187,712 results match your criteria African Journal Of Reproductive Health[Journal]


C9orf72 repeat expansions in South Africans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Apr 17;401:51-54. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Neurology research group, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic variant found in individuals with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), occurring at a frequency of between 7 and 11% in cohorts of European ancestry. While limited data suggest that C9-expansions (>30 repeats) are less frequent in African-Americans with ALS, there is no data on the frequency of C9-expansions among ALS subjects residing in Africa. We therefore investigated the frequency of this expansion mutation (using repeat-primed PCR) in a cohort of 143 South Africans (SA) with ALS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.04.026DOI Listing

Nuclease activity decreases the RNAi response in the sweetpotato weevil Cylas puncticollis.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the process of suppression of gene expression in eukaryotes, which has a great potential for the control of pest and diseases. Unfortunately, the efficacy of this technology is limited or at best variable in some insects. In the African sweet potato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis, a devastating pest that affects the sweet potato production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the RNAi response was highly efficient when dsRNA was delivered by injection, but it showed a reduced response by oral feeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.001DOI Listing

The inquiry model of medicine.

Authors:
Alex Broadbent

CMAJ 2019 Jan;191(4):E105-E106

African Centre for Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.180508DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk Factors and Outcomes for Sepsis after Appendectomy in Adults.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Sepsis is an uncommon occurrence after appendectomy, but the morbidity and mortality of patients who develop sepsis after appendectomy remains exceedingly high. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors and adverse post-operative outcomes associated with sepsis after appendectomy in adults. The American College of Surgery National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant user database was queried from 2012 to 2015. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/sur.2019.003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2019.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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QUANTIFYING THE SEVERITY OF GIRAFFE SKIN DISEASE VIA PHOTOGRAMMETRY ANALYSIS OF CAMERA TRAP DATA.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

1   Research on the Ecology of Carnivores and Their Prey Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 480 Wilson Road, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Developing techniques to quantify the spread and severity of diseases afflicting wildlife populations is important for disease ecology, animal ecology, and conservation. Giraffes () are in the midst of a dramatic decline, but it is not known whether disease is playing an important role in the broad-scale population reductions. A skin disorder referred to as giraffe skin disease (GSD) was recorded in 1995 in one giraffe population in Uganda. Read More

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Advancing Cancer Research in Africa Through Early-Career Awards: The BIG Cat Initiative.

J Glob Oncol 2019 Apr(5):1-8

5 National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: The burden of cancer in Africa is growing rapidly, and increased cancer research on the continent is a critical component of an effective response. In 2010, the US National Cancer Institute, in partnership with the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer, launched the Beginning Investigator Grant for Catalytic Research (BIG Cat) initiative to support cancer research projects conducted by early-career African investigators.

Methods: To date, BIG Cat has provided 18 awards of up to $50,000 to support 2-year cancer research projects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.18.00223DOI Listing

Projecting impacts of global climate and land-use scenarios on plant biodiversity using compositional-turnover modelling.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

CSIRO Land and Water, Building 101, Black Mountain Laboratories, Clunies Ross St., Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

Nations have committed to ambitious conservation targets in response to accelerating rates of global biodiversity loss. Anticipating future impacts is essential to inform policy decisions for achieving these targets, but predictions need to be of sufficiently high spatial resolution to forecast the local effects of global change. As part of the intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models of the IPBES, we present a fine-resolution assessment of trends in the persistence of global plant biodiversity. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14663
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14663DOI Listing
April 2019
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Purification of Extracellular Trypanosomes, Including African, from Blood by Anion-Exchangers (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose Columns).

J Vis Exp 2019 Apr 6(146). Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Univ. Bordeaux UMR INTERTRYP 177 IRD CIRAD; IRD UMR 177 INTERTRYP CIRAD; Centre Hospitalier Université Bordeaux;

This method allows the separation of trypanosomes, parasites responsible for animal and human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), from infected blood. This is the best method for diagnosis of first stage HAT and furthermore this parasite purification method permits serological and research investigations. HAT is caused by Tsetse fly transmitted Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58415DOI Listing

Race/Ethnicity-specific Disparities in In-Hospital Mortality and Hospital Charges Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease-related Hospitalizations in the United States.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA.

