187,790 results match your criteria African Journal Of Wildlife Research[Journal]


Life table invasion models: spatial progression and species-specific partitioning.

Ecology 2019 Apr 24:e02682. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California, 95616, USA.

Biological invasions are increasingly being considered important spatial processes that drive global changes, threatening biodiversity, regional economies, and ecosystem functions. A unifying conceptual model of the invasion dynamics could serve as a useful tool for comparison and classification of invasion processes involving different species across large geographic ranges. By dividing these geographic ranges that are subject to invasions into discrete spatial units, we here conceptualize the invasion process as the transition from pristine to invaded spatial units. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2682DOI Listing

Assessment of the function and intergenus-compatibility of Ebola and Lloviu virus proteins.

J Gen Virol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

1 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Germany.

Sequences for Lloviu virus (LLOV), a putative novel filovirus, were first identified in Miniopterus schreibersii bats in Spain following a massive bat die-off in 2002, and also recently found in bats in Hungary. However, until now it is unclear if these sequences correspond to a fully functional, infectious virus, and whether it will show a pathogenic phenotype like African filoviruses, such as ebola- and marburgviruses, or be apathogenic for humans, like the Asian filovirus Reston virus. Since no infectious virus has been recovered, the only opportunity to study infectious LLOV is to use a reverse genetics-based full-length clone system to de novo generate LLOV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001261DOI Listing

Reaching 90-90-90: outcomes of a 15-year multi-country HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa.

Antivir Ther 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department Global Health and Safety, Heineken International B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: In 2001, an international beverage company implemented an HIV workplace program providing free antiretroviral treatment (ART) for employees and dependents in sub-Saharan Africa, at a time when ART, cost assessments of ART programs and related public funding was hardly available. This study describes the outcomes of this program with respect to achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in 5 African countries and analyzes trends over the past 15 years.

Methods: Anonymous human resource data were analyzed in three cohorts of participants (those enrolling in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3311DOI Listing

Systematic Review of Factors Associated with the Utilization of Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer.

Eur Urol Oncol 2019 Mar 14;2(2):119-125. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of Urology, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Context: Despite established guidelines for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, it has been reported that radical cystectomy (RC) is markedly underused, especially among patients of advanced age and those with higher comorbidity burden and lower access to care. Understanding the interactions between patient, provider, and hospital factors may inform targeted interventions to optimize RC utilization.

Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding factors associated with RC utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2018.07.006DOI Listing

South African foodservice quality: inpatient's perceptions.

Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2019 Mar;32(2):447-458

Department of Hospitality Management, Tshwane University of Technology , Pretoria, South Africa.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess patient perceptions regarding South African hospital foodservice quality.

Design/methodology/approach: In total, 419 questionnaires were administered to surgical and medical inpatients consuming a normal diet in six South African provinces. A number of 23 urban and 10 rural hospitals were sampled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-01-2018-0021DOI Listing

[A path analysis on China's participation in global health governance: a case study of China Aid of Schistosomiasis Control in Zanzibar].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2019 Mar;31(1):14-18

Key Laboratory of National Health Commission on Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi 214064, China.

Recently, China's participation in global health governance has been paid increasing global attention. This paper analyzed the current status and needs of African schistosomiasis control, the participation of China and international organizations in African schistosomiasis control and the progress of China Aid of Schistosomiasis Control in Zanzibar, with China Aid of Schistosomiasis Control in Zanzibar as an example. It is suggested that China may improve the capability of participation in global public health governance and international reputation through strengthening intergovernmental and international collaborations, providing successful disease control experiences and products and improving capability and team building. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2019041DOI Listing

Progression of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals: predisposing factors.

Tech Coloproctol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of General Surgery, Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave South, Room D5248 MCN, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate patient factors that affect the progression of anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive adults with human papilloma virus related anal lesions was performed from 2012 to 2017. All patients underwent surgical excision or biopsy and fulguration of lesions in the operating room without using high resolution anoscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-019-01951-wDOI Listing

Effect of a Community-Level HIV Prevention Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (YBMSM).

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

In contrast to intervention studies that assess psychosocial factors only as mediators or moderators of HIV risk, the present study assessed the effects of an Mpowerment-based community-level intervention on psychosocial determinants (e.g., depressive symptoms, sexual stigma) of HIV risk behavior among young black MSM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02499-4DOI Listing

All things bleak and bare beneath a brazen sky: practice and place in the analysis of Australopithecus.

