10,022 results match your criteria African Journal Of Range & Forage Science[Journal]


The Use of Cancer-Specific Patient-Centered Technologies Among Underserved Populations in the United States: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 23;21(4):e10256. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

VA Health Services Research and Development, Center for Health Information & Communication, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: In the United States, more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer are estimated to be diagnosed each year. However, the burden of cancer among the US population is not shared equally, with racial and ethnic minorities and lower-income populations having a higher cancer burden compared with their counterparts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10256DOI Listing

Occupational skin disorders in a subset of Nigerian hairdressers.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 10;31:100. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria.

Introduction: Hairdressing is associated with a wide range of disorders. This is particularly true in the African hairdresser, who is saddled with the responsibility of 'taming' the rather difficult-to-manage African hair, and is thus exposed to a wide range of chemical, biological and physical materials in the hair grooming process. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of occupational skin disorders among hairdressers in Ibadan, one of the oldest and largest cities in Nigeria. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.100.16499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461971PMC
October 2018

Advancing Cancer Research in Africa Through Early-Career Awards: The BIG Cat Initiative.

J Glob Oncol 2019 Apr(5):1-8

5 National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: The burden of cancer in Africa is growing rapidly, and increased cancer research on the continent is a critical component of an effective response. In 2010, the US National Cancer Institute, in partnership with the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer, launched the Beginning Investigator Grant for Catalytic Research (BIG Cat) initiative to support cancer research projects conducted by early-career African investigators.

Methods: To date, BIG Cat has provided 18 awards of up to $50,000 to support 2-year cancer research projects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.18.00223DOI Listing

Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

A cross-sectional study of traditional practices affecting maternal and newborn health in rural Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;31:64. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Introduction: Certain traditional practices which have negative effects on maternal and child health continue to be practiced in sub-Saharan African countries. A survey was carried out in a rural village in Nigeria to understand the scale and range of these practices.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which trained interviewers administered pre-tested questionnaires on child-bearing women using questionnaires embedded on android devices. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.64.15880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457866PMC
September 2018

Bartonella diversity and zoonotic potential in indigenous Tete Veld rats (Aethomys ineptus) from South Africa.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 Apr 17;73:44-48. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Mammal Research Institute (MRI), Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag 20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Bartonellosis is a vector-borne disease that is often misdiagnosed due to a broad range of clinical symptoms, compounded by a lack of awareness regarding the prevalence, diversity and public health impacts of regional strains. Despite recent PCR-based confirmation of Bartonella in 9.7% of non-malarial, acute febrile patients in South Africa, data regarding reservoirs of infection are limited. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Food insecurity and work impairment in people with severe mental disorders in a rural district of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to identify factors associated with severe food insecurity and work impairment in people with severe mental disorders (SMD) in a rural African setting, with a view to identifying potential areas for intervention.

Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sodo district, south central Ethiopia. Key informant-identified people with possible SMD were referred for assessment by trained primary care workers and received confirmatory psychiatric diagnoses from psychiatric nurses using a standardized clinical interview. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00127-019-01709-7
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01709-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215647. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa.

Methods: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215647PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

DNA barcoding uncovers extensive cryptic diversity in the African long-fin tetra Bryconalestes longipinnis (Alestidae: Characiformes).

J Fish Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Ichthyology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA.

To investigate the presence of cryptic diversity in The African longfin-tetra Bryconalestes longipinnis, we employed DNA barcoding in a phylogeographic context, as well as geometric morphometrics, documenting for the first time genetic and body shape variation in the species. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene (coI) sequence variation exposed extremely high levels of genetic differentiation among samples from across the geographic range of the species (up to 18%), certainly much greater than the traditionally employed c. 3% sequence divergence heuristic threshold for conspecifics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13987DOI Listing

Accuracy of Gene Expression Prediction From Genotype Data With PrediXcan Varies Across and Within Continental Populations.

