10,928 results match your criteria African Journal Of Range & Forage Science[Journal]


DNA Methylation Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a South African Autism Spectrum Disorder Cohort.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture which includes distinctive epigenetic patterns. We report differential DNA methylation patterns associated with ASD in South African children. An exploratory whole-epigenome methylation screen using the Illumina 450 K MethylationArray identified differentially methylated CpG sites between ASD and controls that mapped to 898 genes (P ≤ 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2310DOI Listing

Plant traits and phenotypic variability effect on the phytomass production of  (Desf.) De Winter.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 12;27(6):1553-1561. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Arid Land of Tunisia (LEBIOMAT), University of Sfax, Faculty of Sciences, Sfax 3000, Tunisia.

A process of continuous degradation of plant communities, due mainly to long-term overgrazing has been revealed by most ecological studies in North African arid climate. Notably, this degradation appeared across the depletion of perennial grass species exhibiting low density in the majority of range ecosystems. This study aimed to examine the phenology and the aboveground phytomass production of (Desf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253882PMC

Race Does Not Affect Survival in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jun;40(6):3307-3314

Department of Radiation Oncology, New York - Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Recent evidence has shown that African American men with prostate cancer may have more radiosensitive disease with greater overall survival (OS) with radiotherapy compared to Caucasian men. We compared OS in African American and Caucasian men receiving radiotherapy utilizing the National Cancer Database.

Patients And Methods: African American or Caucasian men with N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were selected and grouped into favorable and unfavorable risk based on clinical T-stage, clinical Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14313DOI Listing

Predictors of silicosis and variation in prevalence across mines among employed gold miners in South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):829. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The stated intention to eliminate silicosis from the South African goldmining industry as well as current programmes to find and compensate ex-miners with silicosis require an understanding of variation in silicosis prevalence across the industry. We aimed to identify the predictors of radiological silicosis in a large sample of working miners across gold mines in South Africa.

Methods: Routine surveillance chest radiographs were collected from 15 goldmine "clusters" in a baseline survey undertaken in preparation for a separate tuberculosis isoniazid prophylaxis trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08876-2DOI Listing

Intervening along the spectrum of tuberculosis: meeting report from the World TB Day nanosymposium in the Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine at the University of Cape Town.

Gates Open Res 2019 12;3:1491. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Division of Chemical and Systems Biology, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, 7925, South Africa.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the highly infectious  , remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with an estimated 1.6 million associated deaths reported in 2017. In South Africa, an estimated 322,000 (range 230,000-428,000) people were infected with TB in 2017, and a quarter of them lost their lives due to the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.13035.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241047PMC
November 2019

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children: Experience and Constraints in a Resource-limited Setting.

Cureus 2020 Apr 27;12(4):e7848. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Pediatrics/Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Division, University of Calabar/University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, NGA.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though well described in the Caucasian population, is rarely encountered in the black African children. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this emerging condition in African children and highlight the constraints of management in a resource-limited setting like Nigeria.

Methods: This study included an audit of children with IBD who were seen between January 2015 and February 2020 at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253077PMC

The importance of lactose intolerance in individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms.

Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Departamento de Gastroenterología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán.

Lactose intolerance is a condition with an elevated prevalence worldwide, especially in Latin American, Asian, and African countries. The aim of the present narrative review was to highlight the importance of accurately diagnosing lactose intolerance to prevent self-diagnosis that results in the unnecessary elimination of milk and dairy products from the diet and the consequent deprivation of nutrients that could be essential at certain stages of life. The pathophysiologic mechanism of deficient lactose absorption in the intestine can be primary, secondary to other enteropathies, or coexistent with other intestinal diseases with similar symptoms, such as irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth syndrome, or celiac disease, causing confusion in relation to diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgmx.2020.03.002DOI Listing

The femoral deformity in Blount's disease: a comparative study of infantile, juvenile and adolescent Blount's disease.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2020 Jul;29(4):317-322

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Health Science, University of the Witwatersrand.