Goal: The goal of this study was to evaluate disparities in hospital outcomes among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) related hospitalizations in the United States with a focus on ethnicity-specific disparities.

Background: IBD-related hospitalizations contribute to significant morbidity and health care economic burden.

Methods: IBD-related hospitalizations (identified with ICD-9) among US adults were evaluated using 2007 to 2013 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004836-900000000-9773
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001204DOI Listing
April 2019
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Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

Distress tolerance trajectories following substance use treatment.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Objective: Distress tolerance (DT), the ability to withstand aversive internal states, represents an important risk factor for substance use relapse and a potential treatment target. Neurobiological research in substance using populations suggests that continued substance use could erode DT, whereas abstinence could bolster it. The current study characterized trajectories of behavioral and self-reported indices of DT and examined the prospective effect of substance use on DT trajectories among those seeking treatment for substance use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000403DOI Listing

A novel hepatitis B virus recombinant genotype D4/E identified in a South African population.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 6;5(4):e01477. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Services, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Genetic diversity is a characteristic trait of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and has been associated with different clinical outcomes. In South Africa, HBV infection is a major public health concern. Most HBV infections are caused by genotype A strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453802PMC

Urban young women's preferences for intervention strategies to promote physical and mental health preconception: A Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI).

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 15;14:100846. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

South African Medical Research Council Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

This study aimed to qualitatively investigate young women's preferences for preconception intervention strategies to promote physical and mental health in a rapidly transitioning, urban setting. Four semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with young women (n = 29, 18-24 years old) from Soweto, South Africa. Qualitative data were thematically analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458479PMC

Progress towards elimination of measles in Kenya, 2003-2016.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;31:65. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kenya.

Introduction: Measles is targeted for elimination in the World Health Organization African Region by the year 2020. In 2011, Kenya was off track in attaining the 2012 pre-elimination goal. We describe the epidemiology of measles in Kenya and assess progress made towards elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.65.16309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457729PMC
September 2018

A cross-sectional study of traditional practices affecting maternal and newborn health in rural Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;31:64. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Introduction: Certain traditional practices which have negative effects on maternal and child health continue to be practiced in sub-Saharan African countries. A survey was carried out in a rural village in Nigeria to understand the scale and range of these practices.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which trained interviewers administered pre-tested questionnaires on child-bearing women using questionnaires embedded on android devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.64.15880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457866PMC
September 2018

Infrequent detection of human papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancers in the Central African Republic: a retrospective study.

Infect Agent Cancer 2019 8;14. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

4Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Virologie, and Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Université Paris V, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.

We carried out a retrospective study on the prevalence of HPV and genotype distribution by nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of 135 head and neck cancers (HNC) and 29 cervical cancers received between 2009 and 2017 for diagnosis at the Laboratoire National de Biologie Clinique et de Santé Publique of Bangui, the capital city of the Central African Republic. One oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma sample was positive for HPV type 16. The overall HPV prevalence in HNC biopsies was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-019-0225-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454762PMC

of the femoral bone.

J Res Med Sci 2019 25;24:19. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Lautech Teaching Hospital, Ogbomosho, Nigeria.

Histoplasmosis due to is an emerging AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV positive seen predominantly on the African continent between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. is an invasive fungal organism with tropism for lymph nodes, skin and bones. The infection occurs more in patients with a CD4 count <50/mm and is usually dissemnnated Histoplasmosis due to is an emerging AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV positive seen predominantly on the African continent between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_97_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450135PMC

A method for generating virus-free cassava plants to combat viral disease epidemics in Africa.

Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Jan;105:77-87

Genetic Technologies International Limited (GTIL), P.O. Box 47430-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Here, we report a method to clean cassava plants from viral infections that cause cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Africa. Infected plants of resistant or tolerant varieties from Malawi, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda were cleaned in the UK using a combination of tissue culture, chemotherapy and thermotherapy. In the first cycle of our virus-indexing procedure, we successfully cleaned 27 of the 31 varieties (87%), and after an additional three cleaning cycles, all plants were virus-free. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2018.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472600PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of resistance to cassava mosaic disease in selected African cassava cultivars using combined molecular and greenhouse grafting tools.

Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Jan;105:47-53

Central Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technique, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) threatens cassava () production in Africa. A total of 24 selected cultivars were screened against CMD using combined molecular and greenhouse grafting tools. Disease severity was recorded for 10 weeks after inoculation and the molecular markers associated with were detected by PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2018.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472601PMC
January 2019

Mantle Sources of Recent Anatolian Intraplate Magmatism: A Regional Plume or Local Tectonic Origin?

Tectonics 2018 Dec 15;37(12):4535-4566. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Earth Sciences Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.

We present an extensive study of rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions, olivine phenocrysts, and chromian spinel inclusions to explore the link between geodynamic conditions and the origin and composition of Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate magmatism in Anatolia at Kula, Ceyhan-Osmaniye, and Karacadağ. Exceptional compositional variability of these products reveals early and incomplete mixing of distinct parental melts in each volcanic center, reflecting asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle sources. The studied primitive magmas consist of (1) two variably enriched ocean island basalt (OIB)-type melts in Kula; (2) both OIB-type and plume mid-ocean ridge basalt (P-MORB)-like melts beneath Toprakkale and Üçtepeler (Ceyhan-Osmaniye); and (3) two variably enriched OIB-type melts beneath Karacadağ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018TC005219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472637PMC
December 2018

Evaluation of cowpea ( (L.) Walp.) landraces to bacterial blight caused by pv. .

Crop Prot 2019 Feb;116:77-81

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Cowpea is an important protein source for human populations in many nations across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, cowpea production is constrained by bacterial blight (CoBB) caused by pv. (), a disease affecting most cowpea-growing areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2018.10.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472675PMC
February 2019

A user-generated data based approach to enhancing location prediction of financial services in sub-Saharan Africa.

Appl Geogr 2019 Apr;105:25-36

Spatial Development International, Seattle, USA.

The recent increase in user-generated content and social media adoption in developing countries offers an unprecedented opportunity to better understand the accessibility and spatial distribution of financial services in sub-Saharan Africa. Financial inclusion has been identified as a priority by multiple agencies in the region and on-the-ground efforts are currently underway to identify previously unknown financial access points in numerous developing African countries. Existing techniques for estimating the location of these access points rely on spatial analysis of often outdated or unsuitable publicly available datasets such as population density, road networks, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472520PMC

Comparative in vitro transportation of pentamidine across the blood-brain barrier using polycaprolactone nanoparticles and phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1428-1436

c School of Pharmacy , University of the Western Cape , Bellville , South Africa.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained importance in addressing drug delivery challenges across biological barriers. Here, we reformulated pentamidine, a drug used to treat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in polymer based nanoparticles and liposomes and compared their capability to enhance pentamidine penetration across blood brain barrier (BBB). Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, pentamidine loading and drug release profiles were determined by various methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1596923DOI Listing
December 2019

Prediction of adverse perinatal outcomes by fetal biometry: a comparison of customized and population-based standards.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (NICHD/NIH/DHHS).

Objective: To compare the predictive ability of estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentiles, according to seven growth standards, to detect fetuses at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 3,437 African-American women. Population-based (Hadlock, INTERGROWTH-21st, WHO, FMF), ethnic specific (NICHD), customized (GROW) and African American customized (PRB/NICHD) growth standards were applied to the last available scan prior to delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20299DOI Listing

Tropical Vegetable Oils Do Not Alter Growth Performance in African Catfish through a High n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Biosynthesis Capacity.

Lipids 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

University of Namur, Institute of Life, Earth and Environment (ILEE), Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000, Namur, Belgium.

The main objective of this study was to determine the best vegetable oils (VO) for nutrition of African catfish by assessing the effects of a complete replacement of fish oil (FO) by different VO sources on its growth performance, fatty acid composition, and elongase-desaturase gene expression levels. Fish (16.2 g of initial body weight) were fed with five experimental isonitrogenous, isolipidic, and isoenergetic diets in which FO was totally replaced by cottonseed oil (CO), palm oil (PO), desert date oil (DO), or Shea butter (SB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12145DOI Listing

Environmental niche patterns of native and non-native fishes within an invaded African river system.

