187,646 results match your criteria African Journalism Studies[Journal]


Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among US children.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 16;92:209-218. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of South Carolina College of Nursing, Columbia, South Carolina, United States.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children in the United States and to examine the relationship between child and family characteristics and the likelihood of reported exposure to ACEs.

Methods: Data were drawn from the nationally representative 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Parent-reported child ACE exposure was measured using counts of those reporting zero ACEs, one to three ACEs, and four or more ACEs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) recommendations for establishing a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation program in countries with limited resources (Part II): clinical, technical and socio-economic considerations.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Nagakute; Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany.

The development of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) programs can face significant challenges in most developing countries because such endeavors must compete with other government health care priorities, including the delivery of basic services. While this is may be a limiting factor, these countries should prioritize development of the needed expertise to offer state of the art treatments including transplantation, by providing financial, technological, legal, ethical and other needed support. This would prove beneficial in providing successful programs customized to the needs of their population, and potentially provide long-term cost-savings by circumventing the need for their citizens to seek care abroad. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Impact of malaria and hepatitis B co-infection on clinical and cytokine profiles among pregnant women.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215550. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens (WACCBIP), University of Ghana, Legon- Accra, Ghana.

Background: The overlap of malaria and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is common in endemic regions, however, it is not known if this co-infection could adversely influence clinical and immunological responses. This study investigated these interactions in pregnant women reporting to antenatal clinics in Ghana.

Methods: Clinical parameters (hemoglobin, liver function biomarker, peripheral malaria parasitemia, and hepatitis B viremia) and cytokine profiles were assayed and compared across four categories of pregnant women: un-infected, mono-infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria group), mono-infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB group) and co-infected (Malaria+CHB group). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215550PLOS

Epidemiology of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215647. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa.

Methods: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215647PLOS

Effect of HIV-exposure and timing of anti-retroviral treatment on immunogenicity of trivalent live-attenuated polio vaccine in infants.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215079. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

South African Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: The prevalence of HIV infection in South African pregnant women has been approximately 30% over the past decade; however, there has been a steady decline in mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 8% in 2008 to <2% in 2015. We evaluated the immunogenicity of live-attenuated trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) following the primary vaccination series (doses at birth, 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU), HIV-infected infants initiated on early anti-retroviral treatment (HIV+/ART+), HIV-infected infants on deferred ART (HIV+/ART-) and HIV-unexposed infants (HU) as the referent group.

Methods: Serum polio neutralization antibody titres were evaluated to serotype-1, serotype-2 and serotype-3 at 6, 10 and 18 weeks of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215079PLOS

The invasive giant African snail Lissachatina fulica as natural intermediate host of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Troglostrongylus brevior, and Crenosoma vulpis in Colombia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 19;13(4):e0007277. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

CIBAV Research Group, Veterinary Medicine School, Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia.

Background: Several metastrongyloid lungworms are unreported pathogens in Colombia. Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis target the cardiopulmonary system of domestic and wild canids. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior infect felids and considering that six wild felid species exist in Colombia, knowledge of feline lungworm infections is important for their conservation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007277DOI Listing

Genome-wide diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goats and their divergence from east African, north African, and Asian conspecifics.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0214843. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, Nairobi, Kenya.

Indigenous goats make significant contributions to Cameroon's national and local economy, but little effort has been devoted to identifying the populations. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity and demographic dynamics of Cameroon goat populations using mitochondrial DNA (two populations) and autosomal markers (four populations) generated with the Caprine 50K SNP chip. To infer genetic relationships at continental and global level, genotype data on six goat populations from Ethiopia and one population each from Egypt, Morocco, Iran, and China were included in the analysis. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214843PLOS

The World after Ebola: An Overview of Ebola Complications, Vaccine Development, Lessons Learned, Financial Losses, and Disease Preparedness.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2019 ;29(1):77-84

Foundation University Medical College, Foundation University Islamabad, DHA-I Islamabad (44000), Pakistan.