An associated femoral deformity in patients with Blount's disease is not commonly described in the literature. The objective of this study is to establish the presence and magnitude of deformity in the coronal plane of the distal femur in children of all ages with Blount's disease and compare this to a matched cohort of children from the same population. This was a retrospective review of patients from an academic hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000722DOI Listing

Inhibin A as a tumor marker for primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2020 Apr 29;2020. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Summary: Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS). This condition is characterized by glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid excess, and is commonly regulated by aberrant G-protein coupled receptor expression may be subclinical, allowing the disease to progress for years undetected. Inhibin A is a glycoprotein hormone and tumor marker produced by certain endocrine glands including the adrenal cortex, which has not been previously investigated as a potential tumor marker for PBMAH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-20-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219132PMC

Exposure to secondhand smoke in hospitality settings in Ghana: Evidence of changes since implementation of smoke-free legislation.

Tob Induc Dis 2020 20;18:44. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Introduction: Ghana has a partial smoking ban with smoking allowed in designated smoking areas. Studies evaluating smoke-free laws are scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa. Evaluation of smoke-free laws is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/120934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252429PMC

Eating and feeding behaviours in children in low-income areas in Nairobi, Kenya.

Matern Child Nutr 2020 May 31:e13023. Epub 2020 May 31.

Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Child eating and caregiver feeding behaviours are critical determinants of food intake, but they are poorly characterized in undernourished children. We aimed to describe how appetite, food refusal and force-feeding vary between undernourished and healthy children aged 6-24 months in Nairobi and identify potential variables for use in a child eating behaviour scale for international use. This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven clinics in low-income areas of Nairobi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13023DOI Listing

From Easing Lockdowns to Scaling-Up Community-Based COVID-19 Screening, Testing, and Contact Tracing in Africa - Shared Approaches, Innovations, and Challenges to Minimize Morbidity and Mortality.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Infection, Division of Infection and Immunity, Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, London, UK.

The arrival of COVID-19 to the African continent resulted in a range of locally relevant lockdown measures, which curtailed the spread of SARS-CoV-2 but caused economic hardship for large sections of the population. African countries now face difficult choices regarding easing of lockdowns and sustaining effective public health control measures and surveillance.  Control of the COVID-19 pandemic will require efficient community screening, testing, contact tracing, and behavioral change interventions, adequate resources, and a well-supported, community-based team of trained, protected personnel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa695DOI Listing

Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: racial considerations for 250 consecutive cases.

J Robot Surg 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, BA-8414, Augusta, GA, 30912-4050, USA.

Our objective is to report the functional and oncologic outcomes of a cohort of 250 consecutive prostate cancer patients undergoing a Retzius-sparing approach and to assess for racial differences in continence outcomes. This was a prospective, single-center, case series of 250 consecutive prostate cancer patients who underwent a Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon between May 2015 and April 2019. Our primary objective was to report post-operative continence outcomes of patients undergoing this technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-020-01096-1DOI Listing

Real-World Safety and Effectiveness of Dimethyl Fumarate in Black or African American Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: 3-Year Results from ESTEEM.

Neurol Ther 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Introduction: Black or African American (black/AA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are reported to exhibit greater disease severity compared with non-black or non-AA patients. Whether differences exist in response to MS disease-modifying therapies remains uncertain, as MS clinical trials have included low numbers of non-white patients. We evaluated real-world safety and effectiveness of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on MS disease activity in black/AA patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-020-00193-5DOI Listing

Knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to sugar sweetened beverages and taxation among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Caribbean island of Barbados - A cross sectional survey in primary care.

Prim Care Diabetes 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Cave Hill, Barbados. Electronic address:

Aims: Barbados implemented a 10% tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in 2015. We aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices towards SSB consumption and taxation among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) attending public sector primary care clinics in Barbados.

Methods: People with T2D attending public sector clinics completed a survey including the Beverage Intake Questionnaire (BEVQ-15). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2020.04.002DOI Listing

Pediatric cranial deformations: demographic associations.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 May 29:1-6. Epub 2020 May 29.

1Surgical Outcomes Center for Kids, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective: No study has established a relationship between cranial deformations and demographic factors. While the connection between the Back to Sleep campaign and cranial deformation has been outlined, considerations toward cultural or anthropological differences should also be investigated.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of 1499 patients (age range 2 months to less than 19 years) who presented for possible trauma in 2018 and had a negative CT scan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.PEDS2085DOI Listing

Variability in Cytogenetic Testing for Multiple Myeloma: A Comprehensive Analysis From Across the United States.