J Fish Biol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

To test ecological niche theory, this study investigated the spatial patterns and the environmental niches of native and non-native fishes within the invaded Great Fish River system, South Africa. For the native fishes, there were contrasting environmental niche breadths that varied from being small to being large and overlapped for most species, except minnows that were restricted to headwater tributaries. In addition, there was high niche overlap in habitat association among fishes with similar distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13988DOI Listing

Correlates, Trends, and Short-Term Outcomes of Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA.

Background And Aim: The incidence and overall mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US have been increasing over the past decade. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aims at examining the epidemiology, risk factors, and short-term outcomes of VTE in hospitalized patients with HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12029-019-00242-9DOI Listing

Illinois Department of Motor Vehicle Customers' Reasons for (Not) Registering as an Organ Donor.

Prog Transplant 2019 Apr 22:1526924819835838. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

2 Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.

Context: Organ donation campaigns are maximized when promotional messages address salient issues among the intended audience. A diverse sample (N = 1573) was recruited to identify the reasons for (not) registering as an organ donor.

Objective: Relying on an established coding scheme, an updated explanation for why individuals register (or not) as organ donors is provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526924819835838DOI Listing

Dietary Transition in India: Temporal and Regional Trends, 1993 to 2012.

Food Nutr Bull 2019 Apr 22:379572119833856. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

2 Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health (LCIRAH), London, United Kingdom.

Background: Rapid economic growth, urbanization, and globalization have resulted in dietary transformation in India. Triple burden of malnutrition remains a significant concern, with high prevalence of undernutrition, widespread micronutrient deficiencies, and rising obesity.

Objective: This article reviews the dietary transition in India by analyzing trends in food consumption across time and space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0379572119833856DOI Listing

Socio-cultural beliefs about an ideal body size and implications for risk of excess weight gain after immigration: a study of Australian residents of sub-Saharan African ancestry.

Ethn Health 2019 Apr 22:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a Centre for Social Research in Health, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences , University of New South Wales ,  Sydney , Australia.

Objectives: Though several studies have focused on risk factors associated with excess weight gain, little is known about the extent to which socio-cultural beliefs about body sizes may contribute to risk of excess weight gain, especially in non-Western migrant communities. Drawing on socio-cultural and attribution theories, this study mainly explored socio-cultural beliefs about an ideal body size among Australian residents who were born in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).  Implications of body size beliefs for risk of excess weight gain after immigration have also been discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2019.1607261DOI Listing

Understanding Underuse of Advance Care Planning Among a Cohort of African American Patients With Advanced Cancer: Formative Research That Examines Gaps in Intent to Discuss Options for Care.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2019 Apr 21:1049909119843276. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

2 Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: Advance care planning (ACP), palliative care (PC), and hospice are often underutilized by African Americans (AAs). This study assessed the impact of stage of intent to discuss ACP options as key potential barriers.

Methods: We examined intent to discuss completion of ACP, PC, and hospice among 22 AA patients with cancer admitted to a local safety net hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909119843276DOI Listing

Parental punitive discipline and children's depressive symptoms: Associations with striatal volume.

Dev Psychobiol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Although parental harshness has been consistently linked with increased depressive symptoms in youth, its associations with children's brain structure are not well understood. The striatum has been strongly implicated in depression in adolescents and adults. In this study, we investigated the associations among parental harsh discipline, striatal volume, and depressive symptoms in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.21859DOI Listing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2B6 and Efavirenz-containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, efavirenz, is widely used to treat HIV-1 infection. Efavirenz is predominantly metabolized into inactive metabolites by CYP2B6, and patients with certain CYP2B6 genetic variants may be at increased risk for adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity and treatment discontinuation. We summarize the evidence from the literature and provide therapeutic recommendations for efavirenz prescribing based on CYP2B6 genotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1477DOI Listing

Pharmacovigilance Systems in Arab Countries: Overview of 22 Arab Countries.

Drug Saf 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Hail, P.O. Box 6166, Hail, 81442, Saudi Arabia.