Authors:
Paige Madison

Hist Philos Life Sci 2019 Apr 23;41(2):19. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Arizona State University, P.O. Box 874601, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA.

The fossilized primate skull known as the Taungs Baby, discovered in South Africa, was put forward in 1925 as a controversial 'missing link' between humans and apes. This essay examines the controversy generated by the fossil, with a focus on practice and the circulation of material objects. Viewing the Taungs story from this perspective provides a new outlook on debates, one that suggests that attention to the importance of place, particularly the ways that specific localities shape scientific practices, is crucial to understanding such controversies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40656-019-0258-xDOI Listing

2018 in review: five hot topics in tropical medicine.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2019 15;5. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

2Tropical Disease Unit, Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth Street, 13EN-218, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4 Canada.

The year 2018 heralded many new developments in the field of tropical medicine, including licensure of novel drugs for novel indications, licensure of existing drugs for existing indications but in novel settings, and globalized outbreaks of both vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. We herein describe five top stories in tropical medicine that occurred during 2018, and illuminate the practice-changing development within each story. Read More

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https://tdtmvjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s407
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40794-019-0082-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466725PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Molecular characterization of nodule worm in a community of Bornean primates.

Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 5;9(7):3937-3945. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Primate Research Institute Kyoto University Inuyama Japan.

Strongyles are commonly reported parasites in studies of primate parasite biodiversity. Among them, nodule worm species are often overlooked as a serious concern despite having been observed to cause serious disease in nonhuman primates and humans. In this study, we investigated whether strongyles found in Bornean primates are the nodule worm spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468080PMC

Incorporation of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding motif in the side chain of antimalarial benzimidazoles.

Medchemcomm 2019 Mar 19;10(3):450-455. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry , University of Cape Town , Rondebosch 7701 , South Africa . Email: ; ; Tel: +27 21 6502553.

Analogues of a novel class of benzimidazoles with an intramolecular hydrogen bonding motif have been synthesized and evaluated for their antiplasmodium activity against chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of the human malaria parasite . Compounds were also screened for their cytotoxicity towards a mammalian Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cell line. Most of the compounds exhibited good antiplasmodium activity (NF54 IC <1 μM) and were relatively noncytotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00608cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457172PMC

Pre-clinical development of a vaccine against Lassa fever.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Jun 7;44(6):139-147. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB.

Lassa virus (LASV) is a persistent global health threat that causes about half a million cases of Lassa fever each year in Western Africa. Although most cases are mild, the disease can cause significant morbidity and results in as many as 5,000 deaths per year. Since 2015, Nigeria has been experiencing a severe and extended outbreak of Lassa fever, raising concerns that it could spill over into other countries and reach a magnitude similar to the West African Ebola outbreak of 2013-2016. Read More

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June 2018
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(Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae): a new genus and species from southern Tanzania.

Zookeys 2019 26;833:75-84. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Am Steigberg 25, D-97502 Euerbach, Germany Unaffiliated Euerbach Germany.

A male cetoniine specimen recently submitted for identification from the Ditsong Museum of Natural History (Pretoria, South Africa) has been found to represent a yet unknown species. A review of the recently published book of Beinhundner (2017) has further revealed that one of the specimens mistakenly figured as Bourgoin, 1913 in that work is most likely the female of this new species. Analysis of the diagnostic characters of the genus Westwood, 1842 shows that the new species differs in several key areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.833.31502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445823PMC

Enhanced future changes in wet and dry extremes over Africa at convection-permitting scale.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1794. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Met Office Hadley Centre, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK.

African society is particularly vulnerable to climate change. The representation of convection in climate models has so far restricted our ability to accurately simulate African weather extremes, limiting climate change predictions. Here we show results from climate change experiments with a convection-permitting (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09776-9DOI Listing

Clinical series of Parkinson's disease in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Retrospective chart review.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 26;401:62-65. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Cato Manor, Durban, South Africa; Department of Neurology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: There is limited data on Parkinson's disease (PD) in South Africa.

