Caribbean females. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04790-yDOI Listing

The Association of Racial and Ethnic Social Networks with Mental Health Service Utilization Across Minority Groups in the USA.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Public Affairs, The Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA, 17057, USA.

Though they have comparable prevalence of mental illness, American racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to receive mental health services than white Americans. Minorities are often part of racial and ethnic social networks, which may affect mental health service utilization in two ways. While these networks can encourage service utilization by working as a channel of knowledge spillover and social support, they can also discourage utilization by stigmatizing mental illness. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-019-00583-yDOI Listing

The Influence of Internalizing Symptoms and Emotion Dysregulation on the Association Between Witnessed Community Violence and Aggression Among Urban Adolescents.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine/Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA.

The current cross-sectional study examined whether internalizing (i.e. anxiety and depressive) symptoms and/or emotion dysregulation moderated the association between witnessed community violence and aggressive behavior. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-019-00890-9DOI Listing

Use of community forums to increase knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in African American communities.

J Community Health 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Health Equities, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Cervical cancer adversely impacts African American communities. While disparities in incidence remain unclear, communities continue to use forums to increase cervical cancer education. The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of using community forums to increase human papillomavirus vaccine (HPVV) and cervical cancer knowledge in African American communities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-019-00665-2DOI Listing

Rapid and noninvasive diagnostics of Huanglongbing and nutrient deficits on citrus trees with a handheld Raman spectrometer.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a devastating disease of citrus trees that is caused by the gram-negative Candidatus Liberibacter spp. bacteria. The bacteria are phloem limited and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and the African citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae, which allows for a wider dissemination of HLB. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00216-019-01776-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-01776-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Characteristics of Selected Active Substances used in Disinfectants and their Virucidal Activity Against ASFV.

J Vet Res 2019 Mar 22;63(1):17-25. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Swine Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is currently one of the most important and serious diseases of pigs, mainly due to the enormous sanitary and socio-economic consequences. It leads to serious economic losses, not only because of the near 100% mortality rate, but also through the prohibitions of pork exports it triggers. Currently neither vaccines nor safe and effective chemotherapeutic agents are available against ASFV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458555PMC

The Influence of Situational Variables on Ball Possession in the South African Premier Soccer League.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:175-181. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Sport, Rehabilitation and Dental Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria South Africa.

Although the influence of ball possession in soccer has been well studied in other leagues, such information is sparse concerning the South African Premier Soccer League (PSL). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of situational variables on ball possession in the PSL. Thirty-two matches played during the 2016-2017 PSL season were analysed using a multiple-camera match analysis system (InStat®). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458569PMC

Anthropometric and Motor Characteristics of South African National Level Female Soccer Players.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Mar 27;66:121-129. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine (CESSM), School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Data regarding anthropometric and motor characteristics of elite national level female soccer players are scarce. Determining these characteristics may likely assist in evaluating the specificity of current training programmes, identify players who might lack specific qualities deemed critical for the successful execution of their tactical roles, and benchmark norms for developing future playing talent. Therefore, the aims of this study were to describe anthropometric and motor characteristics of South African national level female soccer players (n = 37) and determine possible differences with regard to their playing position. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458582PMC

Genome-Wide SNP Discovery in Indigenous Cattle Breeds of South Africa.

Front Genet 2019 29;10:273. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States.

Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have created new possibilities for performing genome-wide studies to detect genomic regions harboring sequence variants that affect complex traits. However, the majority of validated SNPs for which allele frequencies have been estimated are limited primarily to European breeds. The objective of this study was to perform SNP discovery in three South African indigenous breeds (Afrikaner, Drakensberger, and Nguni) using whole genome sequencing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fgene.2019.00273
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452414PMC
March 2019
1 Read