202,179 results match your criteria African Journalism Studies[Journal]


Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths in Botswana.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children. Few data exist regarding the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) on the burden of childhood pneumonia in African settings.

Methods: We collected data on children 1 to 59 months of age at three hospitals in Botswana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa919DOI Listing

Origin, HDV genotype and persistent viremia determine outcome and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis Delta.

J Hepatol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

AP-HP, Hôpital Avicenne, Laboratoire de microbiologie Clinique, Université Paris 13, Centre national de référence des hépatites B, C et Delta, Bobigny, Inserm U955, équipe 18, Université Paris-Est, Créteil.

Background/aims: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes severe chronic liver disease in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected individuals. Factors associated with poor prognosis are largely unknown.

Methods: The French National Reference Centre for HDV performed a nationwide retrospective study on 1112 HDV-infected patients, collecting epidemiological, clinical, virological and histological data from the initial referral to the last recorded follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.06.038DOI Listing

How geographic productivity patterns affect food-web evolution.

J Theor Biol 2020 Jul 4:110374. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Integrated Science Lab, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, UmeåUniversity, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden; Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.

It is well recognized that spatial heterogeneity and overall productivity have important consequences for the diversity and community structure of food webs. Yet, few, if any, studies have considered the effects of heterogeneous spatial distributions of primary production. Here, we theoretically investigate how the variance and autocorrelation length of primary production affect properties of evolved food webs consisting of one autotroph and several heterotrophs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110374DOI Listing

Enhanced life distress inventory: Development and validation in two African countries.

Br J Health Psychol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Objective: Poverty is linked to poor mental health, and stress is a key pathway. Most existing stress scales were developed in high-income settings. We use primary data collected from three large population-based studies in Ghana and Tanzania to examine the performance and psychometric properties of a new measure of self-perceived stress, the Enhanced Life Distress Inventory (ELDI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12448DOI Listing

Krukenberg's Spindles Strongly Suggest Long Anterior Zonule Associated Pigment Dispersion Mechanism in Older Patients.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Jul;61(8)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to further investigate factors associated with Krukenberg's spindle (KS) presence in a primary eye care setting.

Methods: As part of a larger investigation, several practitioners in an academic eye care facility in Chicago, IL, USA evaluated patients for the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait during 2011 to 2018, and data were collected on ocular/systemic health, lifestyle, and demographic variables, including the presence of a KS. Multivariate regression was used to assess relationships to KS presence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.8.8DOI Listing

Patterns of cardiovascular risk and disease in HIV-positive adults on anti-retroviral therapy in Mozambique.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2020 Jun 19;31:1-5. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

National Institute of Health, Mozambique; Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique. Email:

Introduction: With improved access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the focus of HIV treatment is changing to reducing chronic co-morbidities and their effects, but guidelines for HIV care in many African countries do not include screening for cardiac disease. Our study aimed to determine the pattern of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-positive patients on ART.

Methods: We implemented a prospective, observational study for 24 months on a random sample of adult patients seen at a dedicated HIV clinic in Mozambique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2020-007DOI Listing

Evaluation of Potential Antigen-specific Host Biomarkers in QuantiFERON Supernatants as Candidates for the Diagnosis of Ocular Tuberculosis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 Jul 7:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Stellenbosch University , Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose: To evaluate potential host biomarkers detectable in QuantiFERON supernatants as diagnostic candidates for ocular tuberculosis (OTB).

Methods: We investigated 47 host markers in QuantiFERON supernatants from 92 individuals with uveitis using the Luminex platform. We evaluated the potential of individual and combined biomarkers to distinguish between patients with possible, probable, and no OTB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1763404DOI Listing

Antidiabetics and antihypertensive medications use in Morocco: A pharmacoepidemiological descriptive study.

Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2020 Jun 15;12(1):e1-e6. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Genetics and Biometry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra.

 Background: In Morocco, and many other African countries, there is a paucity of antihypertensive and antidiabetics use amongst the general population.

Aim: To investigate the epidemiological profile of antihypertensive and antidiabetics use and analysis their adverse reactions.

Setting: This study was conducted in the prefecture of Figuig, Morocco. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2195DOI Listing

The evolving role of family physicians during the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis: An appreciative reflection.

Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2020 Jun 9;12(1):e1-e4. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; and, Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, George Regional Hospital, Garden Route, George, South Africa; and, Primary Health Care Directorate, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.

Ten family physicians and family medicine registrars in a South African semi-rural training complex reflected on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis during their quarterly training complex meeting. The crisis has become the disruptor that is placing pressure on the traditional roles of the family physician. The importance of preventative and promotive care in a community-oriented approach, being a capacity builder and leading the health team as a consultant have assumed new meanings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2478DOI Listing

Establishing a pharmacist-prescriber partnership in publicly funded primary healthcare clinics to optimise antibiotic prescribing in the Western Cape: An exploratory study.

S Afr Fam Pract (2004) 2020 Jun 22;62(1):e1-e4. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford.

Background: Promoting evidence-based antibiotic prescribing through successful antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes is critical to preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics for common infections in primary care. This requires a coordinated multidisciplinary effort. Such pharmacist-prescriber partnerships have been effective in high-income countries (HICs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/safp.v62i1.5090DOI Listing

Burden of caring for children living with human immunodeficiency virus in a semi-rural South African community.

S Afr Fam Pract (2004) 2020 Jun 25;62(1):e1-e5. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Discipline of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Background: Caregiver burden influences the well-being of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who may experience disabilities as a result of the virus, comorbidities and treatment. Overall health, psychological well-being, finances, social life and the relationship with the child being cared for influence the burden of care. This study aimed to investigate the burden of care on caregivers of children living with HIV who may be experiencing disabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/safp.v62i1.5110DOI Listing

Challenges of teaching the deaf-blind learner in an education setting in Johannesburg: Experiences of educators and assistant educators.

S Afr J Commun Disord 2020 Jun 11;67(1):e1-e7. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Speech Pathology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and Speech Pathology and Audiology Department, Tembisa Hospital, Johannesburg.

Background: Evidence suggests that educators of deaf-blind students in the South African context have specific challenges in the educational setting because of their lack of adequate knowledge on deaf-blindness and a lack of sufficient training on communication, teaching and learning strategies.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the challenges experienced by educators and assistant educators of children with deaf-blindness.

Method: Ten educators and assistant educators were selected purposively to participate in the study (Male = 3; Female = 7; age range 31-49 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajcd.v67i1.649DOI Listing

Circulating nutrients and hematological parameters in managed African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) over a 1-year period.

Zoo Biol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) are currently considered a vulnerable species. One key to improving methods of species management is to better monitor and understand elephant nutrition. Analyzing circulating nutrients is one of the best and least invasive methods of monitoring managed elephant nutrition, but limited reference values are available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21556DOI Listing

Ways to increase equity, diversity and inclusion.

Elife 2020 Jul 7;9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

QUEST - Quality | Ethics | Open Science | Translation, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin Institutes of Health, Berlin, Germany.

The eLife Early-Career Advisory Group (ECAG), an international group of early-career researchers committed to improving research culture, calls for radical changes at eLife and other journals to address racism in the scientific community and to make science more diverse and inclusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.60438DOI Listing

Psycho-Social Correlates of Opioid Use Disorder among the US Adult Population: Evidence from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2015-2018.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 Jul 7:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Background: The United States (US) has experienced an opioid epidemic over the last two decades. Drug overdose deaths increased by 21% from 2015 to 2016, with two-thirds of these deaths attributed to opioid use disorder (OUD). This study assessed the psycho-social correlates associated with OUD over 2015-2018 in the US. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1788086DOI Listing

Ethnicity, sex composition of living children, and unrealized fertility in Nigeria.

Popul Stud (Camb) 2020 Jul 7:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

University of Ibadan.

While studies in high-income countries have shown that failure to achieve fertility desires is significantly associated with unfavourable personal circumstances, there is barely any empirical evidence on the factors that influence the pattern of unrealized fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, this paper investigates the roles of ethnicity and the sex composition of living children on unrealized fertility in Nigeria. The results show that the odds of having unrealized fertility were higher among Hausa-Fulani women compared with women of other ethnic groups in Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2020.1779333DOI Listing

Impact of Rhabdomyolysis on outcomes of hospitalizations for heat stroke in the United States.

