214,673 results match your criteria African Journal Of Range & Forage Science[Journal]


Epidemiology and prognostic factors of pediatric brain tumor survival in the US: Evidence from four decades of population data.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 May 1;72:101942. Epub 2021 May 1.

Program of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, 100 Discovery Blvd, Newark, DE, 19713, United States.

Brain tumors, a group of heterogeneous diseases, are the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Insight into the prognosis of pediatric brain tumor survival has led to improved outcomes and could be further advanced through precision in prognosis. We analyzed the United States SEER population-based dataset of 15,723 pediatric brain tumor patients diagnosed and followed between 1975 and 2016 using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

GS-441524 inhibits African swine fever virus infection in vitro.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 1:105081. Epub 2021 May 1.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; African Swine Fever Regional Laboratory of China (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; Research Center for African Swine Fever Prevention and Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly infectious and lethal swine pathogen that causes serious socio-economic consequences in endemic countries for which no safe and effective vaccine is currently available. GS-441524, a 1-cyano-substituted adenine C-nucleoside ribose analogue, inhibits viral RNA transcription by competing with natural nucleosides (ATP, TTP, CTP, and GTP) and effectively inhibits viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. However, whether GS-441524 can inhibit the replication of DNA viruses is unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oedipality and oedipal complexes reconsidered: On the incest taboo as key to the universality of the human condition.

Int J Psychoanal 2019 Feb;100(1):7-31

Doctoral Dept. Psychoanalytic Studies, Parkmore Institute, Wilmington, Delaware.

Oedipality is generally understood as the individual's journey through eroticized attachments with those performing maternal and paternal functions. This has evoked understandable resistance, and also unnecessary, yet sometimes scholarly, opposition. This paper briefly reviews the voluminous literature on oedipality, focusing on the resistances and objections it has evoked (mostly, but not entirely, from outside the psychoanalytic movement). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019

Fungal asthma among Ugandan adult asthmatics.

Med Mycol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Makerere University Lung Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7749, Kampala, Uganda.

Fungal sensitization is associated with poor asthma control. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with fungal asthma among Ugandan adults. Individuals aged ≥18 years with a new diagnosis of asthma in the last 12 months participating in the African Severe Asthma Program constituted the study population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular characterization of Gyps africanus (African white-backed vulture) organic anion transporter 1 and 2 expressed in the kidney.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250408. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Gyps species have been previously shown to be highly sensitive to the toxic effects of diclofenac, when present in their food sources as drug residues following use as a veterinary medicine. Vultures exposed to diclofenac soon become depressed and die with signs of severe visceral gout and renal damage on necropsy. The molecular mechanism behind toxicity and renal excretion of uric acid is still poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Population structure and transmission of in Ethiopia.

Microb Genom 2021 May;7(5)

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in cattle in Ethiopia, a country that hosts the largest national cattle herd in Africa. The intensive dairy sector, most of which is peri-urban, has the highest prevalence of disease. Previous studies in Ethiopia have demonstrated that the main cause is , which has been investigated using conventional molecular tools including deletion typing, spoligotyping and Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Patient perspectives of barriers to naloxone obtainment and use in a primary care, underserved setting: A qualitative study.

Subst Abus 2021 May 4:1-10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Touro University College of Pharmacy, Vallejo, CA, USA.

Gaps in naloxone obtainment and use are not well studied, particularly among minoritized groups. To describe patient perspectives that serve as barriers to naloxone obtainment and the number of patients who obtained naloxone in a primarily African American population in a primary care, underserved setting. This qualitative study conducted semi-structured interviews and included 36 adults who were prescribed naloxone at a federally qualified health center using convenience sampling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Complementary feeding in Kongwa, Tanzania: Findings to inform a mycotoxin mitigation trial.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 May 4:e13188. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Food Biotechnology and Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania.

Complementary feeding of 6- to 24-month-old infants and young children with adequate, safe and developmentally appropriate food is essential to child health. Inappropriate complementary foods and feeding practices are linked to the high incidencesplease return to xml firstof undernutrition among infant and young children in most developing countries, including Tanzania. Mycotoxin risk is an additional concern, given the documented presence of aflatoxin and fumonisin in food systems of Africa, especially maize and groundnut. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Use of Continuous Cranial Shape Variation in the Identification of Divergent Crocodile Species of the Genus Mecistops.