Methods: Demographic and clinical information was extracted from the hospital records of patients who were coded as PD (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, G20) from 2002 to 2016.PD was diagnosed using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria (UKBBC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.023DOI Listing

Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) positive cerebellar Ataxia with transitioning to progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), responsive to immunotherapy: A case report and review of literature.

J Neuroimmunol 2019 Apr 6;332:135-137. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Neurology, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address:

We present a case of a 65-year-old African American male, immunosuppressed on Tacrolimus, who initially presented with cerebellar ataxia and rapidly developed Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM) with positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) antibodies, no underlying malignancy, and normal neuroimaging. PERM is a rare spectrum of Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS), which is strongly associated with anti-GAD antibodies and characterized by flare-ups and remissions of encephalopathy, myelopathy and rigidity with myoclonus. PERM is diagnosed clinically and has been successfully treated with both Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasmapheresis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Molecular cloning and characterization of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 precursor cDNA in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: expression profile and regulation by ovarian steroids.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, 682022, India. Electronic address:

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 (Gnrh2) is one of the three classes of Gnrh distributed in vertebrates and is highly conserved. In the present study, the cDNA encoding Gnrh2 was isolated and characterized in the ostariophysan catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (hf). The cDNA is 611 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 261 bp that encodes a highly conserved protein of 86 amino acids. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00166480193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.04.021DOI Listing
April 2019
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Immunization in pregnancy safety surveillance in low and middle-income countries- field performance and validation of novel case definitions.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise (ALIVE), Faculty of Health Science, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

Background: A globally standardized approach in high and low and middle-income countries (LMIC) to actively monitor the safety of vaccines for pregnant women during development and implementation phases is critical. Brighton Collaboration's (BC) Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in Pregnancy (GAIA) project has developed globally standardized case definitions (CDs) of key obstetric and neonatal terms for the assessment of safety of vaccines in pregnancy. CDs are categorized into levels of diagnostic certainty, facilitating their use in varied settings. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.074DOI Listing
April 2019
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Venous thromboembolism in IBD: Increased risk for women in CD?

Pathophysiology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, United States; LSUHSC-S, Molecular and Cellular Physiology, United States. Electronic address:

Although coagulation disturbances have been described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it remains unclear how common venous thromboembolism (VTE) is in IBD, and what factors influence VTE frequency. We evaluated VTE in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) at LSUHSC-S, a southern US medical center with an approximately equal White: African-American (AA) (1.12:1) patient base. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Bovine and small ruminant African animal trypanosomiasis in Nigeria - A review.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 Aug 15;13:5-13. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

The University of Edinburgh, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine, 1 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ, UK; University of Edinburgh Joint Institute, Zhejiang University, International Campus, 718 East Haizhou Road, Haining 314400, China.

Despite extensive attempts over many decades to control African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) across the tsetse fly belt of Nigeria, AAT persists as major animal health problem causing severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. The large agricultural losses in turn have severe adverse impacts on sustainable agricultural development. Despite this, in the past 50 years there have been no significant national control programs against AAT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.03.001DOI Listing

Regional report on Angiostrongylus vasorum in Colombia: Genetic similarity to European lineage.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 Aug 20;13:21-23. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstraße 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

The canine lungworm Angiostrongylus vasorum is considered neglected in South America and was only sporadically reported in dogs and wildlife. Gastropods act as obligatory intermediate hosts for this parasitosis. We here analysed Achatina fulica (African giant snail) populations from 5 regions of Colombia for A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.03.004DOI Listing

Occurrence of trypanosome infections in cattle in relation to season, livestock movement and management practices of Maasai pastoralists in Northern Tanzania.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 05 22;12:91-98. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a parasitic disease considered to be one of the greatest constraints to cattle production in Tanzania. There is insufficient information on seasonal occurrence of AAT and management practices in Monduli District of the Maasai Steppe ecosystem to guide and prioritize AAT control programs. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 10 randomly selected villages of Monduli District. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.02.007DOI Listing

Identification and genetic characterization of Piroplasmida and Anaplasmataceae agents in feeding Amblyomma variegatum ticks from Benin.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 Dec 29;14:137-143. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-855, Japan; Research Center for Global Agromedicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-855, Japan. Electronic address:

In many African countries including Benin, the reluctance of some livestock owners to blood collection from their cattle makes epidemiological surveys cumbersome and prevents regular monitoring of tick-borne diseases. In the present study, Amblyomma variegatum ticks were used to find out more about bovine tick-borne pathogens. DNA extracts from 910 adult ticks collected off cattle in North East Benin were examined for Babesia bigemina, B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.10.006DOI Listing
December 2018

Genetic characterisation of Fasciola gigantica from Ghana.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 Dec 28;14:106-110. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

University of Hohenheim, Parasitology Unit 220B, Emil-Wolff-Str, 34 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are the causal agents of the zoonotic food-born disease fascioliasis. Africa is primarily endemic to F. gigantica, although sympatric presence of F. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.09.009DOI Listing
December 2018

In-situ headspace analysis of metabolic carbon dioxide of aerobic bacteria for assessing antimicrobial activity of natural products.

J Chromatogr A 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China; Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Headspace analysis of the volatile metabolites has been used as a good strategy for monitoring the microbial growth in several applications, but never been established for the evaluation of the activity of microbial inhibitor in the field of drug screening from natural products. We report on a new method for the determination of antimicrobial activity of drug compounds or crude extracts from natural products by measuring the amount of metabolic carbon dioxide produced in the drug-bacteria incubation system. 2 mL of medium containing bacteria and drug of interest was incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00219673193040
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.04.039DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's experiences of (lack of) access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 24;18(1):59. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Immigrant populations face diverse barriers to accessing appropriate healthcare services on several levels. In the Basque Country, Sub-Saharan African women were identified as facing the largest barriers to access them. The aim of the study is to analyse Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's perceptions and experiences of access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0958-6DOI Listing

First known case of catatonia due to cyclosporine A-related neurotoxicity in a pediatric patient with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 Apr 24;19(1):123. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by diverse psychomotor abnormalities, including motor dysregulation and behavioral and affective disturbances. Once thought to occur primarily in the context of schizophrenia, recent data suggest most cases of catatonia develop in individuals with depressive or bipolar disorders. Moreover, catatonia may ensue in general medical and neurological conditions, as well as due to a variety of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxic agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2107-6DOI Listing

Childhood undernutrition in three disadvantaged East African Districts: a multinomial analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2019 Apr 23;19(1):118. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

World Vision International, Southern Africa Regional Office, H100, Mbabane, Swaziland.

Background: Undernutrition is an important public health indicator for monitoring nutritional status and survival. In spite of its importance, undernutrition is a significant problem health problem in many East African communities. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with childhood undernutrition in three disadvantaged East African Districts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1482-yDOI Listing

LASIK-induced corneal changes after correction of hyperopia with and without application of Mitomycin-C.

BMC Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 23;19(1):93. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Background: The study aimed to assess the role of intraoperative mitomycin-C (MMC) application during hyperopic LASIK correction (+ 1.00 D to + 6.00 D) by examining topographic corneal changes and incidence of regression over a one-year follow-up period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-019-1100-7DOI Listing

Clade-age-dependent diversification under high species turnover shapes species richness disparities among tropical rainforest lineages of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae).

BMC Evol Biol 2019 Apr 24;19(1):93. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Tropical rainforests (TRFs) harbour almost half of the world's vascular plant species diversity while covering only about 6-7% of land. However, why species richness varies amongst the Earth's major TRF regions remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the evolutionary processes shaping continental species richness disparities of the pantropical, epiphytic and mostly TRF-dwelling orchid mega-genus Bulbophyllum (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1416-1DOI Listing

'Sometimes it is not about men': Gendered and generational discourses of caregiving HIV transmission in a rural South African setting.

Glob Public Health 2019 Apr 23:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

b American University , Washington , DC , USA.

In this paper, we examine a prominent interpretation of HIV risk in a rural South African setting experiencing a severe HIV epidemic well into older ages: the discourse of caregiving HIV transmission. By caregiving transmission, we refer to HIV infection resulting from caring for family members who are living with HIV and may be sick with AIDS-related illnesses. We draw on individual life history and community focus group interviews with men and women aged 40-80+, as well as interviews with health workers providing HIV counselling and testing services at local health facilities in their communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1606265DOI Listing

Everyday ethical challenges of nurse-physician collaboration.

