7,320 results match your criteria African Trypanosomiasis Sleeping Sickness

Discovery of novel natural products as rhodesain inhibitors for human African trypanosomiasis using in silico techniques.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2022 Jun 24:1-13. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Gezira, Sudan.

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the rhodesiense, a subspecies of the Trypanosomatide family. The parasite is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate in both animals and humans, claimed to be more fatal than other vector-transmitted diseases such as malaria. The majority of existing medications are highly toxic, not effective in the late chronic phase of the disease, and require maximum dosages to fully eradicate the parasite. Read More

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Health work and skills in the last mile of disease elimination. Experiences from sleeping sickness health workers in South Sudan and DR Congo.

Glob Public Health 2022 Jun 24:1-13. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is considered a highly promising candidate for elimination within the next decade. This paper argues that the experiential knowledge of frontline health workers will be critical to achieve this goal. Interviews are used to explore the ways in which HAT workers understand, maintain, and adjust their skills amidst global and national challenges. Read More

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Development of Reduced Peptide Bond Pseudopeptide Michael Acceptors for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis.

Molecules 2022 Jun 11;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is an endemic protozoan disease widespread in the sub-Saharan region that is caused by and . The development of molecules targeting rhodesain, the main cysteine protease of , has led to a panel of inhibitors endowed with micro/sub-micromolar activity towards the protozoa. However, whilst impressive binding affinity against rhodesain has been observed, the limited selectivity towards the target still remains a hard challenge for the development of antitrypanosomal agents. Read More

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Polyamine Depletion Strategies in Cancer: Remodeling the Tumor Immune Microenvironment to Enhance Anti-Tumor Responses.

Med Sci (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;10(2). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Polyamine biosynthesis is frequently dysregulated in cancers, and enhanced flux increases intracellular polyamines necessary for promoting cell growth, proliferation, and function. Polyamine depletion strategies demonstrate efficacy in reducing tumor growth and increasing survival in animal models of cancer; however, mechanistically, the cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic alterations within the tumor microenvironment underlying positive treatment outcomes are not well understood. Recently, investigators have demonstrated that co-targeting polyamine biosynthesis and transport alters the immune landscape. Read More

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Parasites and blood-meal hosts of the tsetse fly in Tanzania: a metagenomics study.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 22;15(1):224. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine and Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: Tsetse flies can transmit various Trypanosoma spp. that cause trypanosomiasis in humans, wild animals, and domestic animals. Amplicon deep sequencing of the 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene can be used to detect mammalian tsetse hosts, and the 18S rRNA gene can be used to detect all associated eukaryotic pathogens, including Trypanosoma spp. Read More

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Microscopic and serological survey of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Tunisian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2022 Jul 21;32:100741. Epub 2022 May 21.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Uni. Manouba, Institution of Agricultural Research and Higher Education, National School of Veterinary Medicine of Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Camels are the most adapted species to the harsh ecosystems of the African continent where they represent 80% of world's population. However, they can be susceptible to many pathogens such as Trypanosoma evansi. This parasite is widely distributed in Africa and represents a real threat to animal health and production. Read More

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Exploring the Activity Profile of TbrPDEB1 and hPDE4 Inhibitors Using Free Energy Perturbation.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2022 Jun 23;13(6):904-910. Epub 2022 May 23.

Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences (AIMMS), Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite (.). A validated target for the treatment of HAT is the parasitic cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase B1 (TbrPDEB1). Read More

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Breeding of African sheep reared under low-input/output smallholder production systems for trypanotolerance.

Vet World 2022 Apr 23;15(4):1031-1043. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

Trypanosomiasis is a disease caused by unicellular protozoan parasites. Small ruminants succumb to trypanosomiasis in areas of high tsetse fly challenge, resulting in serious economic loss often to farmers in low-input smallholder systems. At present, trypanosomiasis is treated with trypanocidal drugs, but access to these can be limited, and increasing parasite resistance raises questions about their efficacy. Read More

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Spatial Distribution of Tsetse Flies and Trypanosome Infection Status in a Vector Genetic Transition Zone in Northern Uganda.

J Parasitol Res 2022 1;2022:9142551. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gulu University, P.O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda.

Background: Tsetse flies are vectors of the genus Trypanosoma that cause African trypanosomiasis, a serious parasitic disease of people and animals. Reliable data on the vector distribution and the trypanosome species they carry is pertinent for planning sustainable control strategies. This study was carried out to estimate the spatial distribution, apparent density, and trypanosome infection rates of tsetse flies in two districts that fall within a vector genetic transition zone in northern Uganda. Read More

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[Control, elimination, eradication: Where do we stand with NTDs? Scientific day of the SFMTSI, 25 November 2021].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 12 10;1(4). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

SFMTSI. Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière - Pavillon Laveran, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris cedex 13.

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December 2021

Curvicollide D Isolated from the Fungus sp. Kills African Trypanosomes by Inhibiting Transcription.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 29;23(11). Epub 2022 May 29.