The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was the largest of its kind with 11,000 deaths and approximately 28,637 affected cases. The aim of the study was to analyze the global situation after the Ebola outbreak including Ebola complications, vaccine development, lessons learned, financial losses, and disease preparedness. We searched in PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar by using keywords Ebola virus, Ebola vaccine development and Ebola virus transmission, the world after Ebola, financial losses by Ebola outbreak, and disease preparedness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2019025175DOI Listing
January 2019

Preventive Misconception and Risk Behaviors in a Multinational HIV Prevention Trial.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Population Health Sciences , Duke University School of Medicine , Durham , North Carolina , USA.

Background: Some HIV prevention research participants may hold a "preventive misconception" (PM), an overestimate of the probability or level of personal protection afforded by trial participation. However, these reports typically rely upon small, retrospective qualitative assessments that did not use a standardized approach.

Methods: We administered a measure of PM called PREMIS, during Microbicide Trials Network 020-A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use, a large, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a dapivirine vaginal ring among women at risk for HIV infection in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23294515.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1593257DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reducing ethnic disparity in access to high-quality HLA-matched cord blood units for transplantation: analysis of the Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank inventory.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank, Ottawa, Ontario.

Background: Launched in 2013, Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBS' CBB) has built a high-quality, ethnically diverse cord blood repository that aims to reduce ethnic disparity in accessing suitable units for transplantation.

Methods And Results: As of December 2016, 2000 units have been banked. The self-reported maternal ethnicity was 58% non-Caucasian. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15313DOI Listing

Patterns of Sexual Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and Use of Health Services Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Portugal.

J Sex Res 2019 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

c Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL.

This study identified patterns of sexual risk behavior among a sub-Saharan African migrant (SAM) population in Portugal and examined its associations with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, sociodemographics, use of sexual health services, and HIV testing. A cross-sectional biobehavioral survey was conducted with a venue-based sample of 790 SAMs. Data were collected using questionnaires and rapid HIV tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1601154DOI Listing

New RHCE*ce variant allele in African descent holds 105C > T (silent) in cis to 48C in Exon 1 and 733G in Exon 5.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Office of Blood Research and Review (OBRR), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/trf.15314
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15314DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Infection in 2 Elephants, Nepal.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 May;25(5):1031-1032

Tuberculosis in elephants is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We identified mixed M. tuberculosis lineage infection in 2 captive elephants in Nepal by using spoligotyping and large sequence polymorphism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2505.181898DOI Listing

Sesquiterpenes from an Eastern African Medicinal Mushroom Belonging to the Genus Sanghuangporus.

J Nat Prod 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Microbial Drugs , Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), and German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF) , Partner Site Hannover/Braunschweig, Inhoffenstrasse 7 , 38124 Braunschweig , Germany.

During the course of searching for new anti-infective and other biologically active secondary metabolites from Kenyan basidiomycetes, 13 previously undescribed metabolites, (6 R,7 S,10 R)-7,10-epoxy-7,11-dimethyldodec-1-ene-6,11-diol (1) and 12 sesquiterpenes named elgonenes A-L (2-13), and the known compound P-coumaric acid (14) were isolated from a basidiomycete collected in Mount Elgon Natural Reserve. The producing organism represents a new species of the genus Sanghuangporus, which is one of the segregates of the important traditional Asian medicinal mushrooms that were formerly known as the " Inonotus linteus" complex. The structure elucidation of compounds 1-13, based on 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and other spectral methods, and their antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b01086DOI Listing

Evaluation of vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway target genes reveals UGT2A1/2 and EGFR polymorphisms associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in African American Women.

Cancer Med 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cam4.1996
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1996DOI Listing
April 2019
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DNA barcoding uncovers extensive cryptic diversity in the African long-fin tetra Bryconalestes longipinnis (Alestidae: Characiformes).

J Fish Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Ichthyology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA.