Front Genet 2019 3;10:261. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Using genetic data to predict gene expression has garnered significant attention in recent years. PrediXcan has become one of the most widely used gene-based methods for testing associations between predicted gene expression values and a phenotype, which has facilitated novel insights into the relationship between complex traits and the component of gene expression that can be attributed to genetic variation. The gene expression prediction models for PrediXcan were developed using supervised machine learning methods and training data from the Depression Genes and Networks (DGN) study and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, where the majority of subjects are of European descent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456650PMC

Building health workforce capacity for planning and monitoring through the Strengthening Technical Assistance for routine immunization training (START) approach in Uganda.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: The Global Vaccine Action Plan identifies workforce capacity building as a key strategy to achieve strong immunization programs. The Strengthening Technical Assistance for Routine Immunization Training (START) approach aimed to utilize practical training methods to build capacity of district and health center staff to implement routine immunization (RI) planning and monitoring activities, as well as build supportive supervision skills of district staff.

Methods: First implemented in Uganda, the START approach was executed by trained external consultants who used existing tools, resources, and experiences to mentor district-level counterparts and, with them, conducted on-the-job training and mentorship of health center staff over several site visits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193045
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.015DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

XGBoost Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a menace that is affecting 10% of the world population and 15% of the South African population. The early and cheap diagnosis of this disease with accuracy and reliability will save 20,000 lives in South Africa per year. Scientists are developing smart solutions with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8693581/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2019.2911071DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Territoriality and variation in home range size through the entire annual range of migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius).

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6238. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Behavioural and Physiological Ecology group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Variation in home range size throughout the year and its causes are not well understood yet. Migratory brood parasites offer a unique opportunity to incorporate this spatio-temporal dimension into the study of the factors regulating home range dynamics. Using satellite transmitters, we tracked sixteen migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) of both sexes for up to three years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41943-2DOI Listing

Timing of Palliative Consultation for Children During a Fatal Illness.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio;

Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends palliative care for children at the diagnosis of serious illness. Yet few children who die receive specialty palliative care consultation, and when it is provided, palliative care consultation tends to occur after >75% of the time from diagnosis until death. Focusing on the timing of palliative consultation in relation to the date of diagnosis, we evaluated factors predicting earlier receipt of pediatric palliative care in a cohort of decedents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2018-0169DOI Listing

Euphausiacea diversity in a trans-oceanic transect through the South Atlantic Ocean: the first Atlantic record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180034. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica/PPGOFQG, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8 , Campus Carreiros, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.

Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil-Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180034DOI Listing

Characteristics of melanoma in white and nonwhite children, adolescents, and young adults: Analysis of a pediatric melanoma institutional registry, 1995-2018.

Pediatr Dermatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program, Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, California.

Objectives: To characterize clinical differences among nonwhite/multiethnic vs white children, adolescents, and young adults with melanoma or atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including atypical Spitz tumors.

Patients And Methods: A cohort of 55 patients (< 25 years of age) prospectively followed from 1995 to 2018 in the Stanford Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program was analyzed for differences in clinical presentation, including skin phototype, race/ethnicity, age, sex, tumor/melanoma characteristics, and outcome.

Results: Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females) were classified as nonwhite (predominantly skin phototype IV) and of Hispanic, Asian, or Black/African American ethnicity, and 38 patients (21 males and 17 females) were classified as white (predominantly phototypes I/II). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.13836DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Living with systemic lupus erythematosus in South Africa: a bitter pill to swallow.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2019 Apr 16;17(1):65. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Rheumatic Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often has a profound negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In the absence of any qualitative studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we undertook a study to explore living experiences, perceptions and unmet needs of South African patients with SLE.

Methods: Twenty-five women with SLE consented to participate in the study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12955-019-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-019-1132-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cardiovascular risk factors among ART-experienced people with HIV in South Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25274

Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease & Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: People with HIV (PWH) are at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Screening for CVD risk factors is recommended but not routine in South African HIV clinics. We sought to describe the prevalence of CVD risk factors among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients in South Africa. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jia2.25274
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25274DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Evaluation of a routine point-of-care intervention for early infant diagnosis of HIV: an observational study in eight African countries.

