27 results match your criteria African Zoology[Journal]

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Mirror responses in the common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) and the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

Zoology (Jena) 2021 08 24;147:125942. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Life Sciences, Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai, 200241, China; Yangtze Delta Estuarine Wetland Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Education & Shanghai Science and Technology Committee, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai, 200241, China. Electronic address:

Scientists have spent great efforts exploring self-recognition in non-human animals using the mirror test. In avian species, some of the passerines have passed the test, although the findings are still under debate. The present study aimed at investigating mirror self-recognition ability and making a comparative study of mirror responses in two avian species, the common hill myna from the Passeriformes and the African grey parrot from the Psittaciformes. Read More

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The non-gradual nature of adaptive radiation.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 06 1;146:125925. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Zoological Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Adaptive radiation is a major source of biodiversity. Still, many aspects of this evolutionary process remain poorly understood. Our recent integrative examination of the cichlid adaptive radiation in African Lake Tanganyika provides new insights into the process of explosive diversification. Read More

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Spatio-temporal ecology of a carnivore community in middle atlas, NW of Morocco.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 06 10;146:125904. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Grupo de Investigación Zoología de Vertebrados, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig, Edificio Ciencias III, Alicante 03080, Spain.

In species that live in sympatry, some dimensions of their ecological niche can overlap, but coexistence is possible thanks to segregation strategies, being the differential use of space and time one of the most frequent. Through a pioneer study in North-West Africa based on a camera-trapping survey, we studied ecology features of a carnivores' community in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. We focused on how species shared (or not) the territory and their activity patterns. Read More

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Morphology of setae in regenerating caudal adhesive pads of the gecko Lygodactylus capensis (Smith, 1849).

Zoology (Jena) 2019 04 1;133:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences (BiGeA), Bologna, Italy.

After tail loss in the African gecko Lygodactylus capensis (Smith, 1949) a new tail is regenerated, including caudal adhesive pads. The axial skeleton of the regenerating tail consists in an elastic cartilaginous tube replacing the original vertebrae that allows interacting with the substrate like in the original tail. The formation of adhesive setae has been analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy coupled to immunolabeling for Corneous Beta Proteins. Read More

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Morphometric and morphological study of the respiratory organs of the bimodally-breathing African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Burchell (1822).

Zoology (Jena) 2018 10 23;130:6-18. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Campus 2006, Kingsway, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

The respiratory organs of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were studied to broaden existing understanding of the adaptive stratagems that have evolved for air-breathing in fish. The gills were well-developed and the air-breathing organs (ABOs) comprised labyrinthine organs (LOs), suprabranchial chamber membranes (SBCMs) and gill fans (GFns). Respectively, the gills and the LOs had the highest mass-specific respiratory surface areas of 133. Read More

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October 2018

First observations on the behavior of the flightless anomalure (Zenkerella insignis).

Vladimir Dinets

Zoology (Jena) 2017 08 17;123:121-123. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

Psychology Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA. Electronic address:

The sole extant representative of the ancient family Zenkerellidae, the flightless anomalure (Zenkerella insignis), is one of the world's least studied mammals. No first-hand observations of its behavior and live appearance have been published to date. I report an observation of Z. Read More

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Geographic variation in factors that influence timing of moult and breeding in waterfowl.

Zoology (Jena) 2017 06 23;122:100-106. Epub 2017 Apr 23.

DST/NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

Waterfowl flight-feather moult is expected to occur when energy is not needed for breeding and when a suitable safe habitat is available. Flight-feather regrowth is an energetically costly stage in the annual cycle of waterfowls. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that moult will coincide with the time of year when food and aquatic habitats are most abundant. Read More

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Unmasking evolutionary diversity among two closely related South African legless skink species (Acontinae: Acontias) using molecular data.

Zoology (Jena) 2017 04 10;121:72-82. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Department of Botany & Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa. Electronic address:

We examined species boundaries among two phylogenetically closely related and morphologically similar South African fossorial legless skink species, Acontias breviceps and Acontias gracilicauda. Samples of these two species were collected throughout their distribution ranges and sequenced for three DNA loci (two mitochondrial loci, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b (Cyt b), plus the nuclear locus prolactin). Phylogenetic relationships were determined using maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the combined DNA sequence data set. Read More

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Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

Zoology (Jena) 2016 08 17;119(4):322-9. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. Read More

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Sensory basis for detection of benthic prey in two Lake Malawi cichlids.

Zoology (Jena) 2014 Apr 9;117(2):112-21. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 120 Flagg Road, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

The adaptive radiations of African cichlids resulted in a diversity of feeding morphologies and strategies, but the role of sensory biology in prey detection and feeding ecology remains largely unexplored. Two endemic Lake Malawi cichlid genera, Tramitichromis and Aulonocara, feed on benthic invertebrates, but differ in lateral line morphology (narrow and widened lateral line canals, respectively) and foraging strategy. The hypothesis that they use their lateral line systems differently was tested by looking at the relative contribution of the lateral line system and vision in prey detection by Tramitichromis sp. Read More

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Water pH during early development influences sex ratio and male morph in a West African cichlid fish, Pelvicachromis pulcher.

