183,821 results match your criteria African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS[Journal]


Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Clinico-pathological characteristics among South African women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV.

Breast 2018 Dec 7;43:123-129. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Toll-like receptor chaperone HSP90B1 and the immune response to Mycobacteria.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208940. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Rationale: HSP90B1, also known as gp96, is a chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is necessary for TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in murine myeloid cells. The molecule is also expressed in T-cells though its specific role is unknown. We hypothesized that human HSP90B1 regulates monocyte and T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and that its variants are associated with susceptibility to TB disease. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests' utilisation among healthcare workers in Zamfara State.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0200856. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: Early diagnosis and prompt and effective treatment is one of the pillars of malaria control. Malaria case management guidelines recommend diagnostic testing before treatment using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) or microscopy and this was adopted in Nigeria in 2010. However, despite the deployment of mRDT, the use of mRDTs by health workers varies by settings. Read More

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December 2018

Using a coupled dynamic factor - random forest analysis (DFRFA) to reveal drivers of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208400. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude, and spatial distribution of the key environmental and socioeconomic factors driving vegetation change in a southern African savanna. This research was conducted across the Kwando, Okavango and Zambezi catchments of southern Africa (Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zambia) and explored vegetation cover change across the region from 2001-2010. Read More

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December 2018

High prevalence of binge drinking among people living with HIV in four African countries.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25202

Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, CRCF, CHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to unfavourable outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV), including reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and engagement into care. However, there is limited information on alcohol consumption patterns among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional approach, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) was administered to PLHIV attending HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Senegal and Zambia (2013 to 2015). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pediatric tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense in Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Tinea capitis is a common pediatric dermatophyte infection. Its main pathogen in the United States is Trichophyton tonsurans accounting for greater than 95% of the infections. Other pathogens including Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense are common in Africa. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Re-emergence of genotype I of African swine fever virus in Ivory-Coast.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.

In July 2014, an outbreak of severe hemorrhagic disease in a domestic pig population, was reported in San-Pedro, the second seaport city of Ivory-Coast. Animals of all age groups developed clinical signs consistent with African swine fever (ASF). Tissue and serum samples from dead pigs were sent to the laboratory for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization based on the partial B646L (p72), the full E183L (p54) gene and the central variable region of the B602L gene. Read More

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December 2018

"Hard to reach, but not out of reach": Barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2018 Dec 12:e12977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants' perspectives, little is known from researchers' point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Read More

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December 2018

Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden.

CA Cancer J Clin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Scientific Vice President, Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. Read More

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December 2018
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African biogeographical ancestry, atopic and non-atopic asthma and atopy: A study in Latin American children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Genetic variants underlying African ancestry have been suggested be implicated in the ethnic-racial inequalities reported for asthma and allergies.

Objectives: To investigate the association between individual African ancestry and asthma symptoms, atopic and non-atopic asthma, and atopy in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 1190 individuals was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
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African-American parents' and daughters' beliefs about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine.

Public Health Nurs 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objective: To increase our understanding about the health beliefs of African-American parents and their daughters toward HPV infection and HPV vaccine acceptance.

Methods: The Health Belief Model was used as a guiding framework. Principles of grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and constant comparison analysis were used to qualitatively analyze data generated from personal interviews of African-American parents (n = 30) and their 12- to 17-year-old daughters (n = 34). Read More

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December 2018

Running on empty: recharge dynamics from animal movement data.

Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Grupo de Ecología Cuantitativa, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, CONICET, Bariloche S4140, Argentina.

Vital rates such as survival and recruitment have always been important in the study of population and community ecology. At the individual level, physiological processes such as energetics are critical in understanding biomechanics and movement ecology and also scale up to influence food webs and trophic cascades. Although vital rates and population-level characteristics are tied with individual-level animal movement, most statistical models for telemetry data are not equipped to provide inference about these relationships because they lack the explicit, mechanistic connection to physiological dynamics. Read More

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December 2018

Intra-epidemic genome variation in highly pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) from the country of Georgia.

