183,838 results match your criteria African Journal of Reproductive Health [Journal]


Program implementer perspectives replicating evidence based sexual reproductive health programs.

Eval Program Plann 2018 Dec 6;73:80-87. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Child & Community Health, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 5200 Eastern Avenue, Suite 4200, Mason F. Lord Building, Center Tower, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States.

Purpose: Explore factors affecting implementation of evidence based adolescent sexual/reproductive health programs, from the perspectives of program implementers.

Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 program implementers delivering six sexual/reproductive health programs in New Jersey. Programs were delivered among 2698 primarily African American and Hispanic adolescents in school and community-based settings. Read More

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December 2018

Gelatinized core liposomes: A new Trojan horse for the development of a novel timolol maleate glaucoma medication.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Ain Shams University, African Union Street Authority Street, Abbassia, 11566 Cairo, Egypt.

Glaucoma treatment with ocular medications requires overcoming the corneal barrier to drug penetration. Liposomes have a great corneal penetration ability and affinity while suffering from poor stability and low entrapment of hydrophilic drugs accompanied by rapid drug release. This work aims to develop a new, effective and stable glaucoma medication with sustained drug release properties; Timolol maleate gelatinized core liposomes. Read More

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December 2018

Heterozygosity of p16 expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma with associated loss of heterozygosity and copy number alterations.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Oral field cancerization describes a multifocal development process involving many cells at once in response to prolong exposure to carcinogens. This case demonstrated differential p16 expression in different sections of the same HPV negative tumor on the floor of mouth in a patient with history of prolonged smoking.

Methods: Histological examination, presence of HPV infection and OncoScan analysis of DNA extracted from two well-defined areas with different p16 expression profiles were performed. Read More

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December 2018

Anxiety and exploratory behavior in the African striped mouse, Rhabdomys, taxa are partially modified by the physical rearing environment.

Dev Psychobiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The environment may modulate genetic influences on behavioral expression. We investigated whether the physical rearing environment modulates anxiety and exploratory behavior in four populations, representing three species, of the striped mouse Rhabdomys. One population originated from an arid, open habitat and the others from grassy, covered habitats, and two species occurred in sympatry. Read More

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December 2018

Substance Use and Depression Among Recently Migrated African Gay and Bisexual Men Living in the United States.

J Immigr Minor Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Read More

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December 2018

Cultural validation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III Urdu for the British Urdu-speaking population: a qualitative assessment using cognitive interviewing.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e021057. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Primary Care, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Our research determined whether the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III (ACE-III) Urdu eliminated cultural bias through a qualitative assessment of its understanding and acceptability within the British Urdu-speaking population, employing cognitive interviews.

Method: We aimed to recruit 25 participants fluent in speaking and writing Urdu, over the age of 60 years, able to give informed consent and who did not have a history of cognitive impairment. Participants were administered the ACE-III Urdu, and cognitive interviews were conducted, which involve obtaining verbal data on the individual's perception of the assessment overall, their understanding of the mental processes behind how they interpreted questions within the assessment and how they produced appropriate responses. Read More

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December 2018

Towards Greater Inclusion in Cancer Genomics Studies.

Authors:
Franklin W Huang

Cancer Res 2018 Dec;78(24):6726-6727

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The study by Jaratlerdsiri and colleagues represents the first whole-genome sequencing study of prostate cancer from men in sub-Saharan Africa. Preliminary findings include a higher tumor mutation burden in these tumors compared with data from other available prostate cancer cohorts. Although larger studies are needed and greater effort and investment to include patients of African ancestry in cancer genomic studies overall, the findings begin to catalog the diversity of prostate cancer genomics in the African population, which has a high burden of disease and mortality from prostate cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Survival after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is affected by socioeconomic status.

J Vasc Surg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Electronic address:

Objective: The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and outcome after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the influence of SES on postoperative survival after AAA repair.

Methods: Patients undergoing surgical treatment of AAA at a tertiary referral center between January 1993 and July 2013 were retrospectively collected. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Known Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Multiethnic Urban Youth in Edmonton: Findings From the WHY ACT NOW Project.