Zoology (Jena) 2013 Jun 7;116(3):139-43. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Environmental sex determination (ESD) is one of the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. Individuals from species that exhibit ESD can develop as either males or females depending on the particular environmental conditions they experience during early development. In fish, ESD species often show a relatively subtle effect of environment, resulting in a substantial number of both sexes being produced in both male- and female-biasing conditions, rather than the unisex clutches that are typical of many reptiles. Read More

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Effects of feeding on luminal pH and morphology of the gastroesophageal junction of snakes.

Zoology (Jena) 2012 Oct 28;115(5):319-29. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870344, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.

At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly from the stomach into the esophagus thereby providing the opportunity for the reflux of gastric juices. To explore whether snakes experience or can prevent gastric reflux, we examined post-feeding changes of luminal pH of the distal esophagus and stomach, the fine scale luminal pH profile at the gastroesophageal junction, and the morphology of the gastroesophageal junction for the Burmese python (Python molurus), the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), and the diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer). Read More

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October 2012

Near-infrared orientation of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

Zoology (Jena) 2012 Aug 5;115(4):233-8. Epub 2012 Jul 5.

Institute of Zoology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany.

Light plays a pivotal role in animal orientation. Aquatic animals face the problem that penetration of light in water is restricted through high attenuation which limits the use of visual cues. In pure water, blue and green light penetrates considerably deeper than red and infrared spectral components. Read More

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A developmental staging series for the African house snake, Boaedon (Lamprophis) fuliginosus.

Zoology (Jena) 2012 Feb 27;115(1):38-46. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Department of Biology, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA.

Embryonic staging series are important tools in the study of morphological evolution as they establish a common standard for future studies. In this study, we describe the in ovo embryological development of the African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus), a non-venomous, egg-laying species within the superfamily Elapoidea. We develop our staging series based on external morphology of the embryo including the head, eye, facial prominences, pharyngeal slits, heart, scales, and endolymphatic ducts. Read More

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February 2012

The correlation between subordinate fish eye colour and received attacks: a negative social feedback mechanism for the reduction of aggression during the formation of dominance hierarchies.

Zoology (Jena) 2011 Dec 4;114(6):335-9. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Caunesp, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Eye darkening has been linked to social status in fish. The subordinate's eyes darken, while the eyes of the dominant fish become pale. Although this phenomenon has been described in salmonid fishes and in the African cichlid Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, it is unclear whether eye darkening correlates with a reduction in aggressive behaviour. Read More

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December 2011

Morphological cranial diversity contributes to phylogeny in soft-furred sengis (Afrotheria, Macroscelidea).

Zoology (Jena) 2011 Apr 18;114(2):85-94. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Department of Biology, Roma Tre University, viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Despite the well-supported Macroscelidea phylogeny proposed at the end of the 1960s, several systematic arrangements have been suggested in the last 20 years, raising doubts about the phylogeny of the Macroscelidinae; sengi inter-specific relationships are still debated to this day. The main issue of concern involves the supposed Elephantulus diphyly. To solve this persisting debate about sengi phylogeny, we examined the cranium ventral surface of 13 species using geometric morphometric techniques and neighbour-joining algorithms. Read More

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Temporal patterns of intra- and interspecific acoustic signals differ in two closely related species of Acanthoplus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae).

Zoology (Jena) 2011 Feb 13;114(1):29-35. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

Institute for Animal Physiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Wartweg 95, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Males of the closely related African tettigoniids Acanthoplus discoidales and Acanthoplus longipes produce a long-lasting calling song and a short disturbance sound. The temporal patterns of the sounds were analysed in respect to species differences and song type differences. The calling songs of both species consist of impulses which are separated into verses of two syllables, with fewer impulses in the first syllable. Read More

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February 2011

Shapes and functions of bird-growth models: how to characterise chick postnatal growth.

Zoology (Jena) 2010 Dec 5;113(6):326-33. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

Lillehammer University College, P.O. Box 952, N-2604 Lillehammer, Norway.

We compare four candidate models (logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, and extreme value function) for modelling the growth of birds. We fitted the models to two empirical data sets of chick growth (six biometric measurements) of African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini from South Africa and little stints Calidris minuta from Russia, and identified the best-fitting growth curves by Akaike's information criterion. We also determine fitted and derived parameters, including the relative value (size) at hatching, the placement of inflection, the (normalised) growth rate constant, and the adult value (upper asymptote). Read More

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December 2010

Morphology, ornaments and performance in two chameleon ecomorphs: is the casque bigger than the bite?

Zoology (Jena) 2009 20;112(3):217-26. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

Applied Biodiversity Research, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont Cape Town 7735, South Africa.