Hosp Pract (1995) 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Military and Community Medicine, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine , Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictors and associated outcomes of rhabdomyolysis in admitted patients for heat stroke in the United States.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was utilized to identify hospitalized patients with a primary diagnosis of heat stroke from the years 2003-2014. Rhabdomyolysis was identified using hospital diagnosis code. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21548331.2020.1792214DOI Listing

Comparison of Early Life Obesity-Related Risk and Protective Factors in Non-Hispanic Black Subgroups.

Matern Child Health J 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Objectives: Previous obesity prevention studies in preschool-age children have included non-Hispanic Black (NHB) children, but few have investigated between-subgroup differences even though there may be cultural risk and protective practice differences, challenging the generalizability of findings. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in early childhood obesity-related factors in NHB subgroups (Haitian, other Caribbean Islander and African-American [AA]) children.

Methods: Baseline data from two randomized controlled trials in 52 childcare centers of which 35 had data to test a preschool-based obesity prevention intervention was analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-020-02979-3DOI Listing

First Description of the Fur of Two Cubs of Fossil Cave Lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) Found in Yakutia in 2017 and 2018.

Dokl Biol Sci 2020 May 6;492(1):93-98. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute for High-Dimensional Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jikei University, Tokyo, Japan.

The first description of well-preserved fur of one male and one female cubs of the fossil cave lion Panthera spelaea (finds of 2017-2018, Semyuelyakh River, Yakutia, Russia) is presented in comparison with the fur of two cubs (a male and a female) of the extant African lion P. leo and adult lions of both species: the color, differentiation, configuration, microstructure, and internal design of hair of different categories are considered. The coat of the cave lion is similar but not identical to that of the African lion, because it contains a high thick undercoat of spiral-shaped thick and airy down hair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0012496620030011DOI Listing

Richard Allen Williams, M.D.: a Career Fighting Disparities and Fostering Equity.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Charles R. Drew University School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

This is a literature review where we acknowledge Richard Allen Williams, the first African American physician to win the John P. McGovern Compleat Physician Award, and recognize his achievements in race and ethnicity in healthcare. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, racial disparities continue to create inequity in the medical community especially for African Americans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00813-8DOI Listing

Using Zoning as a Public Health Tool to Reduce Alcohol Outlet Oversaturation, Promote Compliance, and Guide Future Enforcement: a Preliminary Analysis of Transform Baltimore.

J Urban Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N. Broadway St, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Alcohol outlet oversaturation often exacerbates negative public health outcomes. Recently, Baltimore City passed an extensive zoning rewrite ("TransForm Baltimore") that sought to give local government and residents a tool to reduce alcohol outlet oversaturation through land use regulation. The present investigation evaluated the outlet and neighborhood characteristics of stores impacted by two components of TransForm Baltimore: (1) a requirement that taverns licensed for on-premise consumption in addition to off-premise, carryout sales generate at least 50% of their business from on-premise sales, and (2) a requirement to close, repurpose, or relocate all package stores (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00453-7DOI Listing

Investigation on key contributors of energy consumption in dynamic heterogeneous panel data (DHPD) model for African countries: fresh evidence from dynamic common correlated effect (DCCE) approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IASA), Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

The main aim of this current study is to empirically scrutinize the determinants of energy consumption for 24 African countries sub-grouped into three panels based on income levels: low-, lower-middle-, and upper-middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2015. Due to the presence of heterogeneity and cross-sectional reliance among country groups, recently developed econometric approaches, which include cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin together with cross-sectional Augmented Dickey-Fuller stationarity tests, Pedroni and Westerlund-Edgerton cointegration assessment, dynamic common correlated effect estimation approach and Dumitrescu-Hurlin Granger causality test are employed. Empirically, our findings depict analyzed variables are stationary and characterized by long-term stability affiliations for all panels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09880-0DOI Listing

The Corner Liquor Store: Rethinking Toxicity in the Black Metropolis.