Nurs Ethics 2019 Apr 23:969733019840753. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Collaboration between physicians and nurses is key to improving patient care. We know very little about collaboration and interdisciplinary practice in African healthcare settings.

Research Question/aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the ethical challenges of interdisciplinary collaboration in clinical practice and education in Botswana Participants and research context: This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 39 participants (20 physicians and 19 nurses) who participated in semi-structured interviews at public hospitals purposely selected to represent the three levels of hospitals in Botswana (referral, district, and primary). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733019840753DOI Listing

Magnitude of the Difference Between Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressures and Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 May;8(9):e011013

7 Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine University of Maryland Baltimore MD.

Background Obtaining 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure ( BP ) is recommended for the detection of masked or white-coat hypertension. Our objective was to determine whether the magnitude of the difference between ambulatory and clinic BP s has prognostic implications. Methods and Results We included 610 participants of the AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension) Cohort Study who had clinic and ambulatory BPs performed in close proximity in time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.011013DOI Listing

The effect of voice disorders on lexical tone variation: Exploratory study in an African language.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Department of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology , University of Pretoria , Pretoria , South Africa.

Purpose: The aim was to determine if the presence of a voice disorder in speakers of Setswana, an African tone language, will negatively impact the accuracy of identification by typical first language judges of words belonging to tonal minimal pairs.

Method: A quasi-experimental between-group comparison and individual case studies were conducted. Five participants with different types and degrees of voice disorders and nine control participants produced 10 tonal minimal word pairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17549507.2019.1597921DOI Listing

Impact of race/ethnicity on insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridaemia.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 Mar;16(2):153-159

1 Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objective: Insulin sensitivity affects plasma triglyceride concentration and both differ by race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the variation in insulin sensitivity and its relationship to hypertriglyceridaemia between five race/ethnic groups.

Research Design And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, clinical data for 1025 healthy non-Hispanic White, Hispanic White, East Asian, South Asian and African American individuals were analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164118813890DOI Listing

Protects d-Galactose/AlCl Mediated Alzheimer's Disease-Like Rats via PP2A/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway in Their Hippocampus.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 16;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder more prevalent among the elderly population. AD is characterised clinically by a progressive decline in cognitive functions and pathologically by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and synaptic dysfunction in the brain. (CA) is a valuable herb being used widely in African, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditional medicine to reverse cognitive impairment and to enhance cognitive functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081871DOI Listing

The Genome of Blue-Capped Cordon-Bleu Uncovers Hidden Diversity of LTR Retrotransposons in Zebra Finch.

Genes (Basel) 2019 Apr 13;10(4). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

Avian genomes have perplexed researchers by being conservative in both size and rearrangements, while simultaneously holding the blueprints for a massive species radiation during the last 65 million years (My). Transposable elements (TEs) in bird genomes are relatively scarce but have been implicated as important hotspots for chromosomal inversions. In zebra finch (), long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have proliferated and are positively associated with chromosomal breakpoint regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10040301DOI Listing

Improving the Living, Learning, and Thriving of Young Black Men: A Conceptual Framework for Reflection and Projection.

Authors:
Daphne C Watkins

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 13;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Black men experience disproportionate mental health challenges due to their exposure to severe psychosocial stressors. Yet, the mental health challenges of Black men have largely been left out of national conversations. Strong theoretical frameworks are important when generating dialogue about the mental health of Black men, as it helps to validate the work on a larger scale while also grounding the work for more practical use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081331DOI Listing

Development of a Low-Density DNA Microarray for Detecting Tick-Borne Bacterial and Piroplasmid Pathogens in African Cattle.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 12;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Department of Comparative Zoology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

In Africa, pathogens transmitted by ticks are of major concern in livestock production and human health. Despite noticeable improvements particularly of molecular screening methods, their widespread availability and the detection of multiple infections remain challenging. Hence, we developed a universally accessible and robust tool for the detection of bacterial pathogens and piroplasmid parasites of cattle. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/64
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020064DOI Listing
April 2019
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Patient-Reported Experiences in Discussing Prescribed Medications with a Health Care Provider: Evidence for Racial/Ethnic Disparities in a Large Health Care Delivery System.

Popul Health Manag 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, Sutter Health, Palo Alto, California.