Virol J 2018 Dec 14;15(1):190. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Background: African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic infection in suids with a mortality rate of up to 100%. No vaccine is available and the potential for catastrophic disease in Europe remains elevated due to the ongoing ASF epidemic in Russia and Baltic countries. To date, intra-epidemic whole-genome variation for ASFV has not been reported. Read More

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December 2018

Banana and plantain production systems in Benin: ethnobotanical investigation, varietal diversity, pests, and implications for better production.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2018 Dec 14;14(1):78. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Genetic Resources and Plant and Animal Breeding, National University of Sciences, Technologies, Engineering and Mathematics, BP: 14, Dassa, Benin.

Background: The cultivated banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are valuable for nutritional and socio-economic security for millions of people worldwide. In Benin, banana and plantain are among the most produced, consumed, and traded commodities. Read More

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December 2018

Lipid levels, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk over 96 weeks of antiretroviral therapy: a randomised controlled trial comparing low-dose stavudine and tenofovir.

Retrovirology 2018 Dec 14;15(1):77. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with changes in lipid levels, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated these changes in the first 96 weeks of treatment with low-dose stavudine or tenofovir regimens.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a double blind, randomised controlled trial performed in South-Africa, Uganda and India comparing low-dose stavudine (20 mg twice daily) with tenofovir in combination with efavirenz and lamivudine in antiretroviral-naïve adults (n = 1067) (Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018

Using the behavior change wheel to identify barriers to and potential solutions for primary care clinical guideline use in four provinces in South Africa.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 14;18(1):965. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 17177, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Clinical practice guidelines risk having little impact on healthcare if not effectively implemented. Theory informed, targeted implementation may maximise their impact. Our study explored barriers to and facilitators of guideline implementation and use by South African primary care nurses and allied healthcare workers in four provinces in South Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Brucellosis in the Addis Ababa dairy cattle: the myths and the realities.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Dec 14;14(1):396. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK.

Background: Bovine brucellosis is considered as an important disease among livestock and people in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to May 2017 to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors, and to assess knowledge-attitude and practices (KAP) of farm workers about bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

Results: A total of 1550 cattle from 127 dairy farms were serially tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (c-ELISA) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Read More

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December 2018

Timing of Palliative Care Consultation and the Impact on Thirty-Day Readmissions and Inpatient Mortality.

J Palliat Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

5 Jersey City, New Jersey.

Background: Inpatient palliative care consultation (PCC) may reduce 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality among seriously ill patients.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of timing of PCC on 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality.

Design: Retrospective, observational study comparing risk-adjusted, observed-to-expected (O/E) 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality among patients receiving inpatient PCC to all other inpatients. Read More

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December 2018

Pursuing Social Justice through Public Health: Gender and Sexual Diversity Activism in Malawi.

Crit Afr Stud 2017 15;9(1):71-90. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

The Center for Medicine, Health, and Society, Vanderbilt University, PMB #351665, 2301 Vanderbilt Pl., Nashville, TN 37235-1665 USA, Telephone: +1-615-322-0718.

African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) organizations face various strategic dilemmas in contexts characterized by political hostility to gender and sexual dissidents. In Malawi, one such context, we examine how an LGBTIQ social movement organization (SMO) in Malawi, the Centre for the Development of People (CEDEP), navigated one particular strategic dilemma-the dilemma of whether to adopt a less politicized public-health approach or a more nimble, grassroots-oriented, and social-justice approach to their advocacy work-and the consequences of the organization's strategic decisions. Scholars interpret these approaches as signifying differential political engagement among organizations, with the social-justice approach indicating political engagement and the public-health approach signaling political disengagement. Read More

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February 2017

Chimpanzees in Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, use different tools to obtain different types of honey.

Primates 2000 Jul;41(3):337-341

Department of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 01536, North Grafton, Massachusetts, U. S. A.

Evidence of tool use for foraging for honey by chimpanzees in Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, is reported. These are the first records of tool use by chimpanzees in this region of the Albertine Rift. Tools of two types were found at sites of bee activity. Read More

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Skeletal evidence of probable treponemal infection in free-ranging African apes.

Primates 2000 Jul;41(3):275-290

Department of Anthropology, Colorado State University, 80523, Ft. Collins, Colorado, U. S. A.

The prevalence and patterning of inflammatory lesions of the skeleton were investigated in samples of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) curated at the Powell-Cotton Museum, Birchington, UK. One hundred and two chimpanzees (42 adults and 60 subadults) and 126 gorillas (50 adults and 76 subadults) comprise the samples. Twenty per cent of chimpanzees and 14% of gorillas were affected with a disseminated inflammatory skeletal condition caused by infection. Read More

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Enzymes as Biomarkers of Environmental Stress in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Osun State, Nigeria.