Pharmacovigilance has received much attention in Arab countries recently due to the development of new regulations. However, there are differences in the progression of pharmacovigilance systems by regulatory agencies in these countries because only some are able to meet the requirements for conducting pharmacovigilance activities. Only 45% of Arab countries are official members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40264-019-00807-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-019-00807-4DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Social support from friends and depression among African Americans: The moderating influence of education.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 8;253:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710.

Background: This cross-sectional study examined the association between various characteristics of friendships and 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these associations vary by education level among African Americans.

Methods: The analytic sample included 3434 African American respondents drawn from the National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the associations between friendship characteristics (i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01650327183301
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.013DOI Listing
April 2019
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At the Forefront of Psychoneuroimmunology in Pregnancy: Implications for Racial Disparities in Birth Outcomes PART 1: Behavioral Risks Factors.

Authors:
Lisa M Christian

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA; The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA; Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA. Electronic address:

Birth prior to full term is a substantial public health issue. In the US, ˜400,000 babies per year are born preterm (< 37 weeks), while >1 million are early term (37-38 weeks). Birth prior to full term confers risk both immediate and long term, including neonatal intensive care, decrements in school performance, and increased mortality risk from infancy through young adulthood. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01497634193033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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A propensity score matched analysis of the effects of African American race on the characteristics of regions of interests detected by magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate.

Urol Oncol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Vattikuti Urology Institute and the Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of African American (AA) race on the number, location, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score, cancer detection rate, and cancer upgrade rate of the regions of interest (ROI) discovered on mltiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate.

Methods: We performed an institutional retrospective study of 592 patients who received a prostate mp-MRI. Number of ROI (1-4), their location, and PI-RADS score v2 were evaluated in a matched cohort of Caucasian and AA males. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10781439193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.03.017DOI Listing
April 2019
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Socioeconomic hardship and delayed reward discounting: Associations with working memory and emotional reactivity.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;37:100642. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 125 Baldwin Street, Athens, GA, 30602, Greece.

Prolonged exposure to socioeconomic hardship (SH) is associated with greater delayed reward discounting (DRD), a form of impulsive decision-making that reflects a reduced capacity to delay gratification and a significant correlate of diverse risk behaviors, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms linking SH and DRD are unknown. An emerging hypothesis suggests that cognitive and affective stress associated with poverty may tax neurocognitive functions, such as working memory (WM), and lead to impulsive DRD. Furthermore, research suggests that emotional reactivity (ER) is an important dispositional factor to consider in the link between executive functions and DRD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100642DOI Listing

Bartonella diversity and zoonotic potential in indigenous Tete Veld rats (Aethomys ineptus) from South Africa.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 Apr 17;73:44-48. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Mammal Research Institute (MRI), Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag 20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Bartonellosis is a vector-borne disease that is often misdiagnosed due to a broad range of clinical symptoms, compounded by a lack of awareness regarding the prevalence, diversity and public health impacts of regional strains. Despite recent PCR-based confirmation of Bartonella in 9.7% of non-malarial, acute febrile patients in South Africa, data regarding reservoirs of infection are limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Race-associated expression of MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) in prostate cancer.

Exp Mol Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy & University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the lack of a complete understanding of the disparities involved, prostate cancer (PCa) has both higher incidence and death rates in African American Men (AAM) relative to those of Caucasian American Men (CAM). MHC class I polypeptide related sequence A (MICA) is an innate immunity protein involved in tumor immunoevasion. Due to a lack of reports of race-specific expression of MICA in PCa, we evaluated MICA expression in patients' tumors and in cell lines from a racially diverse origin. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00144800193014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Molecular Characterization of sessile serrated adenoma/polyps from a large African American cohort.

Gastroenterology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC.

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00165085193670
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.015DOI Listing
April 2019
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Perception of Western governments' hostility to Islam among European Muslims before and after ISIS: the important roles of residential segregation and education.

Br J Sociol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

University of Oklahoma.