Can J Diabetes 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Indigenous and Global Health Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: The Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK) is a validated, evidence-based, self-administered tool to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiethnic Canadian adults. Identifying individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes allows early intervention that improves modifiable risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in multiethnic urban youth in Edmonton, Alberta. Read More

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October 2018

Acknowledgement to reviewers.

Authors:
Editorial Office

Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2018 Nov 29;10(1):e1-e2. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

PHCFM: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, AOSIS Publishing.

No abstract available. Read More

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November 2018

The Astana Declaration and future African primary health care.

Authors:
Robert Mash

Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2018 Nov 29;10(1):e1-e2. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Stellenbosch University.

No abstract available. Read More

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November 2018

Corrigendum: Spatial and temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in four districts situated along the Uganda-Tanzania border: Implications for cross-border efforts in disease control.

Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2018 Dec 11;85(1):1716. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; and, National Livestock Resources Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda.

No abstract available. Read More

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December 2018

Acknowledgement to reviewers.

Authors:
Editorial Office

J S Afr Vet Assoc 2018 Dec 5;89(0):1762. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

JSAVA: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, AOSIS Publishing.

No abstract available. Read More

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December 2018

Acknowledgement to reviewers.

Authors:
Editorial Office

S Afr J Commun Disord 2018 Nov 26;65(1):616. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

African Journal of Disability, AOSIS Publishing.

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November 2018

Evaluation of the Bioavailability and Translocation of Selected Heavy Metals by and L for a South African Power Utility Coal Fly Ash.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 13;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Environmental Remediation and Geopollution Group, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Private Mail Bag 5363, Ado Ekiti 360001 Nigeria.

This study evaluated the physicochemical and mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species bioavailability and translocation in and L. plants of a South African coal-fired power utility. Coal-fly-ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks, including air, soil, surface, and groundwater pollution due to the leaching of toxic heavy metals; these ends up in food webs affecting human health, while repeated inhalation causes bronchitis, silicosis, hair loss, and lung cancer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Potential phytochemicals in the fight against skin cancer: Current landscape and future perspectives.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 12;109:1381-1393. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, SBA School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), DHA, Lahore, Pakistan.

Skin cancer is a life threatening disease and their prevalence and risk has been increasing over the past three decades causing significant loss to human health worldwide. Mostly skin cancer has developed resistance against chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, development of novel, cost effective and efficient treatment methods are needed. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Natural Sesquiterpene Lactones as Potential Trypanocidal Therapeutic Agents: A Review.

Nat Prod Commun 2016 Oct;11(10):1569-1578

Chagas' disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis are parasitic diseases that remain major health problems, mainly among the poorest and the most marginalized communities from Latin America and Africa. The scarcity of effective chemotherapy, due to the low investment in the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, together with a high incidence of side effects, and the emergence of drug resistance phenomena emphasize the urgent need for new prophylactic and therapeutic agents. Over the ages, humans have employed natural products to treat a wide spectrum of diseases. Read More

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October 2016

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Clinico-pathological characteristics among South African women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV.

Breast 2018 Dec 7;43:123-129. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Toll-like receptor chaperone HSP90B1 and the immune response to Mycobacteria.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208940. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Rationale: HSP90B1, also known as gp96, is a chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is necessary for TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in murine myeloid cells. The molecule is also expressed in T-cells though its specific role is unknown. We hypothesized that human HSP90B1 regulates monocyte and T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and that its variants are associated with susceptibility to TB disease. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests' utilisation among healthcare workers in Zamfara State.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0200856. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: Early diagnosis and prompt and effective treatment is one of the pillars of malaria control. Malaria case management guidelines recommend diagnostic testing before treatment using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) or microscopy and this was adopted in Nigeria in 2010. However, despite the deployment of mRDT, the use of mRDTs by health workers varies by settings. Read More

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December 2018

Using a coupled dynamic factor - random forest analysis (DFRFA) to reveal drivers of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208400. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude, and spatial distribution of the key environmental and socioeconomic factors driving vegetation change in a southern African savanna. This research was conducted across the Kwando, Okavango and Zambezi catchments of southern Africa (Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zambia) and explored vegetation cover change across the region from 2001-2010. Read More