J Morphol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Environment, Florida International University, North Miami, FL.

The discovery of cryptic biodiversity has blossomed under the advancements of genetic techniques, but species identification via morphology remains crucial to effective conservation efforts. In this study, we tested the use of continuous cranial shape variation in distinguishing the two living species of Mecistops: the West African slender-snouted crocodile (M. cataphractus) and the Central African slender-snouted crocodile (M. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Increased Morbidity and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients with Liver Injury.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd., Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Background: There is a high prevalence of liver injury (LI) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, few large-scale studies assessing risk factors and clinical outcomes in these patients have been done.

Aims: To evaluate the risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with LI in a large inpatient cohort of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Adult patients with COVID-19 between March 1 and April 30, 2020, were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Elephant Genomes Reveal Accelerated Evolution in Mechanisms Underlying Disease Defenses.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Arizona Cancer Evolution Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Disease susceptibility and resistance are important factors for the conservation of endangered species, including elephants. We analyzed pathology data from 26 zoos and report that Asian elephants have increased neoplasia and malignancy prevalence compared with African bush elephants. This is consistent with observed higher susceptibility to tuberculosis and elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) in Asian elephants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic syndrome at 6 weeks after delivery in a cohort of pre-eclamptic and normotensive women.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(4):350-354. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: The association between pre-eclampsia and the subsequent development of metabolic syndrome has not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome at 6 weeks after delivery among women with pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia with that in a normotensive, low-risk control group in an urban South African (SA) setting.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study at two tertiary-level hospitals and one district-level hospital in Pretoria, SA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A prospective observational study of preoperative natriuretic peptide testing in adult non-cardiac surgical patients in hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 03 31;111(4):338-342. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: International guidelines recommend risk stratification to identify high-risk non-cardiac surgical patients. It is also recommended that all patients aged ≥45 years with significant cardiovascular disease should have preoperative natriuretic peptide (NP) testing. Abnormal preoperative B-type NPs have a strong association with postoperative cardiac complications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Experiences of workplace bullying among academics in a health sciences faculty at a South African university.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(4):315-320. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Workplace bullying and other negative workplace behaviours are problems that need to be addressed across many work settings, including at universities.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence of bullying among academics, and factors associated with bullying, in a faculty of health sciences (FHS) of a South African university.

Methods: All academic staff, except senior managers, were invited to participate by completing a self-administered, web-based questionnaire hosted on REDCap. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A qualitative analysis of seven ivermectin formulations in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 18;111(4):288-290. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Soweto Clinical Trials Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Some South African (SA) healthcare practitioners are promoting the prescription and use of products claiming to contain ivermectin for the treatment and/or prevention of COVID-19 in SA. This study qualitatively analysed seven samples of ivermectin formulations (5 tablet and 2 capsule formulations) being sold in SA for human use. The samples were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument connected to a Sciex X500R quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The role of treatment delays in surgical site infection after appendicectomy in a South African rural regional hospital.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):271-275. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery, Worcester Regional Hospital, Western Cape Department of Health, South Africa; Ukwanda, Centre for Rural Health, Stellenbosch University, Worcester Campus, South Africa; Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Delays to surgery for acute appendicitis in low- and middle-income countries lead to significant morbidity.

Objectives: To investigate the role of time to surgery in the development of complicated appendicitis and surgical site infection (SSI) in a rural referral hospital in South Africa (SA).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting to a regional hospital in SA with acute appendicitis during 2017. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The next generation: Pregnancy in adolescents and women living with perinatally acquired HIV in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):260-264. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: An increasing number of girls living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) are reaching adolescence and adulthood and becoming pregnant. Youth living with PHIV (YLPHIV) may have HIV-associated infections/complications, long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment (ART), drug resistance and increased psychosocial challenges, which may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. There is a lack of published studies on pregnancy in YLPHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Costing total hip arthroplasty in a South African state tertiary hospital.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):250-254. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Most South Africans depend on the public sector for health services. There is an increasing demand for arthroplasty in the public sector, but a paucity of academic data regarding its cost.

Objectives: To: (i) identify the factors that determine the cost of an uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty; and (ii) make recommendations on cost optimisation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid review of the effects of cloth and medical masks for preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in community and household settings.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):227-233. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Evidence on mask use in the general population is needed to inform SARS-CoV-2 responses.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of cloth and medical masks for preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in community settings.