To investigate the presence of cryptic diversity in The African longfin-tetra Bryconalestes longipinnis, we employed DNA barcoding in a phylogeographic context, as well as geometric morphometrics, documenting for the first time genetic and body shape variation in the species. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene (coI) sequence variation exposed extremely high levels of genetic differentiation among samples from across the geographic range of the species (up to 18%), certainly much greater than the traditionally employed c. 3% sequence divergence heuristic threshold for conspecifics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13987DOI Listing

Shock index thresholds to predict adverse outcomes in maternal hemorrhage and sepsis: a prospective cohort study.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Women and Children's Health, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Shock Index (SI) is a predictor of hemodynamic compromise in obstetric patients. The Shock Index threshold for action is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate Shock Index thresholds as predictors of outcomes in obstetric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13626DOI Listing

Accuracy of Gene Expression Prediction From Genotype Data With PrediXcan Varies Across and Within Continental Populations.

Front Genet 2019 3;10:261. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Using genetic data to predict gene expression has garnered significant attention in recent years. PrediXcan has become one of the most widely used gene-based methods for testing associations between predicted gene expression values and a phenotype, which has facilitated novel insights into the relationship between complex traits and the component of gene expression that can be attributed to genetic variation. The gene expression prediction models for PrediXcan were developed using supervised machine learning methods and training data from the Depression Genes and Networks (DGN) study and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, where the majority of subjects are of European descent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456650PMC

Rare Variants Imputation in Admixed Populations: Comparison Across Reference Panels and Bioinformatics Tools.

Front Genet 2019 3;10:239. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Imputation has become a standard approach in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to infer untyped markers. Although feasibility for common variants imputation is well established, we aimed to assess rare and ultra-rare variants' imputation in an admixed Caribbean Hispanic population (CH).

Methods: We evaluated imputation accuracy in CH ( = 1,000), focusing on rare (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456789PMC

Methylation at the C-3' in D-Ring of Strigolactone Analogs Reduces Biological Activity in Root Parasitic Plants and Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2019 2;10:353. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

The BioActives Lab, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

Strigolactones (SLs) regulate plant development and induce seed germination in obligate root parasitic weeds, e.g. spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455008PMC

High-Throughput Illumina MiSeq Amplicon Sequencing of Yeast Communities Associated With Indigenous Dairy Products From Republics of Benin and Niger.

Front Microbiol 2019 3;10:594. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Microbial Resources Division, Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat Institutional Area, Imphal, India.

Traditional cheese and fermented cow milk are among the most popular dairy products appreciated by people from Benin, Niger, and the neighboring region. These products are the main source of protein in the diet of the low-income population in the region. The fermented milk is prepared by spontaneous fermentation without back-slopping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456676PMC

Preparing for the next Ebola outbreak: in-country genomic capacity in Africa.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Ede 200012, Nigeria; African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Redeemer's University, Ede 200012, Nigeria. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30173-2DOI Listing

Building health workforce capacity for planning and monitoring through the Strengthening Technical Assistance for routine immunization training (START) approach in Uganda.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: The Global Vaccine Action Plan identifies workforce capacity building as a key strategy to achieve strong immunization programs. The Strengthening Technical Assistance for Routine Immunization Training (START) approach aimed to utilize practical training methods to build capacity of district and health center staff to implement routine immunization (RI) planning and monitoring activities, as well as build supportive supervision skills of district staff.

Methods: First implemented in Uganda, the START approach was executed by trained external consultants who used existing tools, resources, and experiences to mentor district-level counterparts and, with them, conducted on-the-job training and mentorship of health center staff over several site visits. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.015DOI Listing
April 2019
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Understanding the full clinical spectrum of childhood diarrhoea in low-income and middle-income countries.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 May;7(5):e534-e535

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30056-7DOI Listing

Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the artesunate-mefloquine fixed dose combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children.

Malar J 2019 Apr 18;18(1):139. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends combinations of an artemisinin derivative plus an anti-malarial drug of longer half-life as treatment options for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections. In Africa, artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) is an infrequently used artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) because of perceived poor tolerance to mefloquine. However, the WHO has recommended reconsideration of the use of ASMQ in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2754-6DOI Listing

Impact of higher-order nonlinearity on modulational instability in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

Phys Rev E 2019 Mar;99(3-1):032202

Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014, India.