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December 2018

High prevalence of binge drinking among people living with HIV in four African countries.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25202

Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, CRCF, CHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to unfavourable outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV), including reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and engagement into care. However, there is limited information on alcohol consumption patterns among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional approach, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) was administered to PLHIV attending HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Senegal and Zambia (2013 to 2015). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pediatric tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense in Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Tinea capitis is a common pediatric dermatophyte infection. Its main pathogen in the United States is Trichophyton tonsurans accounting for greater than 95% of the infections. Other pathogens including Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense are common in Africa. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Re-emergence of genotype I of African swine fever virus in Ivory-Coast.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.

In July 2014, an outbreak of severe hemorrhagic disease in a domestic pig population, was reported in San-Pedro, the second seaport city of Ivory-Coast. Animals of all age groups developed clinical signs consistent with African swine fever (ASF). Tissue and serum samples from dead pigs were sent to the laboratory for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization based on the partial B646L (p72), the full E183L (p54) gene and the central variable region of the B602L gene. Read More

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December 2018

"Hard to reach, but not out of reach": Barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2018 Dec 12:e12977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants' perspectives, little is known from researchers' point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Read More

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December 2018

Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden.

CA Cancer J Clin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Scientific Vice President, Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

African biogeographical ancestry, atopic and non-atopic asthma and atopy: A study in Latin American children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Genetic variants underlying African ancestry have been suggested be implicated in the ethnic-racial inequalities reported for asthma and allergies.

Objectives: To investigate the association between individual African ancestry and asthma symptoms, atopic and non-atopic asthma, and atopy in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 1190 individuals was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

African-American parents' and daughters' beliefs about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine.

Public Health Nurs 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objective: To increase our understanding about the health beliefs of African-American parents and their daughters toward HPV infection and HPV vaccine acceptance.

Methods: The Health Belief Model was used as a guiding framework. Principles of grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and constant comparison analysis were used to qualitatively analyze data generated from personal interviews of African-American parents (n = 30) and their 12- to 17-year-old daughters (n = 34). Read More

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December 2018

Running on empty: recharge dynamics from animal movement data.

Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Grupo de Ecología Cuantitativa, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, CONICET, Bariloche S4140, Argentina.

Vital rates such as survival and recruitment have always been important in the study of population and community ecology. At the individual level, physiological processes such as energetics are critical in understanding biomechanics and movement ecology and also scale up to influence food webs and trophic cascades. Although vital rates and population-level characteristics are tied with individual-level animal movement, most statistical models for telemetry data are not equipped to provide inference about these relationships because they lack the explicit, mechanistic connection to physiological dynamics. Read More

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December 2018

Intra-epidemic genome variation in highly pathogenic African swine fever virus (ASFV) from the country of Georgia.

Virol J 2018 Dec 14;15(1):190. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Background: African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic infection in suids with a mortality rate of up to 100%. No vaccine is available and the potential for catastrophic disease in Europe remains elevated due to the ongoing ASF epidemic in Russia and Baltic countries. To date, intra-epidemic whole-genome variation for ASFV has not been reported. Read More

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December 2018

Banana and plantain production systems in Benin: ethnobotanical investigation, varietal diversity, pests, and implications for better production.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2018 Dec 14;14(1):78. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Genetic Resources and Plant and Animal Breeding, National University of Sciences, Technologies, Engineering and Mathematics, BP: 14, Dassa, Benin.

Background: The cultivated banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are valuable for nutritional and socio-economic security for millions of people worldwide. In Benin, banana and plantain are among the most produced, consumed, and traded commodities. Read More

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December 2018

Lipid levels, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk over 96 weeks of antiretroviral therapy: a randomised controlled trial comparing low-dose stavudine and tenofovir.