The evolution of ecomorphs within a species may represent either unique evolutionary events or multiple convergent events in similar environments. Functional studies of differing morphological traits of ecomorphs have been important to elucidate their role in adaptive radiations. The Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, has two ecomorphs: a large, brightly colored, ornate form found in closed habitats, and a small, dull form with reduced ornamentation found in open vegetation. Read More

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Growth and its relationship to fledging success of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks.

Zoology (Jena) 2009 5;112(1):27-37. Epub 2008 Oct 5.

Animal Demography Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

We investigated the growth of African black oystercatcher Haematopus moquini chicks on Robben Island, South Africa, over three austral summers, 2001-2004. Using a robust regression analysis to determine the growth parameters of chicks of known and unknown age we found that oystercatchers from our study population had a Gompertz growth rate coefficient that was 2% less than predicted for body mass based on the equation for waders. Leg growth lagged initially, then increased and slowed again as the chicks became older, whereas wing growth was slow initially but increased with age. Read More

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When genes meet nomenclature: tortoise phylogeny and the shifting generic concepts of Testudo and Geochelone.

Zoology (Jena) 2007 3;110(4):298-307. Epub 2007 Jul 3.

Museum of Zoology, Natural History State Collections Dresden, A.B. Meyer Building, D-01109 Dresden, Germany.

We used a five-gene data set (mtDNA: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cyt-b; nDNA: Cmos, Rag2) comprising approximately two-thirds of all extant testudinid species and, for the first time, including all five Testudo species to investigate the question of whether all western Palaearctic testudinids are monophyletic. Further, we examined whether the recently suggested allocation of the African Geochelone pardalis in the otherwise exclusively South African genus Psammobates and of the Malagasy G. yniphora in the monotypic genus Angonoka is justified in the face of considerable morphological evidence against such placements. Read More

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October 2007

Energetics of growth in semi-precocial shorebird chicks in a warm environment: the African black oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini.

Zoology (Jena) 2007 21;110(3):176-88. Epub 2007 May 21.

Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

We studied prefledging growth, energy expenditure and time budgets of African Black Oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini, chicks on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of parental feeding on the growth and energetics of semi-precocial shorebird chicks. Chicks reached mean fledging mass, 463 g, in 40 days. Read More

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September 2007

Embryonic development of Python sebae - II: Craniofacial microscopic anatomy, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Zoology (Jena) 2007 17;110(3):231-51. Epub 2007 May 17.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Life Sciences Centre, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3.

This study explores the microscopic craniofacial morphogenesis of the oviparous African rock python (Python sebae) spanning the first two-thirds of the post-oviposition period. At the time of laying, the python embryo consists of largely undifferentiated mesenchyme and epithelium with the exception of the cranial base and trabeculae cranii, which are undergoing chondrogenesis. The facial prominences are well defined and are at a late stage, close to the time when lip fusion begins. Read More

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September 2007

Embryonic development of Python sebae - I: Staging criteria and macroscopic skeletal morphogenesis of the head and limbs.

Zoology (Jena) 2007 17;110(3):212-30. Epub 2007 May 17.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Life Sciences Centre, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3.

This study explores the post-ovipositional craniofacial development of the African Rock Python (Python sebae). We first describe a staging system based on external characteristics and next use whole-mount skeletal staining supplemented with Computed tomography (CT) scanning to examine skeletal development. Our results show that python embryos are in early stages of organogenesis at the time of laying, with separate facial prominences and pharyngeal clefts still visible. Read More

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September 2007

Use of phylogeny to resolve the taxonomy of the widespread and highly polymorphic African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri group, Crocidurinae, Mammalia).

Zoology (Jena) 2007 13;110(1):48-57. Epub 2006 Dec 13.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the genetic relationships within the widespread and highly polymorphic group of African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri group). We sequenced 769 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 472 bp of the mitochondrial control region over the entire geographic range from South Africa to Morocco. The analyses reveal four main clades associated with different biomes. Read More

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Postprandial responses in the African rhombig egg eater (Dasypeltis scabra).

Zoology (Jena) 2006 7;109(4):310-7. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Department of Biology, Biocenter Martinsried, University of Munich (LMU), Grosshadernerstrasse 2, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

The African rhombic egg eater (Dasypeltis scabra) is a colubrid snake feeding exclusively on bird eggs. Frequency of feeding is governed by the seasonal availability of bird eggs; i.e. Read More

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December 2006

Feeding in Atractaspis (Serpentes: Atractaspididae): a study in conflicting functional constraints.

Zoology (Jena) 2003 ;106(1):43-61

Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA.

African fossorial colubroid snakes of the genus Atractaspis have relatively long fangs on short maxillae, a gap separating the pterygoid and palatine bones, a toothless pterygoid, and a snout tightly attached to the rest of the skull. They envenomate prey with a unilateral backward stab of one fang projected from a closed mouth. We combined structural reanalysis of the feeding apparatus, video records of prey envenomation and transport, and manipulations of live and dead Atractaspis to determine how structure relates to function in this unusual genus of snakes. Read More

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January 2006
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