Authors:
Naa Oyo A Kwate

J Med Humanit 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Liquor stores have been repeatedly shown to be disproportionately prevalent in Black neighborhoods and therefore constitute a disproportionate health risk. This paper examines the ways in which liquor stores jeopardize Black lives through social and material conditions that are broader than health risk. Embodying and perpetuating dysfunctional markets, liquor stores relegate Black consumers to an overabundance of inexpensive and potent alcoholic beverages sold from heavily securitized storefronts and provoke conflicted and oppositional relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10912-020-09645-3DOI Listing

HIV Stigma and Its Associations with Longitudinal Health Outcomes Among Persons Living with HIV with a History of Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

This study examined the demographic and clinical correlates of HIV stigma and evaluated how HIV stigma was associated with physical and mental health outcomes one year later in a primary-care based cohort of persons living with HIV (PLHIV; N = 584). HIV stigma was measured using a modified Berger HIV stigma scale, which includes four subscales: (1) personalized stigma; (2) disclosure concerns; (3) negative self-image; and (4) concerns around public attitudes towards PLHIV. Physical and mental health were assessed using the 12-item short form survey (SF-12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02963-6DOI Listing

Patient loneliness in an urban, underserved family medicine residency clinic: prevalence and relationship to health care utilization.

Fam Pract 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

University of Minnesota, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Mounting evidence suggests that loneliness increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and premature mortality.Objective: This study examined the prevalence of loneliness in an urban, underserved family medicine residency clinic and the association of loneliness with health care utilization.

Methods: Adult patients (N = 330; M age = 42. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmaa065DOI Listing

Association between Rates of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning after Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Procedures and Disc Hemorrhage.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2020 Jan-Feb;3(1):7-13. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Purpose: To compare the rates of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning after intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering procedures in eyes with or without disc hemorrhage (DH) history.

Design: Observational cohort study.

Methods: A total of 166 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes and glaucoma suspect eyes (37 eyes with DH history (DH group) and 129 eyes without DH (non-DH group)) were included from the African Decent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) and the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogla.2019.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337275PMC
November 2019

Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels in Ecuador.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 28;6(6):e04213. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Central University of Ecuador, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Jerónimo Ritter S/N and Bolivia Quito, Ecuador.

In Ecuador, the net energy contribution of biofuels is unknown or unnoticed. To address this issue, we determined the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for bioethanol and biodiesel. The selection of raw materials relied on their productive capacity, export and import records, and historical yields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320919PMC

Rib cage anatomy in Homo erectus suggests a recent evolutionary origin of modern human body shape.

Nat Ecol Evol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre for Human Evolution Research, Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, UK.

The tall and narrow body shape of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) evolved via changes in the thorax, pelvis and limbs. It is debated, however, whether these modifications first evolved together in African Homo erectus, or whether H. erectus had a more primitive body shape that was distinct from both the more ape-like Australopithecus species and H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1240-4DOI Listing

Influence of designated properties on the characteristics of dombeya buettneri fiber/graphite hybrid reinforced polypropylene composites.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11105. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

This research presents the behavior of dombeya buettneri fiber/graphite hybrid composites which was studied to harness a favorable balance between the inherent advantages and disadvantages of natural and synthetic reinforcements. The fibers after extraction were chemically treated for surface modification. The composite was developed using compression molding process by randomly dispersing the reinforcements in the polypropylene matrix in predetermined proportions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68033-yDOI Listing

News from a postpandemic world.

Science 2020 Jul 2;369(6499):26-29. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, CB2 3RH, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd1320DOI Listing

Quality of care for Black and Latina women living with HIV in the U.S.: a qualitative study.

Int J Equity Health 2020 Jul 6;19(1):115. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Ending the HIV epidemic requires that women living with HIV (WLWH) have access to structurally competent HIV-related and other health care. WLWH may not regularly engage in care due to inadequate quality; however, women's perspectives on the quality of care they receive are understudied.

Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and three in-depth interviews with Black (90%) and Latina (11%) WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in Atlanta, GA, Birmingham, AL, Brooklyn, NY, Chapel Hill, NC, Chicago, IL, and Jackson, MS from November 2017 to May 2018 (n = 92). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01230-3DOI Listing

A mixed methods approach to exploring the moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the integrated chronic disease management model in South Africa.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 6;20(1):617. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Community Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Chronic care models like the Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model strive to improve the efficiency and quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a dearth of studies assessing the moderating factors of fidelity during the implementation of the ICDM model. The aim of this study is to assess moderating factors of implementation fidelity of the ICDM model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05455-4DOI Listing

Variations in Trim5α and Cyclophilin A genes among HIV-1 elite controllers and non controllers in Uganda: a laboratory-based cross-sectional study.