Methods: Two rapid reviews were conducted searching three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) and two clinical trials registries on 30 and 31 March 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shortfall in stroke care: A study of ischaemic stroke care practices in a South African metropole.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):215-219. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: In recent years there have been significant advances in the management of stroke. In particular, reperfusion therapies have been shown to confer significant benefit, with the possibility of reversing ischaemic stroke or reducing disability when administered to suitable patients. However, these therapies also carry significant risk, including death. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Saved by the pump: Two successful resuscitations utilising emergency department-initiated extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):208-210. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Emergency medical officer, private practice, Pretoria, South Africa.

Extracorporeal life support is the utilisation of advanced techniques to sustain circulatory and/or ventilatory functions in critically ill patients when standard therapies fail. It is well established in developed countries. There is increasing literature supporting its application in refractory cardiac arrest with a potential reversible cause, a procedure also known as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of vaccines in preventing influenza in healthy children.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):206-207. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

The role of an influenza vaccine is to minimise illness and death. Vaccines provide good protection against influenza strains and significantly reduce time off work. However, the recommendation for use depends on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of the vaccines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Qualitative and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in untreated wastewater in Western Cape Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Jan 28;111(3):198-202. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Recent studies have shown that the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in wastewater may provide the basis for a surveillance system to track the environmental dissemination of this virus in communities. An effective wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) system may prove critical in South Africa (SA), where health systems infrastructure, testing capacity, personal protective equipment and human resource capacity are constrained. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the potential of SARS-CoV-2 RNA surveillance in untreated wastewater as the basis for a system to monitor COVID-19 prevalence in the population, an early warning system for increased transmission, and a monitoring system to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The readability of informed consent forms for research studies conducted in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):180-183. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Ezintsha, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Informed consent forms (ICFs) are used to obtain consent from participants. However the complexity and comprehensiveness of these forms may not be appropriate. Readability can be quantified by formulas in Microsoft (MS) Word, such as the Flesch Reading Ease test. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

WhatsApp-propriate? A retrospective content analysis of WhatsApp use and potential breaches in confidentiality among a team of doctors at a district hospital, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):171-175. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Zithulele Hospital, Eastern Cape Department of Health, Mqanduli; and Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa.

Background: There has been a steady increase in the use of electronic media and instant messaging among healthcare professionals, where it has been almost universally adopted in the workplace. The use of WhatsApp and its perceived benefits in healthcare have been extensively studied; however, there are concerns regarding the potential for ethical breaches in confidentiality through shared electronic patient information.

Objectives: To identify the usage characteristics and incidence of shared patient information with WhatsApp use in a team of medical doctors in an unobserved and unregulated setting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Non-vaccine serotype pneumococcal carriage in healthy infants in South Africa following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):143-148. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Pneumococcal carriage studies provide a baseline for measuring the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). The advent of conjugate vaccines has led to reductions in vaccine serotypes (VTs) in pneumococcal carriage. However, increasing non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) remain a significant concern, necessitating continued surveillance of serotypes in the 13-valent PCV vaccine (PCV13) era. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Causative pathogens and antibiotic resistance in community-acquired urinary tract infections in central South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):124-128. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in community practice. Both the South African (SA) antibiotic stewardship programme (2015) and the Essential Medicines List for SA (2018) recommend ciprofloxacin as first-line treatment for community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The pathogens responsible for CAUTIs and their susceptibility profiles need to be documented, which is important for developing and updating treatment protocols. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Parental access to hospitalised children during infectious disease pandemics such as COVID-19.

S Afr Med J 2021 Jan 20;111(2):100-105. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many hospitals severely limiting or denying parents access to their hospitalised children. This article provides guidance for hospital managers, healthcare staff, district-level managers and provincial managers on parental access to hospitalised children during a pandemic such as COVID-19. It: (i) summarises legal and ethical issues around parental visitation rights; (ii) highlights four guiding principles; (iii) provides 10 practical recommendations to facilitate safe parental access to hospitalised children; (iv) highlights additional considerations if the mother is COVID-19-positive; and (v) provides considerations for fathers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Guidance to the applicability of the Global Lung Initiative spirometry reference equations for South African populations.

S Afr Med J 2020 Dec 15;111(2):13186. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020