GENYO, Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer, University of Granada, Andalusian Regional Government, PTS Granada-Avenida de la Ilustración, 18016 Granada, Spain.

Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a serious health concern with an added socio-economic impact in sub-Saharan Africa due to direct infection in both humans and their domestic livestock. There is no vaccine available against African trypanosomes and its treatment relies only on chemotherapy. Although the current drugs are effective, most of them are far from the modern concept of a drug in terms of toxicity, specificity and therapeutic regime. Read More

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Extracellular release of two peptidases dominates generation of the trypanosome quorum-sensing signal.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 9;13(1):3322. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH93FL, UK.

Trypanosomes causing African sleeping sickness use quorum-sensing (QS) to generate transmission-competent stumpy forms in mammalian hosts. This density-dependent process is signalled by oligopeptides that stimulate the signal transduction pathway leading to stumpy formation. Here, using mass spectrometry analysis, we identify peptidases released by trypanosomes and, for 12 peptidases, confirm their extracellular delivery. Read More

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African trypanosome strategies for conquering new hosts and territories: the end of monophyly?

Trends Parasitol 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic; School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Trypanosoma brucei parasites are the causative agents of African trypanosomiasis in humans, as well as surra, nagana, and dourine in animals. According to current widely used nomenclature, T. brucei is a group of five (sub)species, each causing a distinct disease and possessing unique genetic marker(s) or a combination thereof. Read More

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Brain and pituitary-adrenal lesions of and infections in the West African Dwarf rams: Is trypanotolerance overrated?

Vet Pathol 2022 Jun 3:3009858221100432. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Trypanosomosis of the West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep is often neglected due to emphasis on trypanotolerance. Nevertheless, significant pathological changes may occur in tissues of infected WAD sheep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain, pituitary, and adrenal lesions of (Tbb) and (Tc) infections in WAD rams. Read More

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In vivo analysis of trypanocidal drug resistance in sahelian goats infected by Trypanosoma vivax strains collected in northern Togo.

Vet Parasitol 2022 Jun 17;306:109723. Epub 2022 May 17.

Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Unité de Recherche Maladies à Vecteurs et Biodiversité (UMaVeB), 01P.O. Box. 454 Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

Trypanosoma (T.) vivax is one of the animal trypanosomes species causing calf mortality and economic losses in Togo. Despite its importance as the most widely distributed trypanosome species, T. Read More

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Genomic Occupancy of the Bromodomain Protein Bdf3 Is Dynamic during Differentiation of African Trypanosomes from Bloodstream to Procyclic Forms.

mSphere 2022 Jun 1:e0002322. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Biology, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, California, USA.

Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis, cycles between a mammalian host and a tsetse fly vector. The parasite undergoes huge changes in morphology and metabolism during adaptation to each host environment. These changes are reflected in the different transcriptomes of parasites living in each host. Read More

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Deciphering the Molecular Mechanism Underlying African Animal Trypanosomiasis by Means of the 1000 Bull Genomes Project Genomic Dataset.

Biology (Basel) 2022 May 13;11(5). Epub 2022 May 13.

Center for Integrated Breeding Research (CiBreed), Georg-August University, Carl-Sprengel-Weg 1, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a neglected tropical disease and spreads by the vector tsetse fly, which carries the infectious sp. in their saliva. Particularly, this parasitic disease affects the health of livestock, thereby imposing economic constraints on farmers, costing billions of dollars every year, especially in sub-Saharan African countries. Read More

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Structure, function and druggability of the African trypanosome flagellum.

J Cell Physiol 2022 Jun 26;237(6):2654-2667. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

African trypanosomes are early branching protists that cause human and animal diseases, termed trypanosomiases. They have been under intensive study for more than 100 years and have contributed significantly to our understanding of eukaryotic biology. The combination of conserved and parasite-specific features mean that their flagellum has gained particular attention. Read More

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Mol Pharmacol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, United States

CBL0137 is a lead drug for human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Herein, we use a four-step strategy to (a) identify physiologic targets and (b) determine modes of molecular action of CBL0137 in the trypanosome. First, we identified fourteen CBL0137-binding proteins using affinity chromatography. Second, we developed hypotheses of molecular modes of action, using predicted functions of CBL0137-binding proteins as guides. Read More

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Semi-Synthetic Analogues of Cryptolepine as a Potential Source of Sustainable Drugs for the Treatment of Malaria, Human African Trypanosomiasis, and Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2022 26;13:875647. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom.

The prospect of eradicating malaria continues to be challenging in the face of increasing parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs so that novel antimalarials active against asexual, sexual, and liver-stage malaria parasites are urgently needed. In addition, new antimalarials need to be affordable and available to those most in need and, bearing in mind climate change, should ideally be sustainable. The West African climbing shrub is used traditionally for the treatment of malaria; its principal alkaloid, cryptolepine (), has been shown to have antimalarial properties, and the synthetic analogue 2,7-dibromocryptolepine () is of interest as a lead toward new antimalarial agents. Read More

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Multitargeted anti-infective drugs: resilience to resistance in the antimicrobial resistance era.