Retrovirology 2020 Jul 6;17(1):19. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Tripartite Motif Containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α), a restriction factor produced ubiquitously in cells and tissues of the body plays an important role in the immune response against HIV. TRIM5α targets the HIV capsid for proteosomal destruction. Cyclophilin A, an intracellular protein has also been reported to influence HIV infectivity in a cell-specific manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00527-zDOI Listing

A systems biology-driven approach to construct a comprehensive protein interaction network of influenza A virus with its host.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 6;20(1):480. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a serious public health problem not only in South East Asia but also in European and African countries. Scientists are using network biology to dig deep into the essential host factors responsible for regulation of virus infections. Researchers can explore the virus invasion into the host cells by studying the virus-host relationship based on their protein-protein interaction network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05214-0DOI Listing

Mapping male circumcision for HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC Med 2020 Jul 7;18(1):189. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: HIV remains the largest cause of disease burden among men and women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of HIV by 50-60%. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified 14 priority countries for VMMC campaigns and set a coverage goal of 80% for men ages 15-49. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01635-5DOI Listing

Cross-sectional study of prevalence and determinants of uncontrolled hypertension among South African adult residents of Mkhondo municipality.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 6;20(1):1069. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, 7535, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Achieving the blood pressure treatment target in individuals with hypertension is a serious global health challenge. Furthermore, the actual burden of uncontrolled hypertension is poorly understood, especially in the developing countries. Therefore, this study comprehensively examined the prevalence and factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension in individuals receiving care at the primary healthcare facilities in the rural areas of Mkhondo Municipality in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09174-7DOI Listing

The impact of HIV knowledge and attitudes on HIV testing acceptance among patients in an emergency department in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 6;20(1):1066. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Transmission of HIV in South Africa continues to be high due to a large proportion of individuals living with undiagnosed HIV. Uptake of HIV testing is influenced by a multitude of factors including the patient's knowledge and beliefs about HIV.

Methods: This study sought to quantify the impact of knowledge and attitudes on HIV testing acceptance in an emergency department by co-administering a validated HIV knowledge and attitudes survey to patients who were subsequently offered HIV testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09170-xDOI Listing

Experience of religion and spirituality among socially marginalised people living with HIV in Mississippi.

Cult Health Sex 2020 Jul 7:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

African Americans in Mississippi have the highest HIV-related mortality and poverty rates in the USA, and they tend to be religious. Attitudes toward gender and sexuality are changing, yet few studies have investigated religion and spirituality among special populations living with HIV. Using grounded theory and qualitative methods, we investigated the experience of health and illness of a low-income, socially marginalised population living with HIV in two locations of Mississippi in 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2020.1758345DOI Listing

A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide (Kassinatuerin-3) Isolated from the Skin Secretion of the African Frog, .

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Amphibian skin secretions are remarkable sources of novel bioactive peptides. Among these, antimicrobial peptides have demonstrated an outstanding efficacy in killing microorganisms via a general membranolytic mechanism, which may offer the prospect of solving specific target-driven antibiotic resistance. Here, the discovery of a novel defensive peptide is described from the skin secretion of the African frog, Named kassinatuerin-3, it was identified through a combination of "shot-gun" cloning and MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070148DOI Listing

How to Demonstrate Freedom from African Swine Fever in Wild Boar-Estonia as an Example.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute of Epidemiology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany.

Estonia has been combatting African swine fever (ASF) for six years now. Since October 2017, the disease has only been detected in the wild boar population, but trade restrictions had to remain in place due to international regulations. Yet, the epidemiological course of the disease has changed within the last few years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020336DOI Listing

Regional Analysis of Associations between Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and Diarrhoea in Indian Children.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jul 1;17(13). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Translational Health Research Institute (THRI), School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Penrith, NSW 2571, Australia.