Retrovirology 2018 Dec 14;15(1):77. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with changes in lipid levels, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated these changes in the first 96 weeks of treatment with low-dose stavudine or tenofovir regimens.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a double blind, randomised controlled trial performed in South-Africa, Uganda and India comparing low-dose stavudine (20 mg twice daily) with tenofovir in combination with efavirenz and lamivudine in antiretroviral-naïve adults (n = 1067) (Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018

Using the behavior change wheel to identify barriers to and potential solutions for primary care clinical guideline use in four provinces in South Africa.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 14;18(1):965. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 17177, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Clinical practice guidelines risk having little impact on healthcare if not effectively implemented. Theory informed, targeted implementation may maximise their impact. Our study explored barriers to and facilitators of guideline implementation and use by South African primary care nurses and allied healthcare workers in four provinces in South Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Brucellosis in the Addis Ababa dairy cattle: the myths and the realities.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Dec 14;14(1):396. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK.

Background: Bovine brucellosis is considered as an important disease among livestock and people in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to May 2017 to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors, and to assess knowledge-attitude and practices (KAP) of farm workers about bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

Results: A total of 1550 cattle from 127 dairy farms were serially tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (c-ELISA) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Read More

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December 2018

Timing of Palliative Care Consultation and the Impact on Thirty-Day Readmissions and Inpatient Mortality.

J Palliat Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

5 Jersey City, New Jersey.

Background: Inpatient palliative care consultation (PCC) may reduce 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality among seriously ill patients.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of timing of PCC on 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality.

Design: Retrospective, observational study comparing risk-adjusted, observed-to-expected (O/E) 30-day readmissions and inpatient mortality among patients receiving inpatient PCC to all other inpatients. Read More

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December 2018

Pursuing Social Justice through Public Health: Gender and Sexual Diversity Activism in Malawi.

Crit Afr Stud 2017 15;9(1):71-90. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

The Center for Medicine, Health, and Society, Vanderbilt University, PMB #351665, 2301 Vanderbilt Pl., Nashville, TN 37235-1665 USA, Telephone: +1-615-322-0718.

African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) organizations face various strategic dilemmas in contexts characterized by political hostility to gender and sexual dissidents. In Malawi, one such context, we examine how an LGBTIQ social movement organization (SMO) in Malawi, the Centre for the Development of People (CEDEP), navigated one particular strategic dilemma-the dilemma of whether to adopt a less politicized public-health approach or a more nimble, grassroots-oriented, and social-justice approach to their advocacy work-and the consequences of the organization's strategic decisions. Scholars interpret these approaches as signifying differential political engagement among organizations, with the social-justice approach indicating political engagement and the public-health approach signaling political disengagement. Read More

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February 2017

Chimpanzees in Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, use different tools to obtain different types of honey.

Primates 2000 Jul;41(3):337-341

Department of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 01536, North Grafton, Massachusetts, U. S. A.

Evidence of tool use for foraging for honey by chimpanzees in Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, is reported. These are the first records of tool use by chimpanzees in this region of the Albertine Rift. Tools of two types were found at sites of bee activity. Read More

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Skeletal evidence of probable treponemal infection in free-ranging African apes.

Primates 2000 Jul;41(3):275-290

Department of Anthropology, Colorado State University, 80523, Ft. Collins, Colorado, U. S. A.

The prevalence and patterning of inflammatory lesions of the skeleton were investigated in samples of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) curated at the Powell-Cotton Museum, Birchington, UK. One hundred and two chimpanzees (42 adults and 60 subadults) and 126 gorillas (50 adults and 76 subadults) comprise the samples. Twenty per cent of chimpanzees and 14% of gorillas were affected with a disseminated inflammatory skeletal condition caused by infection. Read More

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Enzymes as Biomarkers of Environmental Stress in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Osun State, Nigeria.

J Health Pollut 2017 Jun 22;7(14):71-83. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Many natural aquatic bodies have been contaminated with heavy metals released from domestic, industrial and other anthropogenic activities. Fish are an important bioindicator species and play an important role in the monitoring of water pollution.

Objectives: This study shows the effect of heavy metals on the distribution of glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase, rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphur transferase (3-MST) isolated from the liver, gills, fins and muscle of Clarias gariepinus. Read More

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Mercury and Lead Contamination in Three Fish Species and Sediments from Lake Rukwa and Catchment Areas in Tanzania.