Perception of Western governments' hostility to Islam is one of the indicating features of Islamic fundamentalism and, in some cases, is serving as a pull to join extremist groups. In this paper, using data from two waves of a cross-national survey, we investigate what affects European Muslims' opinions about Western governments. We find that residential segregation is associated with perceived hostility of Western governments to Islam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12673DOI Listing

Cytotoxicity screening of supercritical fluid extracted seaweeds and phenylpropanoids.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Detached leaves of Posidonia oceanica and Zostera marina creating nuisance at the shores were extracted by means of supercritical CO enriched with a co-solvent, compared with that of soxhlet extraction. The extracts and their active compounds which are phenylpropanoids (chicoric, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, benzoic, ferulic and caffeic acids) were screened for cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines including human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3), Mus musculus neuroblastoma (Neuro 2A) cell lines and African green monkey kidney (VERO) as healthy cell line. Supercritical CO extracts proved to be more active than soxhlet counterparts. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11033-019-04812-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04812-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Does Difference in Physical Activity Between Blacks and Whites Vary by Sex, Income, Education, and Region of Residence? Results from 2008 to 2017 National Health Interview Surveys.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Health Promotion, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center; 984365 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-4365, USA.

Objective: To examine how the effect of race (Black versus White) on meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines varies by sex, income, education, and region of residence.

Methods: We pooled data from 10 consecutive years (2008 to 2017) of the National Health Interview Survey. We used logistic regression to assess the extent to which the effect of race on meeting the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-019-00586-9DOI Listing

Molecular Imaging of a Zirconium-89 Labeled Antibody Targeting Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Human Erythrocytes.

Mol Imaging Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Preclinical Imaging Facility, The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation SOC Ltd (Necsa), Pelindaba, South Africa.

Purpose: Nuclear imaging is an important preclinical research tool to study infectious diseases in vivo and could be extended to investigate complex aspects of malaria infections. As such, we report for the first time successful radiolabeling of a novel antibody specific to Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (IIIB6), its in vitro assessment and molecular imaging in nude mice.

Procedures: In vitro confocal microscopy was used to determine the stage-specificity of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes recognised by IIIB6. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11307-019-01360-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-019-01360-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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Food insecurity and work impairment in people with severe mental disorders in a rural district of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to identify factors associated with severe food insecurity and work impairment in people with severe mental disorders (SMD) in a rural African setting, with a view to identifying potential areas for intervention.

Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sodo district, south central Ethiopia. Key informant-identified people with possible SMD were referred for assessment by trained primary care workers and received confirmatory psychiatric diagnoses from psychiatric nurses using a standardized clinical interview. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00127-019-01709-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01709-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Applicability of the mutation-selection balance model to population genetics of heterozygous protein-truncating variants in humans.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The fate of alleles in the human population is believed to be highly affected by the stochastic force of genetic drift. Estimation of the strength of natural selection in humans generally necessitates a careful modeling of drift including complex effects of the population history and structure. Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) are expected to evolve under strong purifying selection and to have a relatively high per-gene mutation rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz092DOI Listing

Interaction of RNA viruses of the natural virome with the African malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 19;9(1):6319. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Parasites and Insect Vectors, Unit of Genetics and Genomics of Insect Vectors, Institut Pasteur, Paris, 75724 CEDEX 15, France.

Mosquitoes are colonized by a little-studied natural virome. Like the bacterial microbiome, the virome also probably influences the biology and immunity of mosquito vector populations, but tractable experimental models are lacking. We recently discovered two novel viruses in the virome of wild Anopheles and in colonies of the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii: Anopheles C virus and Anopheles cypovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42825-3DOI Listing

Unequal Rates of Serious Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events Between Black and White Children.

J Natl Med Assoc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, Section of Pediatric Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Recent data among pediatric otolaryngology patients showed unexplained higher rates of serious perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAE) in black children compared to their white peers. We evaluated whether preoperative respiratory comorbidity (PRC) burden contributes to racial disparity in serious PRAE in children undergoing non-otolaryngologic procedures.

Methods: Rates of serious PRAE (laryngospasm and/or bronchospasm) were compared across racial groups in a retrospective cohort of black and white children (N = 18538; black 10%) who underwent various elective, non-otolaryngologic procedures between 2007 and 2014 at a US tertiary Children's hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2019.03.006DOI Listing