Lancet HIV 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: In 2017, there were 180 000 estimated new HIV infections in children aged 0-14 years. Without early diagnosis and treatment, half of infants with HIV die by age 2 years, with peak mortality around age 8-10 weeks. Conventional early infant diagnosis (EID) systems have not consistently returned results in a timely manner. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30033-5DOI Listing

Cigarette Smoking among Economically Disadvantaged African-American Older Adults in South Los Angeles: Gender Differences.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 4;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA.

The current study aims to explore gender differences in the risk of cigarette smoking among African-American (AA) older adults who live in economically disadvantaged urban areas of southern Los Angeles. This cross-sectional study enrolled 576 older AA adults (age range between 65 and 96 years) who were residing in Service Planning Area 6 (SPA 6), one of the most economically challenged areas in southern Los Angeles. All participants had cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071208DOI Listing

Outcomes of Related and Unrelated Donor Searches Among Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Referred for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are potentially cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The spectrum of PIDs has expanded greatly beyond those that present in infancy or are diagnosed on newborn screening and require urgent, preemptive HCT. Many PID diagnoses are now made later in life and the role of HCT is only considered upon severe disease manifestations; in these cases, the kinetics and goals of a donor search may be different than for severe combined immunodeficiency. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Burden of Acute Diarrheal Disease in Young Hospitalized Urban South African Children Five Years After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Retrospective Descriptive Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

From the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences.

Background: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple interventions, including rotavirus vaccination to infants since 2009, have reduced the incidence of diarrheal disease in South African children. Our study aimed to determine the burden of diarrheal disease 5 years after rotavirus vaccine introduction at a tertiary-level hospital. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002304DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Psychological Demands of International Rugby Sevens and Well-Being Needs of Elite South African Players.

Front Psychol 2019 29;10:676. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Rugby sevens was included in the 2016 Olympic Games, with South Africa's Blitzboks winning bronze. They also won the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 World Rugby Sevens Series. Whilst peak performance is paramount at the elite level there is a growing responsibility to address player well-being and off-the-field player needs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450168PMC

Adherence to American Cancer Society and American Institute of Cancer Research dietary guidelines in overweight African American breast cancer survivors.

J Cancer Surviv 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Purpose: The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) each created dietary and physical activity guidelines to improve cancer survivorship. Despite African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) having the lowest survival rates of any racial or ethnic group, limited information exists on their adherence to cancer-specific lifestyle recommendations. The study's purpose was to measure adherence to ACS/AICR dietary recommendations in AABCS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-019-00748-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Relationship between patient characteristics and serum etonogestrel concentrations in contraceptive implant users.

Contraception 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Family Planning.

Objective: To determine whether serum etonogestrel concentrations in contraceptive implant users are associated with certain individual patient characteristics.

Study Design: We enrolled reproductive-age women using etonogestrel contraceptive implants between 12-36months duration and measured a single serum etonogestrel concentration. Participants also completed a questionnaire about demographics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2019.03.045DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Potential Role of Cost and Quality of Life in Treatment Decisions for Arthritis-related Knee Pain for African American and Latina Women.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

MedStar Harborview Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: This study ascertains whether Latina and African American women with arthritis-related knee pain and primary care providers who treat them believe their treatment decisions would benefit from having more information about the impact of treatment on their quality of life, medical care costs and work productivity.

Methods: We conducted four focus groups of Latina and African American women over the age of 45 who had knee pain. Also, we conducted two focus groups with primary care providers who treated Latina and African American women for knee pain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.23903DOI Listing

Using tibial fragments to reconstruct the total skeletal height of black South Africans.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Human Variation and Identification Research Unit (HVIRU), School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa. Electronic address:

Stature is an important component of the biological profile of unknown skeletal remains and regression equations for estimating stature have been derived for a number of bones. However, bones are rarely recovered intact in both forensic and archaeological cases, and regression formulae for fragmentary remains have therefore been developed. These equations are, however, both sex- and population-specific, and while formulae exist for many populations, those using fragmentary tibiae do not exist for black South Africans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.03.040DOI Listing

Transdiagnostic Mobile Health: Smartphone Intervention Reduces Depressive Symptoms in People With Mood and Psychotic Disorders.