J Health Pollut 2015 Jun 2;5(8):7-18. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Background: Mining activity in the catchment area of Tanzania's Lake Rukwa is suspected of adding to the lake and connected rivers' heavy metal load. There has been no study done, however, on the levels of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in lake sediment and fish muscle, and what the results could mean for human health.

Objectives: This study investigated the concentration of Hg and Pb in lake sediment and in the muscles of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Lake Rukwa tilapia (Oreochromis rukwaensis) and Singida tilapia (Oreochromis esculentus) from Tanzania's Lake Rukwa and connected rivers. Read More

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The Interaction of Race and Gender as a Significant Driver of Racial Arrest Disparities for African American Men.

J Urban Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Migration on Risky Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition in South Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, 2000-2017.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Africa Health Research Institute, K-RITH Tower Building, 719 Umbilo Road, Congella, Private Bag X7, Durban, South Africa.

While human mobility has been implicated in fueling the HIV epidemic in South Africa, the link between migration and HIV has not been systematically reviewed and quantified. We conducted a systematic review of the role of migration in HIV risk acquisition and sexual behaviour based on 29 studies published between 2000 and 2017. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between migration and HIV risk acquisition in four of the studies that used HIV incidence as an outcome measure. Read More

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December 2018

Enabling Conversations: African American Patients' Changing Perceptions of Kidney Transplantation.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA.

Background: Racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation (KTX) among African Americans (AAs) have been attributed in part to insufficient patient education. Interventions are needed to provide AAs with culturally sensitive, understandable information that increases their capacity to pursue KTX. Research about the factors that activated patients to pursue KTX is necessary to inform such interventions; however, few studies have yielded this type of information. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The mysterious long-range transport of giant mineral dust particles.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau2768. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

NIOZ-Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, and Utrecht University, Texel, Netherlands.

Giant mineral dust particles (>75 μm in diameter) found far from their source have long puzzled scientists. These wind-blown particles affect the atmosphere's radiation balance, clouds, and the ocean carbon cycle but are generally ignored in models. Here, we report new observations of individual giant Saharan dust particles of up to 450 μm in diameter sampled in air over the Atlantic Ocean at 2400 and 3500 km from the west African coast. Read More

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December 2018

Higher hemoglobin A1C and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2019 Mar 30;15:30-34. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics/Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's of Alabama, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CPPII M30, 1601 4th Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35233, United States.

Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i. Read More

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March 2019
1 Read

Relationship Between Thyroid Hormone Levels and Mean Platelet Count and Volume: Quantitative Assessment.

Cureus 2018 Oct 8;10(10):e3421. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

Background The hormones of the hypophysis-thyroid axis (HTA), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and 3, 3', 5-L-triiodothyronine (T3), modulate the metabolism, differentiation, and proliferation of almost every cell in the body. Several studies have examined the effect of HTA hormones on platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV), but have reported inconsistent results. Our aim was to examine the association between HTA hormones and platelet count and MPV in a large cohort of the adult population of the United States. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Assessment of women's satisfaction with family planning service at public health facilities in Northwest Region of Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

Contracept Reprod Med 2018 6;3:25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics', School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Ethiopia is a Sub Saharan African country with an estimated contraceptive prevalence rate of 36% and 22% unmet need for family planning service among married women. Client satisfaction influences the use of Family Planning and other reproductive health services. There is limited information on satisfaction with family planning service among Family planning users particularly in the northern part of Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018
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Association of vitamin D receptor ApaI gene polymorphism with osteoporosis susceptibility in postmenopausal Han Chinese women in Xinjiang.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 3;9(6):483-490. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, P.R. China.

Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder and has been demonstrated to be associated with ~30 candidate genes, the majority of which have also been implicated in the regulation of bone mineral density (BMD). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the candidate gene that has been most extensively studied. Certain studies have reported that the VDR single nucleotide polymorphism ApaI is associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Caucasian and African women. Read More

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December 2018