JCO Oncol Pract 2020 May 29:JOP1900639. Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Purpose: Multiple myeloma (MM) treatment has changed tremendously, with significant improvement in patient out-comes. One group with a suboptimal benefit is patients with high-risk cytogenetics, as tested by conventional karyotyping or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methodology for these tests has been published, but not necessarily standardized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JOP.19.00639DOI Listing

A Case Series of Five People Living with HIV Hospitalized with COVID-19 in Chicago, Illinois.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

The risk of COVID-19 among people living with HIV (PLWH) is largely unknown and there have been very few reported cases in the literature. We report a case series of five PLWH with COVID-19. We identified all patients with a diagnosis of HIV who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at University of Chicago Medicine between March 1, 2020, and April 7, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2020.0103DOI Listing

Consumers' perceptions of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes as indicators of safety and quality of chicken meat: Actionable information for public health authorities and the chicken industry.

J Food Sci 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Consumer and Food Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Understanding consumers' perceptions toward chicken meat safety and quality could provide valuable information to public health educators since it is the most consumed meat. This study explores perceptions of a group of South African consumers on the safety and quality of chicken meat based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes and identifies related safety risks. Data were collected through a web-based survey (863 participants). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15125DOI Listing

Inequity in Access to Transplantation in the United Kingdom.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Academic Unit of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background And Objectives: Despite the presence of a universal health care system, it is unclear if there is intercenter variation in access to kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom. This study aims to assess whether equity exists in access to kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom after adjustment for patient-specific factors and center practice patterns.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this prospective, observational cohort study including all 71 United Kingdom kidney centers, incident RRT patients recruited between November 2011 and March 2013 as part of the Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures study were analyzed to assess preemptive listing (=2676) and listing within 2 years of starting dialysis (=1970) by center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11460919DOI Listing

Towards Designing a Better Death: A Retrospective Analysis of Planned In-Hospital LVAD Deactivation Cases.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 Apr 30;39(4S):S436. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Medicine, Georgetown University/MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Purpose: Despite rapid growth of implanted durable mechanical circulatory support devices, best practices for device deactivation and end of life (EOL) care have yet to be elucidated. We wished to describe current practices in LVAD deactivation at EOL, identify unmet needs of dying patients, and develop best-practice protocols for LVAD deactivation.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients admitted at MedStar Washington Hospital Center who had planned LVAD deactivation prior to death between January 2017 and August 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2020.01.238DOI Listing

CYP3A5 Polymorphisms and Conversion to Once-Daily, Extended-Release Tacrolimus in Lung Transplant (LTx).

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 Apr 30;39(4S):S320. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Advanced Pulmonary Failure and Lung Transplantation, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.

Purpose: Calcineurin inhibitors have a narrow therapeutic index and are associated with significant inter- and intra-patient variability. The pharmacokinetic response to immunosuppressive drugs, and their intestinal absorption, may be affected by genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4/3A5, as well as the low bioavailability and high fluctuation of twice-daily, immediate-release tacrolimus. Patients with CYP3A5 expressor genotypes (CYP3A5*1/*1 and *1/*3) metabolize substrates, such as tacrolimus, more rapidly than CYP3A5 non-expressors and have a higher rate of tacrolimus clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2020.01.722DOI Listing

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antibody Mediated Rejection Following Orthotopic Heart Transplant: A Single Center Experience.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 Apr 30;39(4S):S30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Purpose: Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) following heart transplant (OTHx) causes significant morbidity and mortality. In particular, diagnosis and management of non-HLA AMR remains challenging. Antibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) causing rejection after kidney transplant have been described, but there is limited data on AT1R-Ab mediated rejection following OHTx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2020.01.1176DOI Listing

Real-World Glycemic Lowering Effectiveness of Linagliptin Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes by Age, Renal Function, and Race.

Diabetes Ther 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA.

Introduction: To assess real-world effectiveness of linagliptin in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) across a range of ages and renal function. Effectiveness was assessed in different races, with a focus on African Americans (AA).