J Health Pollut 2017 Jun 22;7(14):71-83. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Many natural aquatic bodies have been contaminated with heavy metals released from domestic, industrial and other anthropogenic activities. Fish are an important bioindicator species and play an important role in the monitoring of water pollution.

Objectives: This study shows the effect of heavy metals on the distribution of glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase, rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphur transferase (3-MST) isolated from the liver, gills, fins and muscle of Clarias gariepinus. Read More

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Mercury and Lead Contamination in Three Fish Species and Sediments from Lake Rukwa and Catchment Areas in Tanzania.

J Health Pollut 2015 Jun 2;5(8):7-18. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Background: Mining activity in the catchment area of Tanzania's Lake Rukwa is suspected of adding to the lake and connected rivers' heavy metal load. There has been no study done, however, on the levels of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in lake sediment and fish muscle, and what the results could mean for human health.

Objectives: This study investigated the concentration of Hg and Pb in lake sediment and in the muscles of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Lake Rukwa tilapia (Oreochromis rukwaensis) and Singida tilapia (Oreochromis esculentus) from Tanzania's Lake Rukwa and connected rivers. Read More

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The Interaction of Race and Gender as a Significant Driver of Racial Arrest Disparities for African American Men.

J Urban Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Migration on Risky Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition in South Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, 2000-2017.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Africa Health Research Institute, K-RITH Tower Building, 719 Umbilo Road, Congella, Private Bag X7, Durban, South Africa.

While human mobility has been implicated in fueling the HIV epidemic in South Africa, the link between migration and HIV has not been systematically reviewed and quantified. We conducted a systematic review of the role of migration in HIV risk acquisition and sexual behaviour based on 29 studies published between 2000 and 2017. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between migration and HIV risk acquisition in four of the studies that used HIV incidence as an outcome measure. Read More

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December 2018

Enabling Conversations: African American Patients' Changing Perceptions of Kidney Transplantation.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA.

Background: Racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation (KTX) among African Americans (AAs) have been attributed in part to insufficient patient education. Interventions are needed to provide AAs with culturally sensitive, understandable information that increases their capacity to pursue KTX. Research about the factors that activated patients to pursue KTX is necessary to inform such interventions; however, few studies have yielded this type of information. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The mysterious long-range transport of giant mineral dust particles.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau2768. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

NIOZ-Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, and Utrecht University, Texel, Netherlands.

Giant mineral dust particles (>75 μm in diameter) found far from their source have long puzzled scientists. These wind-blown particles affect the atmosphere's radiation balance, clouds, and the ocean carbon cycle but are generally ignored in models. Here, we report new observations of individual giant Saharan dust particles of up to 450 μm in diameter sampled in air over the Atlantic Ocean at 2400 and 3500 km from the west African coast. Read More

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December 2018

Higher hemoglobin A1C and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2019 Mar 30;15:30-34. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics/Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CPPII M30, 1601 4th Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35233, United States.

Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i. Read More

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March 2019
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Relationship Between Thyroid Hormone Levels and Mean Platelet Count and Volume: Quantitative Assessment.

Cureus 2018 Oct 8;10(10):e3421. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

Background The hormones of the hypophysis-thyroid axis (HTA), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and 3, 3', 5-L-triiodothyronine (T3), modulate the metabolism, differentiation, and proliferation of almost every cell in the body. Several studies have examined the effect of HTA hormones on platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV), but have reported inconsistent results. Our aim was to examine the association between HTA hormones and platelet count and MPV in a large cohort of the adult population of the United States. Read More

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October 2018
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Assessment of women's satisfaction with family planning service at public health facilities in Northwest Region of Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

Contracept Reprod Med 2018 6;3:25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics', School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Ethiopia is a Sub Saharan African country with an estimated contraceptive prevalence rate of 36% and 22% unmet need for family planning service among married women. Client satisfaction influences the use of Family Planning and other reproductive health services. There is limited information on satisfaction with family planning service among Family planning users particularly in the northern part of Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Association of vitamin D receptor ApaI gene polymorphism with osteoporosis susceptibility in postmenopausal Han Chinese women in Xinjiang.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 3;9(6):483-490. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, P.R. China.

Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder and has been demonstrated to be associated with ~30 candidate genes, the majority of which have also been implicated in the regulation of bone mineral density (BMD). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the candidate gene that has been most extensively studied. Certain studies have reported that the VDR single nucleotide polymorphism ApaI is associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Caucasian and African women. Read More

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December 2018

Racial disparities in the survival time of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma between Chinese patients and patients of other racial groups: A population-based study from 2004 to 2013.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 5;16(6):7102-7116. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the racial disparities in the presentation, treatment and survival time of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) between Chinese and other racial groups from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between January 1st 2004, and December 31st 2013. Key covariates, including clinical presentation, treatment and survival time, were recorded and compared, demonstrating the racial differences. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were performed to identify these disparities in survival time. Read More

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December 2018

Host Regulators of Liver Fibrosis During Human Schistosomiasis.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2781. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Cape Town Component, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, South Africa.

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process purposely aimed at restoring organ integrity after severe injury caused by autoimmune reactions, mechanical stress or infections. The uncontrolled solicitation of this process is pathogenic and a pathognomonic feature of diseases like hepatosplenic schistosomiasis where exacerbated liver fibrosis is centrally positioned among the drivers of the disease morbidity and mortality. Intriguingly, however, liver fibrosis occurs and progresses dissimilarly in schistosomiasis-diseased individuals with the same egg burden and biosocial features including age, duration of residence in the endemic site and gender. Read More

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November 2018
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First Balanced Cross Section Across the Taurides Fold-Thrust Belt: Geological Constraints on the Subduction History of the Antalya Slab in Southern Anatolia.

Tectonics 2018 Oct 18;37(10):3738-3759. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Earth Sciences Utrecht University, Vening Meineszgebouw A Utrecht Netherlands.

Eastern Mediterranean subduction accommodated Africa-Eurasia convergence since Mesozoic time and produced multiple subducted slab fragments in the mantle below Anatolia. These included the north dipping Cyprus and ENE-dipping Antalya slabs, which are currently separated by an upper mantle slab gap. Segmentation of these slabs, and associated mantle flow, may have contributed to <8 Ma uplift of the Central Anatolian Plateau. Read More

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October 2018

Apolipoprotein E genotypes among diverse middle-aged and older Latinos: Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging results (HCHS/SOL).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17578. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The apoE4 isoform is associated with increased cholesterol, cardiovascular risk, and Alzheimer's Disease risk, however, its distribution is not well-understood among US Latinos. Latinos living in the US are highly Amerindian, European and African admixed, which varies by region and country of origin. However, Latino genetic diversity is understudied and consequently poorly understood, which has significant implications for understanding disease risk in nearly one-fifth of the US population. Read More

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December 2018

[Selective laser trabeculoplasty in African blacks].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Service d'ophtalmologie, Chu Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Introduction: The treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is preferably medical. However, when medical therapy fails, alternative or complementary treatments may be considered. In this regard, selective laser trabeculoplasty is a widely popular procedural treatment whose accepted benefits have been very little studied in African blacks. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in the association of psychosocial resources with prevalent type 2 diabetes among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

J Diabetes Complications 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Aim: To examine the association of psychosocial resources with prevalent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 5104 African American men and women.

Methods: Using data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), we evaluated the cross-sectional associations of four psychosocial resources (social support, optimism, religiosity, and social networks) with T2D [fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or use of diabetic medication]. Read More

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November 2018

Tet-Inducible Production of Infectious Zika Virus from the Full-Length cDNA Clones of African- and Asian-Lineage Strains.

Viruses 2018 Dec 9;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged as an important human viral pathogen, causing congenital malformation including microcephaly among infants born to mothers infected with the virus during pregnancy. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZIKV can be classified into African and Asian lineages. In this study, we have developed a stable plasmid-based reverse genetic system for robust production of both ZIKV prototype African-lineage MR766 and clinical Asian-lineage FSS13025 strains using a tetracycline (Tet)-controlled gene expression vector. Read More

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December 2018

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-Reported Health and Quality of Life among Older Populations in South Africa and Uganda.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji medical college, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a serious health concern especially among the elderly population and has significant bearing on health and quality of life. Not much is known about the relationship between chronic pain with self-reported health and quality of life among older populations in low-resource settings. Based on sub-national data from South Africa and Uganda, the present study aimed to explore whether the older population living with CMP report health and quality of life differently compared to those with no CMP complaints. Read More

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December 2018

Subclinical Infection of Macaques and Baboons with A Baboon Simarterivirus.