The objective was to understand patient-reported experiences in communicating with a health care provider about prescribed medications in a health care setting serving diverse racial/ethnic groups. Adult patients who completed a patient-experience survey and received a prescription for a hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes medication at the surveyed encounter were studied (N = 19,006). Data were collected in a large mixed-payer outpatient health care system in northern California between 2011 and 2014. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/pop.2018.0206
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pop.2018.0206DOI Listing
April 2019
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Billed and Paid Amounts for Preventive Procedures in Dental Medicaid.

JDR Clin Trans Res 2019 Apr 23:2380084419842533. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

4 Department of Clinical Services, School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Objective: To examine trends and variations in billed and paid amounts for preventive dental procedures by race/ethnicity, age, and sex in Wisconsin dental Medicaid.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 2001 to 2013 Wisconsin Medicaid claims database for preventive dental procedures for children and adults. Billed and paid amounts for preventive dental procedures were aggregated over a visit and adjusted for inflation based on the Medical Care Consumer Price Index produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for 2013. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2380084419842533
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2380084419842533DOI Listing
April 2019
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Novel RHD alleles in African Brazilians.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Colsan-Associação Beneficente de Coleta de Sangue, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15327DOI Listing

Group B streptococcus prevalence, serotype distribution and colonization dynamics in Western Australian pregnant women.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 The School of Medicine, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Purpose: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a leading neonatal pathogen that causes sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Globally, strategies have been implemented to address vertical transmission, and in Western Australia (WA), culture-based screening at 35-37 weeks' gestation is part of routine care and guides antibiotic administration. Previous Australian studies have focused on other regions or included low sample-size representatives; we aimed to describe antenatal GBS colonization in WA. Read More

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https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000980DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Use of Cancer-Specific Patient-Centered Technologies Among Underserved Populations in the United States: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 23;21(4):e10256. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

VA Health Services Research and Development, Center for Health Information & Communication, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: In the United States, more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer are estimated to be diagnosed each year. However, the burden of cancer among the US population is not shared equally, with racial and ethnic minorities and lower-income populations having a higher cancer burden compared with their counterparts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10256DOI Listing

Structural Insights into the Development of Cycloguanil Derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei Pteridine Reductase 1 Inhibitors.

ACS Infect Dis 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Cycloguanil is a known dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor, but there is no evidence of its activity on pteridine reductase (PTR), the main metabolic bypass to DHFR inhibition in trypanosomatid parasites. Here, we provide experimental evidence of cycloguanil as an inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei PTR1 (TbPTR1). A small library of cycloguanil derivatives was develop, resulting in 1 and 2a having IC50 of 692 and 186 nM, respectively, towards TbPTR1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00358DOI Listing

gen. nov., sp. nov.; gen. nov., sp. nov.; gen. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov. isolated from breast milk from healthy breastfeeding African women.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 May 23;29:100537. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Marseille, France.

Four strains isolated by microbial culturomics from breast milk of healthy mothers from Mali were not identified and characterized by taxono-genomics. This led us to propose the new genera and species , and containing type strain Marseille-P4301 (CSUR P4301), Marseille-P4302 (CSUR P4302) and Marseille-P4641 (CSUR P4641), respectively. The strain Marseille-P4482 represents a novel species, in a previously known genus with type strain being Marseille-P4482 (CSUR P4482). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2019.100537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462784PMC

Occupational skin disorders in a subset of Nigerian hairdressers.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 10;31:100. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria.

Introduction: Hairdressing is associated with a wide range of disorders. This is particularly true in the African hairdresser, who is saddled with the responsibility of 'taming' the rather difficult-to-manage African hair, and is thus exposed to a wide range of chemical, biological and physical materials in the hair grooming process. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of occupational skin disorders among hairdressers in Ibadan, one of the oldest and largest cities in Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.100.16499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461971PMC
October 2018

The Role of Age and Multimorbidity in Shaping Older African American Men's Experiences with Patient⁻Provider Communication.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 24;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 24.

College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Flint, MI 48502, USA.

This study investigated factors associated with older African American men's unmet health communication needs in the context of patient-provider interactions. Responses to a health survey were analyzed for 430 African American men attending a Midwest community health fair. The outcome measure was the extent to which men could get their health-related questions answered during recent medical visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040074DOI Listing
October 2018