Methods: This was a non-interventional retrospective cohort study using data in the Optum clinical database from adults with T2DM initiating linagliptin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00841-xDOI Listing

Universal background checks for handgun purchases can reduce homicide rates of African Americans.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 Jun;88(6):825-831

From the Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery (E.J.K., N.D.M., C.A.S., C.W.S., P.M.R., M.J.S.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Mailman School of Public Health (C.N.M.), Columbia University, New York, New York; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University (C.N.M.), Melbourne, Australia; Naval Medical Center San Diego (E.J.O.), San Diego, California; Department of Social Policy and Intervention, Oxford University (D.K.H.), Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (D.J.W.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Division of Acute and Critical Care Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis (M.H.H.), St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Federal law requires background checks for firearms purchased from licensed dealers, but states can extend requirements to private sales of handguns and purchases at gun shows (universal background checks for handguns [UBC-HG]). Although firearm homicide disproportionately affects African Americans, little is known about how UBG-HG impacts African Americans. We hypothesized that implementation of UBC-HG would reduce rates of firearm homicide of African Americans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002689DOI Listing

Long-range movements coupled with heterogeneous incubation period sustain dog rabies at the national scale in Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008317. Epub 2020 May 26.

INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique IPLESP, Paris, France.

Dog-transmitted rabies is responsible for more than 98% of human cases worldwide, remaining a persistent problem in developing countries. Mass vaccination targets predominantly major cities, often compromising disease control due to re-introductions. Previous work suggested that areas neighboring cities may behave as the source of these re-introductions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008317DOI Listing

Viral Etiology, Clinical Features and Antibiotic Use in Children <5 Years of Age in the Gambia Presenting With Influenza-like Illness.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

From the Department of Vaccines & Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia.

Background: Knowledge regarding the prevalence, clinical features and etiology of pediatric influenza-like illness (ILI) remains limited in African settings. Furthermore, it is likely that many children presenting with ILI receive antibiotics unnecessarily. More data are required to develop antimicrobial stewardship practice and guide effective vaccine strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002761DOI Listing

Kohl containing lead (and other toxic elements) is widely available in Europe.

Environ Res 2020 May 13;187:109658. Epub 2020 May 13.

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

Kohl is an eye cosmetic that was traditionally used in many Asian and African countries but that is now more widely available. Ingredients of kohl reported in previous studies seem to be rather variable but mention is frequently made of minerals based on Pb whose use in cosmetic products is prohibited in Europe. We purchased 23 products of kohl from retail outlets in five different European countries and over the internet and analysed their chemical composition by XRF and SEM-EDXS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109658DOI Listing

A smartphone game to prevent HIV among young Kenyans: local perceptions of mechanisms of effect.

Health Educ Res 2020 Jun;35(3):153-164

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Global Health Research, HIV Research Branch, Kisumu, Kenya.

Electronic games delivered via smartphones have the potential to become valuable tools in HIV prevention in high-prevalence and low-resource international settings. To ground theoretical elaboration around novel mHealth interventions in contextual realities, it is important to understand the mechanisms of their effects as perceived by local populations. Such perspectives are particularly important when working cross-culturally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/cyaa011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243726PMC

Somatic mutations of triple-negative breast cancer: a comparison between Black and White women.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA.

Purpose: Understanding the contribution of tumor genome biology to racial disparities of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is important for narrowing the cancer mortality gap between Black and White women.

Methods: We evaluated tumor somatic mutations using targeted sequencing of a customized panel of 151 genes and 15 copy number variations (CNVs) within a population of 133 TNBC patients, including 71 Black and 62 White women.

Results: The overall mutational burden between Black and White women with TNBC was not significantly different, with a median of 5 somatic changes per patient (point mutations and CNVs combined) for the customized panel (range 1-31 for Blacks vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05693-4DOI Listing

Development and Testing of an Adjuvant Radiotherapy Decision Aid for Older Women Diagnosed with Stage I Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

Cureus 2020 Apr 16;12(4):e7690. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, CAN.

Background Whole breast irradiation therapy (WBRT), accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), and omission of radiotherapy (ORT) are options for women aged 65 years and older with low-risk breast cancer post lumpectomy. Aim The aim of the study was to develop and pilot a decision aid pamphlet (DA), among women aged 65 years and older with low-risk breast cancer and who were undergoing or had undergone WBRT, to ensure they were fully informed about the different options for radiation treatment following lumpectomy. Methods We piloted the decision aid with 40 participants, women aged 65-86 years with low-risk breast cancer and who had undergone or were undergoing WBRT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237198PMC

Assessment of diabetes and prediabetes prevalence and predictors by HbA1c in a population from sub-Saharan Africa with a high proportion of anemia: a prospective cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 May;8(1)

Medical Outpatient Department, Universitätsspital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Introduction: Epidemiological data about diabetes mellitus (DM) for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce and the utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to diagnose DM is uncertain in African populations with a high proportion of anemia.