JMIR Ment Health 2019 Apr 12;6(4):e13202. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Behavioral Research In Technology and Engineering Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Depression is the most prevalent mental health problem. The need for effective treatments for depression far outstrips the availability of trained mental health professionals. Smartphones and other widely available technologies are increasingly being leveraged to deliver treatments for depression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13202DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Vitamin D, bone alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone in healthy subjects and haemodialysed patients from West Africa: impact of reference ranges and parathyroid hormone generation assays on the KDIGO guidelines.

Clin Kidney J 2019 Apr 5;12(2):288-293. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, University of Liège, CHU de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Background: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines recommend targets based on multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN) of parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration. However, the ULN has not always been correctly established by manufacturers. While it is known that the ULN is supposed to be higher in African Americans than in Caucasians, it is largely unknown in Africans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ckj/article/12/2/288/5091022
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfy074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452202PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Rare variants in SLC5A10 are associated with serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 11;9(1):5941. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Epidemiology, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is an emerging biomarker used to monitor glycemic control in persons with diabetes. We performed whole-exome sequencing, examining the association between rare, coding genetic variants and 1,5-AG among European ancestry (N = 6,589) and African ancestry (N = 2,309) participants without diagnosed diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Five variants representing 3 independent signals on chromosome 17 in SLC5A10, a glucose transporter not previously known to transport 1,5-AG, were associated with 1,5-AG levels up to 10. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42202-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42202-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459884PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Molecular phylogeny of Oreochromis (Cichlidae: Oreochromini) reveals mito-nuclear discordance and multiple colonisation of adverse aquatic environments.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Electronic address:

Although the majority of cichlid diversity occurs in the African Great Lakes, these fish have also diversified across the African continent. Such continental radiations, occurring in both rivers and lakes have received far less attention than lacustrine radiations despite some members, such as the oreochromine cichlids (commonly referred to as 'tilapia'), having significant scientific and socio-economic importance both within and beyond their native range. Unique among cichlids, several species of the genus Oreochromis exhibit adaptation to soda conditions (including tolerance of elevated temperatures and salinity), which are of interest from evolutionary biology research and aquaculture perspectives. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.008DOI Listing

A commercial ELISA for detection of interferon-gamma in white rhinoceros.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2019 Apr 11:1040638719843955. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa (Chileshe, Goosen, van Helden, Warren, Parsons, Miller).

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is endemic in Kruger National Park, South Africa, home to the largest population of white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum) in the world. In 2016, the first cases of naturally occurring bTB were reported in white rhinoceros; however, there is a lack of understanding of infection and disease process in this species. Prevention and control of transmission depends on the availability of accurate tools to detect M. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638719843955DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Novel metagenome-derived ornithine lipids identified by functional screening for biosurfactants.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute for Microbial Biotechnology and Metagenomics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, 7535, South Africa.

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules that interact with the surfaces of liquids leading to many useful applications. Most biosurfactants have been identified from cultured microbial sources, leaving a largely untapped resource of uncultured bacteria with potentially novel biosurfactant structures. To access the uncultured bacteria, a metagenomic library was constructed in Escherichia coli from environmental DNA within an E. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00253-019-09768-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09768-1DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Total brachial artery reactivity and first time incident coronary heart disease events in a longitudinal cohort study: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(4):e0211726. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Brachial artery reactivity (BAR) is usually determined as the maximum brachial artery diameter (BAD) following release of an occluding pressure cuff compared to a BAD before cuff inflation. BAD early after cuff deflation can also serve as baseline for estimating total brachial artery reactivity (TBAR). We investigate whether TBAR is associated with first time coronary heart disease events. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211726PLOS
April 2019
1 Read
3.234 Impact Factor

Urbanisation as an important driver of nocturnal primate sociality.