We investigate the effect of higher-order interactions induced by shape-dependent confinement in the modulational instability (MI) of a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates. For this, we present and compute both analytically and numerically a system of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with residual nonlinearity that rule the dynamics of the mixture. Using the linear stability approach, we obtain the instability criteria of the mixture and find that the MI can be excited in miscible condensates and altered in immiscible condensates due to the effect of residual nonlinearity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.99.032202DOI Listing

Aboveground Carbon Storage and Its Links to Stand Structure, Tree Diversity and Floristic Composition in South-Eastern Tanzania.

Ecosystems 2018 6;21(4):740-754. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

1School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF Scotland, UK.

African savannas and dry forests represent a large, but poorly quantified store of biomass carbon and biodiversity. Improving this information is hindered by a lack of recent forest inventories, which are necessary for calibrating earth observation data and for evaluating the relationship between carbon stocks and tree diversity in the context of forest conservation (for example, REDD+). Here, we present new inventory data from south-eastern Tanzania, comprising more than 15,000 trees at 25 locations located across a gradient of aboveground woody carbon (AGC) stocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0180-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438643PMC
September 2017

Development and pharmacokinetics of a combination vaginal ring for sustained release of dapivirine and the protein microbicide 5P12-RANTES.

Int J Pharm 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK. Electronic address:

The past fifteen years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in vaginal ring technologies for drug delivery applications, mostly driven by the impetus for development of vaginally-administered antiretroviral microbicides to help reduce the high acquisition rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Sub-Saharan African women. Currently, the lead candidate microbicide is a 28-day silicone elastomer vaginal ring releasing dapivirine (Ring-004), an experimental non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The ring was tested in two pivotal Phase III clinical studies in 2016 and is currently undergoing review by the European Medicines Agency. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03785173193030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.040DOI Listing
April 2019
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Factors associated with recovery from stunting among under-five children in two Nairobi informal settlements.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215488. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Childhood stunting is a public health concern in many low-and-middle income countries, as it is associated with both short-term and long-term negative effects on child cognitive development, physical health, and schooling outcomes. There is paucity of studies on recovery from stunting among under five children in these countries. Most studies focused on the recovery much later in adolescence. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215488PLOS

Higher rates of HBsAg clearance with tenofovir-containing therapy in HBV/HIV co-infection.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215464. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Le Trait d'Union, HIV-Infection Care Center, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: Achieving functional cure of chronic HBV infection (Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] clearance, eventually followed by acquisition of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen [Anti-HBs]) in individuals with HIV and HBV infections is a rare event. In this setting, factors related to HBV cure have not yet been fully characterized.

Methods: HIV-infected individuals with chronic HBV infection enrolled in the French Dat'AIDS cohort (NCT02898987), who started combined antiretroviral (cART)-anti-HBV treatment were retrospectively analyzed for HBsAg loss and Anti-HBs seroconversion. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215464PLOS
April 2019
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Racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity and associated factors - Cardiovascular responsiveness and psychological status.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215534. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Pain and Translational Symptom Science, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

This study evaluated the contributions of psychological status and cardiovascular responsiveness to racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. The baseline measures of 3,159 healthy individuals-non-Hispanic white (NHW): 1,637, African-American (AA): 1,012, Asian: 299, and Hispanic: 211-from the OPPERA prospective cohort study were used. Cardiovascular responsiveness measures and psychological status were included in structural equation modeling based mediation analyses. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215534PLOS

Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography integrated with computed tomography in carcinoma of the cervix: Its impact on accurate staging and the predictive role of its metabolic parameters.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215412. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Objectives: To determine the impact of FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of cervical cancer among women with and without HIV and to determine the abilities of FDG-PET/CT metabolic parameters in predicting the presence of distant metastasis.