Research Design And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, age-adjusted prevalence rates and predictors for DM and pre-DM were prospectively assessed by HbA1c in a semirural walk-in population of Tanzania (n=992). Predictors for DM were calculated by logistic regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000939DOI Listing

Understanding Temporal Social Dynamics in Zoo Animal Management: An Elephant Case Study.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 19;10(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Brackenhurst Campus, Southwell, Nottinghamshire NG25 0QF, UK.

Zoo animal management procedures which lead to changes to social groups can cause disruption in social hierarchies and the temporary breakdown of social relationships. Animals have different roles in social networks. Understanding individual positions in social networks is important for effective management and ensuring positive welfare for all animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050882DOI Listing

Evidence for exposure of asymptomatic domestic pigs to African swine fever virus during an inter-epidemic period in Zambia.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

African swine fever (ASF) causes persistent outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic regions in Zambia. However, the epidemiology of the disease is poorly understood, particularly during the inter-epidemic periods. We conducted surveillance for ASF in asymptomatic domestic pigs and soft ticks in selected Zambian provinces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13630DOI Listing

Nationwide Remapping of Infection in Rwanda Using Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test: Taking Steps toward Elimination.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The field standard for the detection of infection is Kato-Katz (KK), although it misses many active infections, especially light infections. In 2014, a reassessment of prevalence was conducted in Rwanda using the more sensitive point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) rapid assay. A total of 19,371 children from 399 schools were selected for testing for single urine CCA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0866DOI Listing

Engaging Community Networks to Improve Depression Services: A Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Community Engagement and Planning Intervention.

Community Ment Health J 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA, 90407, USA.

This paper explores the effects of a group-randomized controlled trial, Community Partners in Care (CPIC), on the development of interagency networks for collaborative depression care improvement between a community engagement and planning (CEP) intervention and a resources for services (RS) intervention that provided the same content solely via technical assistance to individual programs. Both interventions consisted of a diverse set of service agencies, including health, mental health, substance abuse treatment, social services, and community-trusted organizations such as churches and parks and recreation centers. Participants in the community councils for the CEP intervention reflected a range of agency leaders, staff, and other stakeholders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00632-5DOI Listing

Profile of Back Bacon Produced From the Common Warthog.

Foods 2020 May 15;9(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty AgriSciences, JS Marais Building, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa.

The common warthog () has historically been hunted and consumed by rural communities throughout its distribution range in Africa. This study aims to develop a processed product from warthog meat in the form of back bacon () as a healthy alternative meat product and to determine its chemical and sensory characteristics derived from adult and juvenile boars and sows. The highest scored attributes included typical bacon and smoky aroma and flavor, and salty flavor, as well as tenderness and juiciness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9050641DOI Listing

Orbital and Ocular Adnexal Manifestations of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: a Case Report and Systematic Review.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Pathology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: To describe a patient with orbital adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and to review the literature on presentation, diagnostics, management, and clinical course of this rare disease.

Methods: A systematic literature review. PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched for all well-documented cases of orbital/ocular adnexal ATLL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001695DOI Listing

Impact of common skin diseases on children in rural Cote d'ivoire with leprosy and buruli ulcer co-endemicity: A mixed methods study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 18;14(5):e0008291. Epub 2020 May 18.

International Foundation for Dermatology, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs) occur against a background of a very high prevalence of common skin diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) and the impact of common skin diseases in children living in a leprosy and Buruli ulcer (BU) co-endemic district in a west African country of Côte d'Ivoire, in order to help inform disease control efforts for skin NTDs.

Methods And Principle Findings: Fourteen focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren, 5 FGDs with parents of a child affected with skin disease(s), and 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews with key personnel were conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008291DOI Listing

Lassa Virus Genetics.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

In a pattern repeated across a range of ecological niches, arenaviruses have evolved a compact four-gene genome to orchestrate a complex life cycle in a narrow range of susceptible hosts. A number of mammalian arenaviruses cross-infect humans, often causing a life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever. Among this group of geographically bound zoonoses, Lassa virus has evolved a unique niche that leads to significant and sustained human morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2020_212DOI Listing

Low back pain among nurses working in clinical settings of Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 years of studies.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 May 16;21(1):310. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Adult Health Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Nurses in Africa are arguably the most important frontline healthcare workers available in most healthcare facilities, performing a broad range of tasks. Such tasks are considerably presumed in the causation of workload. Nursing is listed among the highly risky professions for developing low back pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03341-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231416PMC

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of tsetse flies of the palpalis group in Congo Brazzaville based on mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 14;13(1):253. Epub 2020 May 14.