Viruses 2018 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin⁻Madison, Madison, WI 53711, USA.

Simarteriviruses (: ) are commonly found at high titers in the blood of African monkeys but do not cause overt disease in these hosts. In contrast, simarteriviruses cause severe disease in Asian macaques upon accidental or experimental transmission. Here, we sought to better understand the host-dependent drivers of simarterivirus pathogenesis by infecting olive baboons (n = 4) and rhesus monkeys (n = 4) with the simarterivirus Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1). Read More

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December 2018

Adverse Drug Reactions in Paediatric In-Patients in a South African Tertiary Hospital.

J Trop Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 8000, South Africa.

Background: The prevalence of adverse drug reaction (ADR) rates in children in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown.

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of ADRs in paediatric in-patients at a tertiary hospital in South Africa.

Methods: This is a prospective study during a 3-month study period. Read More

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December 2018

Importance of Urban Parks in Conserving Biodiversity of Flower Chafer Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Cetoniinae) in Brazilian Cerrado.

Environ Entomol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Frutal, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The Brazilian Cerrado, a hotspot and the largest savannah in the world, has been undergoing intense changes in land use for urbanization. The creation and maintenance of urban parks and public squares is one efficient biodiversity conservation strategy in urbanized landscapes. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the potential of urban parks with native vegetation for conservation of flower chafer beetles (Coleoptera: Cetoniinae), a beetle group usually used as a bioindicator in African landscapes, in Brazilian Cerrado. Read More

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December 2018

Indications leading to termination of pregnancy between 22 and 31 weeks of gestational age in France: A population-based cohort study.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Dec 3;233:12-18. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Inserm UMR 1153, Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team (Epopé), Center for Epidemiology and Statistics Sorbonne Paris Cité, DHU Risks in pregnancy, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence and indications of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) between 22 and 31 weeks of gestational age in France and to examine the characteristics of women by indication of TOP.

Study Design: From the EPIPAGE 2 population-based cohort study of preterm births in France in 2011, we selected 5009 singleton live births, stillbirths and TOP that occurred between 22 and 31 weeks. We estimated the proportion of TOP by gestational age. Read More

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December 2018

A shear assay study of single normal/breast cancer cell deformation and detachment from poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) surfaces.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2018 Nov 15;91:76-90. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), Worcester, MA 01609, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; Advanced Biotechnology Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria. Electronic address:

This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and analytical/computational study of viscoelastic cell deformation and detachment from poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) surfaces. Fluid mechanics and fracture mechanics concepts are used to model the detachment of biological cells observed under shear assay conditions. The analytical and computational models are used to compute crack driving forces, which are then related to crack extension during the detachment of normal breast cells and breast cancer cells from PDMS surfaces that are relevant to biomedical implants. Read More

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November 2018

Racial-Ethnic Differences in Osteoarthritis Pain and Disability: A Meta-Analysis.

J Pain 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Pain Research and Intervention Center of Excellence, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a leading cause of disability and pain, affects 32.5 million Americans, producing tremendous economic burden. While some findings suggest that racial/ethnic minorities experience increased OA pain severity, other studies have shown conflicting results. Read More

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December 2018

Skin-tone discrimination by Whites and Africans is associated with the acculturation of African immigrants in Norway.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209084. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

It is well-established that experiences of discrimination influence immigrants' acculturation. Yet, whereas a large body of research has demonstrated the role of discrimination by members of the dominant societal group, surprisingly little is known about how being discriminated by members of one's own group relates to the way immigrants acculturate. With a sample of 162 African first- and second-generation immigrants living in Norway, the present research investigated the relationship between both types of discrimination, acculturation and psychological well-being. Read More

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December 2018

Review of epidemiological risk models for foot-and-mouth disease: Implications for prevention strategies with a focus on Africa.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208296. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research Unit in Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary Sciences (UREAR-ULiège), Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH) Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious transboundary disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animal species. The aim of this review was to identify and critically assess some modelling techniques for FMD that are well supported by scientific evidence from the literature with a focus on their use in African countries where the disease remains enzootic. In particular, this study attempted to provide a synopsis of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these models and their relevance to FMD prevention policies. Read More

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December 2018
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