Future Drug Discov 2022 Apr 5;4(1):FDD73. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL, UK.

The standard drug discovery paradigm of single molecule - single biological target - single biological effect is perhaps particularly unsuitable for anti-infective drug discovery. This is due to the rapid evolution of resistance likely to be observed with single target drugs. Multitargeted anti-infective drugs are likely to be superior due to their lower susceptibility to target-related resistance mechanisms. Read More

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New peptidomimetic rhodesain inhibitors with improved selectivity towards human cathepsins.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Aug 14;238:114460. Epub 2022 May 14.

Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudingerweg 5, Mainz, 55128, Germany. Electronic address:

Parasitic cysteine proteases such as rhodesain (TbCatL) from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense are relevant targets for developing new potential drugs against parasitic diseases (e. g. Human African Trypanosomiasis). Read More

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Integrated assessment of trypanosomosis challenge on cow health and milk based on The Gambia's agropastoralism.

Acta Trop 2022 Aug 16;232:106520. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, Izmir 35040, Turkey.

To improve understanding of African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) and associated host-parasite relationship's challenges on cow and milk, The Gambia was examined given its enzootic status. Based on an integrated assessment framework, semi-structured questionnaires which were pre-tested and then administered in five regions were used. Relationships among the investigated variables were statistically explored with Pearson chi-square test and strength of association quantified with Phi or Cramer's V coefficient. Read More

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[Sleeping Sickness: A Cause of False Positive HIV Rapid Diagnostic Tests].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 06 20;1(2). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Université de Limoges, U1094, Neuroépidémiologie tropicale, Institut d'épidémiologie et de neurologie tropicale, GEIST, Limoges, France.

Approaching the mechanisms related to false positives HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in patients with sleeping sickness may help to improve the accuracy of screening for HIV infection in areas endemic for Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).We report on a patient from Congo who was managed like an AIDS-associated meningoencephalitis, based on a false positive HIV RDT at admission, and eventually received a diagnosis of sleeping sickness. A further retrospective cohort study performed in patients with HAT shows that most of positive HIV RDT obtained prior to treatment for sleeping sickness are false positives. Read More

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Hybrid-Compounds Against Trypanosomiases.

Curr Drug Targets 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, 57072-970, Maceió, Brazil.

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a global public health problem that is associated with approximately 20 conditions. Among these, Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, and human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), caused by T. brucei gambiense or T. Read More

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African Animal Trypanosomiasis: A Systematic Review on Prevalence, Risk Factors and Drug Resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa.

J Med Entomol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

SACIDS Africa Centre of Excellence for Infectious Diseases of Humans and Animals in East and Southern Africa, P.O. Box 3297, Morogoro, Tanzania.

African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) a parasitic disease of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa causing tremendous loses. Sub-Saharan continental estimation of mean prevalence in both large and small domestic animals, risk factors, tsetse and non-tsetse prevalence and drug resistance is lacking. A review and meta-analysis was done to better comprehend changes in AAT prevalence and drug resistance. Read More

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Role of Virulence Factors of Trypanosomatids in the Insect Vector and Putative Genetic Events Involved in Surface Protein Diversity.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 28;12:807172. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Trypanosomatids are flagellate protozoans that can infect several invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, including insects and humans. The three most studied species are the human pathogens , and spp. which are the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, respectively. Read More

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Semi-Synthesis of -Aryl Amide Analogs of Piperine from and Evaluation of Their Antitrypanosomal, Antimalarial, and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Activities.

Molecules 2022 Apr 29;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology Program, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

, or black pepper, produces piperine, an alkaloid that has diverse pharmacological activities. In this study, -aryl amide piperine analogs were prepared by semi-synthesis involving the saponification of piperine () to yield piperic acid () followed by esterification to obtain compounds , , and . The compounds were examined for their antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 main protease activities. Read More

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Label-free LC-MS/MS proteomics analyses reveal proteomic changes in oxidative stress and the SOD antioxidant strategy in TM cells.

Clin Proteomics 2022 May 14;19(1):12. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Anhui, 230601, China.

Background: Treatment for glaucoma has traditionally been limited to reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Inhibiting oxidative stress in the trabecular meshwork (TM) is regarded as a new treatment for glaucoma; however, the effects do not meet expectations. Exploring the mechanism by which oxidative stress and antioxidant stress occur in TM cells will offer clues to aid the development of new treatments. Read More

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Unusual neurological presentation of second stage African trypanosomiasis in a young boy: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2022 May 12;22(1):265. Epub 2022 May 12.

Teaching Assistant, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Gadarif University, Gadarif, Sudan.

Background: In South Sudan, sleeping sickness is a frequent condition caused by human African trypanosomiasis. There are two stages that are well-known. When the CNS is affected, especially with Trypanosoma gambiense infection, the early hemolymphatic stage and the late encephalitic stage have been observed, including mental, motor, and sensory symptoms. Read More

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