African Technical Research Centre, Vector Health International, P.O. Box 15500, Arusha, Tanzania.

Background: Despite the morphological characterization established in the 1950s and 1960s, the identity of extant taxa that make up Glossina fuscipes (s.l.) in the Congo remains questionable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04120-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227191PMC
May 2020
3.430 Impact Factor

Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-piperidine scaffolds as antiplasmodium agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Apr 23;198:112330. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

SynBioC Research Group, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

The parasitic disease malaria places almost half of the world's population at risk of infection and is responsible for more than 400,000 deaths each year. The first-line treatment, artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) regimen, is under threat due to emerging resistance of Plasmodium falciparum strains in e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112330DOI Listing

Patriarchy and gender-inequitable attitudes as drivers of intimate partner violence against women in the central region of Ghana.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 13;20(1):682. Epub 2020 May 13.

Gender and Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: In order to reduce women's exposure to violence and develop culturally appropriate interventions, it is important to gain an understanding of how men who use violence rationalize it. The present study sought to explore the perspectives of men who had used violence on their female partners, specifically their views on intimate partner violence (IPV), gender norms, manhood, their gender attitudes and to understand how these may drive male perpetrated IPV against women in the Central Region of Ghana.

Methods: This was a qualitative study involving purposively sampled adult men who had participated in a household-based survey in selected districts in the Central Region of Ghana and who had self-reported perpetration of IPV in the past 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08825-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222313PMC

Non-Invasive Assessment of Body Condition and Stress-Related Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Concentrations in African Elephants () Roaming in Fynbos Vegetation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 8;10(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.

Fynbos is a unique endemic vegetation type belonging to the Cape Floral Kingdom in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, representing the smallest of the six floral kingdoms in the world. Nowadays, only a few game reserves in this region support populations of African elephants (), and thus, little information exists regarding the suitability of the nutritionally poor Fynbos vegetation for these megaherbivores. Using already established non-invasive methods, the monitoring of individual body conditions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations, as a measure of physiological stress, was performed to examine a herd of 13 elephants in a Western Cape Province Private Game Reserve, during two monitoring periods (April and June 2018), following a severe drought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050814DOI Listing

Endocrine-sensitive physical endpoints in newborns: ranges and predictors.

Pediatr Res 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: In neonates, endocrine-sensitive physical endpoints, including breast and reproductive tissues, may reflect effects of fetal environmental exposure. Studies using standardized measurement techniques that describe demographic and clinical variability in these endpoints are lacking.

Methods: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthy term newborns <3 days old were evaluated, 69% African American and 25% White. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0950-2DOI Listing

Level of adult client satisfaction with clinic flow time and services of an integrated non-communicable disease-HIV testing services clinic in Soweto, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 11;20(1):404. Epub 2020 May 11.

Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: While HIV Testing Services (HTS) have increased, many South Africans have not been tested. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the top cause of death worldwide. Integrated NCD-HTS could be a strategy to control both epidemics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05256-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212607PMC

Tobacco smoking and associated factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults attending human immunodeficiency virus clinics in the Western Cape province, South Africa.

South Afr J HIV Med 2020 21;21(1):1072. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, smoking increases both HIV-related and non-related negative health outcomes.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associations of smoking in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy at public healthcare facilities in the Western Cape province, South Africa.

Methods: Participants comprised 827 HIV-infected patients, who were > 18 years old and randomly selected from 17 HIV healthcare facilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v21i1.1072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203270PMC

Visual timing abilities of a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) for sub- and supra-second time intervals.

Anim Cogn 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

University of Rostock, Institute for Biosciences, Neuroethology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, 18059, Rostock, Germany.

Timing is an essential parameter influencing many behaviours. A previous study demonstrated a high sensitivity of a phocid, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), in discriminating time intervals. In the present study, we compared the harbour seal's timing abilities with the timing abilities of an otariid, the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-020-01390-3DOI Listing