Methods: We reviewed the FDG-PET/CT images of women with FIGO stage IB2 to IVA carcinoma of the cervix. We compared the FIGO stage before and after FDG-PET/CT. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215412PLOS
April 2019
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APOL1 renal risk variants promote cholesterol accumulation in tissues and cultured macrophages from APOL1 transgenic mice.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0211559. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Kidney Disease Section, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants G1 and G2, compared to the common allele G0, are major risk factors for non-diabetic kidney disease in African descent populations. APOL1 is a minor protein component of HDL, as well as being expressed in podocytes and vascular cells. Reverse cholesterol transport involves the transport of cholesterol to HDL by cellular ATP-binding cassette; ABCA1 and ABCG1 with subsequent delivery from peripheral tissues to the liver. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211559PLOS

Prevalence of Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Persons Aged 13-24 Years - Four Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2013-2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Apr 19;68(15):350-355. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Violence is a major public health and human rights concern, claiming over 1.3 million lives globally each year (1). Despite the scope of this problem, population-based data on physical and sexual violence perpetration are scarce, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (2,3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6815a3DOI Listing

Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure reference values in Africans.

Blood Press Monit 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

South African Hypertension and Diet Study, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objective: We aimed to establish reference values for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in an African community.

Patients And Methods: We randomly recruited 1219 participants of African ancestry from Soweto, a township in Johannesburg. Twenty-four hour ABP was measured using ABP monitors (model 90207; Spacelab). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000376DOI Listing

XGBoost Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a menace that is affecting 10% of the world population and 15% of the South African population. The early and cheap diagnosis of this disease with accuracy and reliability will save 20,000 lives in South Africa per year. Scientists are developing smart solutions with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8693581/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2019.2911071DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Clinical and Angiographic Characteristics, Social Determinants of Health, and 1-Year Outcomes After Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent Procedures in Women.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Apr;12(4):e006918

Interventional Heart Program, Inova Health System, Inova Heart & Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA (W.B.).

Background The impact of race/ethnicity on coronary stent outcomes in women is unknown. We compared baseline characteristics, social determinants of health, and 1-year outcomes in female African Americans (AA) and Hispanic/Latinas (HL) versus white women after coronary everolimus-eluting stent implantation in all-comer patients. Methods and Results We pooled 1863 women from the PLATINUM Diversity (n=1057 women) and PROMUS ELEMENT PLUS (n=806 women) postapproval studies, with some overlap in study sites. Read More

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.006918DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF) in low-income and urban adolescents.

Psychol Assess 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychology.

Reliable, brief, and cost-effective methods to assess parenting are critical for advancing etiological research and translational efforts within parenting science. In the current study, we adapted the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF) for use among a sample of mostly racial minority adolescents aged 15 years old, growing up in a low-income urban setting. A multiethnic team coded videotapes of a family interaction task designed to elicit conflict. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000719DOI Listing

First field evidence infection of by West Nile virus in Sahara Oasis of Algeria.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):305-309

Laboratoire d'Eco-épidémiologie Parasitaire et Génétique des Populations, Boumerdesse, Algeria.

Background & Objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is considered one of the most widely distributed arboviruses in the world which is transmitted by several mosquito species including the Culex genus. Culex pipiens is the major vector of this virus in Europe and USA whereas in African countries, other species such as Cx. perexiguus is considered as an important vector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.256566DOI Listing
April 2019
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Suspected resistance of Trypanosoma species to diminazene aceturate on a cattle farm in Nigeria.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria.

African animal trypanosomiasis is a major cause of mortality and economic losses for the livestock industry in Nigeria. Chemotherapy has been the most reliable option for cattle herders, and the most commonly found drug on the market is diminazene aceturate. To ascertain the long-term efficacy of this compound, we sampled a cattle herd in Ogun State, Nigeria, 2 months after they were treated with diminazene aceturate. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11250-019-01902-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01902-5DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comparative Effects of Medical Versus Surgical Weight Loss on Body Composition: a Pilot Randomized Trial.