Primates 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Urbanisation is an important factor driving species and biodiversity decline. Although habitat alterations can be detrimental for species, studies have shown that many diurnal primates are able to adapt to novel environments. Little is known about the ability of nocturnal primates to survive within an urban environment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-019-00725-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

African isolates show a high proportion of multiple copies of the Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin-2 gene, a piperaquine resistance marker.

Malar J 2019 Apr 10;18(1):126. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Malaria Genetics and Resistance Group, INSERM U1201-CNRS ERL919, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: Today, the development of new and well-tolerated anti-malarial drugs is strongly justified by the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance. In 2014-2015, a phase 2b clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a single oral dose of Artefenomel (OZ439)-piperaquine (PPQ) in Asian and African patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

Methods: Blood samples collected before treatment offered the opportunity to investigate the proportion of multidrug resistant parasite genotypes, including P. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2756-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457011PMC

"Keep your feet on the ground": Simulated range of motion and hind foot posture of the Middle Jurassic sauropod Rhoetosaurus brownei and its implications for sauropod biology.

J Morphol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The biomechanics of the sauropod dinosaur pes is poorly understood, particularly among the earliest members of the group. To date, reasonably complete and articulated pedes in Early Middle Jurassic sauropods are rare, limited to a handful of taxa. Of these, Rhoetosaurus brownei, from eastern Australia, is currently the only one from the Gondwanan Middle Jurassic that preserves an articulated pes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20989DOI Listing

Rapid reshaping: the evolution of morphological changes in an introduced beach daisy.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Feb;286(1897):20181713

1 Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales , Sydney, New South Wales 2052 , Australia.

Thousands of species have been introduced to new ranges worldwide. These introductions provide opportunities for researchers to study evolutionary changes in form and function in response to new environmental conditions. However, almost all previous studies of morphological change in introduced species have compared introduced populations to populations from across the species' native range, so variation within native ranges probably confounds estimates of evolutionary change. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408894PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Biogeography of the xerophytic genus L. (Chenopodiaceae).

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 19;9(6):3539-3552. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institut für Molekulare Physiologie Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz Germany.

Aim: Using the extremophile genus , which includes c. 28 succulent, xerophytic C species, and is widely distributed in arid regions of Northern Africa, Arabia, and Asia, we investigate biogeographical relationships between the Irano-Turanian floristic region (ITfr) and its neighboring regions. We test whether the spread of arid and semi-arid biomes in Eurasia coincides with the biogeography of this drought-adapted genus, and whether the ITfr acted as source area of floristic elements for adjacent regions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434574PMC

Discovery and genetic characterization of diverse smacoviruses in Zambian non-human primates.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 8;9(1):5045. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 001-0020, Japan.

The Smacoviridae has recently been classified as a family of small circular single-stranded DNA viruses. An increasing number of smacovirus genomes have been identified exclusively in faecal matter of various vertebrate species and from insect body parts. However, the genetic diversity and host range of smacoviruses remains to be fully elucidated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41358-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453971PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Informal sector occupational hazards: an observational workplace assessment of the traditional medicine trade (South Africa).

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2019 Apr 8:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

a Environment and Health Research Unit , South African Medical Research Council , Durban , South Africa.

Informal traditional medicine markets are trading and processing hubs for a range of plant, animal and mineral materials; however, little is known regarding the occupational risks associated with the processing and handling of these products. The aim of this study was to identify the workplace hazards of the traditional medicine trade. A walk-through observation of the workplace was conducted by two independent observers with formal training in workplace risk evaluation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2019.1602329DOI Listing

Preliminary Validation of an Unannounced Telephone Pill Count Protocol to Measure Medication Adherence Among Young Adults With Perinatal HIV Infection.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Unannounced telephone pill counts are an objective antiretroviral therapy adherence measurement tool, but this method has not been validated in young adults (YA) living with perinatal HIV infection. Perinatally infected YA, recruited from the Child and Adolescent Self-Awareness and Health Study, agreed to unannounced telephone pill counts to measure medication adherence over 4 months and phlebotomy to measure viral load (VL). Differences in pill count adherence scores among YA with a VL of ≤20 versus >20, and demographic differences were assessed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000082DOI Listing

Implementation of a comprehensive safer conception intervention for HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya: uptake, use and effectiveness.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25261

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Introduction: Safer conception strategies minimize HIV risk during condomless sex to become pregnant. Gaps remain in understanding the acceptability, feasibility and choices HIV-serodiscordant couples make when multiple safer conception options are available.