Studies on the association between infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and diarrhoea across regional India are limited. Hence, we examined the association between IYCF practices and diarrhoea in regional India. A weighted sample of 90,596 (North = 11,200, South = 16,469, East = 23,317, West = 11,512, Central = 24,870 and North-East = 3228) from the 2015-2016 National Family Health Survey in India was examined, using multivariate logistic regressions that adjust for clustering and sampling weights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134740DOI Listing

The Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on the Liver: A Proteomics-based Analysis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Center for Cardio-Metabolic Research in Africa (CARMA), Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.

Cardiometabolic complications such as the metabolic syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are major causes of global morbidity and mortality. As sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are implicated in this process, this study aimed to obtain greater mechanistic insights. Male Wistar rats (~200 g) were gavaged with a local SSB every day for a period of six months while the control group was gavaged with an iso-volumetric amount of water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070569DOI Listing

International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-New Initiatives.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;6(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department I of Internal Medicine, Excellence Center for Medical Mycology (ECMM), Medical Faculty and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

Fungal infections have emerged as major threat to human beings. The world is not ready to face this formidable challenge due to limited awareness, insufficient laboratories, and difficulty in managing mycoses especially in developing countries. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) has undertaken several new initiatives to overcome these gaps, including a global outreach program with national affiliated mycology societies and other regional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6030097DOI Listing

Virulence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Environmental Persistence: A Review.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 30;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen responsible for the well-known listeriosis disease. This bacterium has become a common contaminant of food, threatening the food processing industry. Once consumed, the pathogen is capable of traversing epithelial barriers, cellular invasion, and intracellular replication through the modulation of virulence factors such as internalins and haemolysins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070528DOI Listing

Occurrence of the S230R integrase strand inhibitor mutation in a treatment-naïve individual case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(27):e20915

Rationale: Transmitted resistance to integrase strand inhibitors (INSTI) has been uncommon, but is slowly becoming more prevalent among those living with HIV. In an era with 2-drug regimens for antiretroviral therapy, transmitted resistance for INSTI is alarming.

Patient Concerns: A 28-year-old African American female was recently diagnosed with HIV during a 30-week prenatal visit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020915DOI Listing

SIGMA Animal Disease Data Model: A comprehensive approach for the collection of standardised data on animal diseases.

EFSA J 2019 Jan 21;17(1):e05556. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The European Commission is routinely asking EFSA for scientific and technical support in the epidemiological analysis of animal disease outbreaks (i.e. African swine fever, lumpy skin disease and avian influenza) and to report or assess surveillance data (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009180PMC
January 2019

African swine fever in wild boar.

EFSA J 2018 Jul 11;16(7):e05344. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

The European Commission requested EFSA to compare the reliability of wild boar density estimates across the EU and to provide guidance to improve data collection methods. Currently, the only EU-wide available data are hunting data. Their collection methods should be harmonised to be comparable and to improve predictive models for wild boar density. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009363PMC

Pest categorisation of .

EFSA J 2018 Mar 2;16(3):e05188. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the South African citrus thrips, Faure (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), for the European Union (EU). This is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised as a pest of citrus and mangoes in South Africa, which has been cited on more than 70 different plants, including woody and herbaceous species. It feeds exclusively on young actively growing foliage and fruit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009615PMC

Epidemiological analyses of African swine fever in the European Union (November 2017 until November 2018).

EFSA J 2018 Nov 29;16(11):e05494. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

This update on the African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in the EU demonstrated that out of all tested wild boar found dead, the proportion of positive samples peaked in winter and summer. For domestic pigs only, a summer peak was evident. Despite the existence of several plausible factors that could result in the observed seasonality, there is no evidence to prove causality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009685PMC
November 2018

Epidemiological analyses on African swine fever in the Baltic countries and Poland.

EFSA J 2017 Mar 23;15(3):e04732. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been notified in the Baltic countries and the eastern part of Poland from the beginning of 2014 up to now. In collaboration with the ASF-affected Member States (MS), EFSA is updating the epidemiological analysis of ASF in the European Union which was carried out in 2015. For this purpose, the latest epidemiological and laboratory data were analysed in order to identify the spatial-temporal pattern of the epidemic and a risk factors facilitating its spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010137PMC