Obes Surg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Bariatric surgery leads to more rapid and greater weight loss (WL) compared to medical weight loss (MWL), but the differences in body composition (BC) changes for these modalities remain unclear. Due to the known health risks associated with central adiposity, we compared the changes in regional distribution of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) after surgical versus MWL.

Methods: In this 1:1:1 randomized trial among 15 persons with type 2 diabetes and body mass index (BMI) 30-39. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-03879-4DOI Listing

New insight into poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Azomonas macrocytogenes isolate KC685000: large scale production, kinetic modeling, recovery and characterization.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Organization of African Unity St., Abbassia, 11566, Cairo, Egypt.

About 24 h incubation of Azomonas (A.) macrocytogenes isolate KC685000 in 14L fermenter produced 22% poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) biopolymer using 1 vvm aeration, 10% inoculum size, and initial pH of 7.2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04798-4DOI Listing

Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers.

J Sport Health Sci 2019 Mar 24;8(2):114-121. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.

Purpose: To examine the associations among preschoolers fundamental motor skills, screen-time, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB).

Methods: Children ages 3-4years were enrolled in a prospective observational trial of PA. Trained assessors conducted the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rdedition (TGMD-3), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition, and parent-reported child screen-time and sociodemographic information. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20952546183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450921PMC
March 2019
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Global, regional and national burden of emergency medical diseases using specific emergency disease indicators: analysis of the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(2):e000733. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

The Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: There are currently no metrics for measuring population-level burden of emergency medical diseases (EMDs). This study presents an analysis of the burden of EMDs using two metrics: the emergency disease mortality rate (EDMR) and the emergency disease burden (EDB) per 1000 population at the national, regional and global levels.

Methods: We used the 1990 and 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study for morbidity and mortality data on 249 medical conditions in 195 countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441258PMC

Analysis of pre-residency research productivity, dual degree status, and gender distribution of underrepresented minorities among a current United States radiation oncology junior resident class.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2019 May-Jun;24(3):284-287. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: Among the most competitive medical subspecialties, representation of underrepresented minorities (African-American race and/or Hispanic ethnicity) among resident trainees has historically been low compared to their United States Census general population representation. Research productivity and dual degree status may impact residency applicant competitiveness. To date, such an analysis has yet to be performed in Radiation Oncology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpor.2019.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451161PMC

Influence of infrared heating processing technology on the cooking characteristics and functionality of African legumes: a review.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Apr 8;56(4):1669-1682. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028 South Africa.

African legumes are an important protein source in the human diet. However, a long and often extended cooking process has been identified as a major challenge in the consumption and utilisation of these legumes. The application of infrared heating as a method of shortening the cooking-time of African legume seeds and flour, by increasing their water absorption rates and pasting viscosity is emphasised in literature. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443696PMC
April 2019
1 Read

[Chronic phosphoproteomic in temporal lobe epilepsy mouse models induced by kainic acid].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):197-205

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To investigate functions of proteins and signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy in mouse models.

Methods: Kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy models were conducted, when reaching stage 4 using racine scale, the mice of experimental group were supposed to be successfully established. Pentobarbital sodium was injected to stop epileptic seizure in case of death. Read More

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April 2019
2 Reads

Near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from the early South African epidemic, detecting a BD unique recombinant form (URF) from a sample in 1985.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6227. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa.

HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent subtype in South Africa. Although subtype B was previously detected in South Africa, there is limited sequence information available. We characterized near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from samples collected at the start of the South African HIV-1 epidemic, in the 1980s. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42417-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42417-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Territoriality and variation in home range size through the entire annual range of migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius).

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6238. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Behavioural and Physiological Ecology group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Variation in home range size throughout the year and its causes are not well understood yet. Migratory brood parasites offer a unique opportunity to incorporate this spatio-temporal dimension into the study of the factors regulating home range dynamics. Using satellite transmitters, we tracked sixteen migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) of both sexes for up to three years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41943-2DOI Listing