Methods: We conducted a pilot study of a comprehensive safer conception package for HIV-serodiscordant couples with immediate fertility desires in Kenya from March 2016 to April 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452026PMC

Bushmeat trade consequences predict higher anxiety, restraint, and dominance in chimpanzees.

Dev Psychobiol 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Unitat de Recerca i Etologia, Girona, Spain.

More data are needed for a better understanding of the long-term influence of wider and combined stressful events in chimpanzee personality development. We evaluated the effects of bushmeat trade outcomes on the personality development in 84 African sanctuary chimpanzees. The chimpanzees presented different backgrounds regarding maternal care, social exposure, and abuse. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.21853DOI Listing

Results of ALIVE: A Faith-Based Pilot Intervention to Improve Diet Among African American Church Members.

Prog Community Health Partnersh 2019 ;13(1):19-30

Background: A key intervention to address Black-White health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to improve diet quality, especially vegetable consumption, among African Americans. However, effective and sustainable interventions are lacking for this population.

Objective: Conduct a proof-of-concept study to measure the feasibility of implementing and rigorously assessing a novel, culturally tailored church-based intervention to improve vegetable consumption and total diet quality among African Americans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2019.0005DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The cricketer's shoulder: Not a classic throwing shoulder.

Phys Ther Sport 2019 Mar 28;37:120-127. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Cricket South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: To describe the musculoskeletal adaptations inherent to the cricketers' shoulder and determine potential predictors of shoulder injury in elite South African cricketers.

Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study; SETTING: Non-clinical, at national cricket indoor training venues.

Participants: One hundred and six elite cricketers, representing 82% of the South African national and franchise teams, consent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.03.014DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Expanded definitions of the 'good death'? Race, ethnicity and medical aid in dying.

Sociol Health Illn 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The range of end-of-life options is expanding across North America. Specifically, medical aid in dying (AID), or the process by which a patient with a terminal illness may request medical assistance with hastening death, has recently become legal in eight jurisdictions in the United States and all of Canada. Debates about AID often rely on cultural constructions that define some deaths as 'good' and others as 'bad'. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12903DOI Listing

Surveillance of Rifampicin Resistance With GeneXpert MTB/RIF in the National Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis at the Institut Pasteur in Bangui, 2015-2017.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 22;6(3):ofz075. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Communicable Diseases Cluster, HIV/TB and Hepatitis Programme, World Health Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

Background: The Central African Republic (CAR) has one of the heaviest burdens of tuberculosis (TB) in the world, with an incidence of 423 cases per 100 000 population. Surveillance of resistance to rifampicin with GeneXpert MTB/RIF was instituted in the National TB Reference Laboratory in 2015. The aim of this study was to evaluate, after 3 years, resistance to rifampicin, the most effective firstline drug against TB. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440687PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

National trends in radiation dose escalation for glioblastoma.

Radiat Oncol J 2019 Mar 31;37(1):13-21. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Division of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny Health Network Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) carries a high propensity for in-field failure despite trimodality management. Past studies have failed to show outcome improvements with dose-escalation. Herein, we examined trends and outcomes associated with dose-escalation for GBM. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3857/roj.2019.00017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453808PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Evidence that a major subpopulation of fall armyworm found in the Western Hemisphere is rare or absent in Africa, which may limit the range of crops at risk of infestation.

Authors:
Rodney N Nagoshi

PLoS One 2019 4;14(4):e0208966. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

The introduction and establishment of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Africa presents a major threat to agriculture in that continent and potentially to the entire Eastern Hemisphere. The species is subdivided into two subpopulations called the R-strain and C-strain that differ in their distribution on different plant hosts. This means that the scope of the economic risk posed by invasive fall armyworm is influenced by whether one or both strains are present. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208966PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448938PMC