200,842 results match your criteria African Journal Of Library Archives And Information Science[Journal]


Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Nighttime Blood Pressure in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

Am J Hypertens 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), nocturnal hypertension, and non-dipping systolic blood pressure (BP) are each highly prevalent among African Americans. However, few data are available on the association between OSA and nighttime BP in this population.

Methods: We examined the association of OSA with nighttime BP among African Americans who completed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring at Exam 1 (2000-2004) of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) and subsequently participated in the JHS Sleep Study (2012-2016). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa088DOI Listing

A recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow dipstick for rapid and specific detection of African swine fever virus.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 31:113885. Epub 2020 May 31.

Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, hemorrhagic, highly contagious disease caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection of domestic pigs and wild boars, showing mortality rates up to 100 %. There are no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs available for ASFV. Therefore, disease control is mainly based on animal slaughtering and the enforcement of strict sanitary measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113885DOI Listing

Association of OPRM1 Functional Coding Variant With Opioid Use Disorder: A Genome-Wide Association Study.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: With the current opioid crisis, it is important to improve understanding of the biological mechanisms of opioid use disorder (OUD).

Objectives: To detect genetic risk variants for OUD and determine genetic correlations and causal association with OUD and other traits.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A genome-wide association study of electronic health record-defined OUD in the Million Veteran Program sample was conducted, comprising 8529 affected European American individuals and 71 200 opioid-exposed European American controls (defined by electronic health record trajectory analysis) and 4032 affected African American individuals and 26 029 opioid-exposed African American controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1206DOI Listing

Risk factors for blood transfusion in traumatic and postpartum hemorrhage patients: Analysis of the CRASH-2 and WOMAN trials.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233274. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Population Health, Clinical Trials Unit, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, England, United Kingdom.

Background: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death after trauma and childbirth. In response to severe hemorrhage, bleeding patients often receive transfusions of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, or other blood components. We examined risk factors for transfusion in acute severe bleeding in two trials of over 20,000 patients to better understand factors associated with transfusion likelihood. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233274PLOS

Education in the genomics era: Generating high-quality genome assemblies in university courses.

Gigascience 2020 Jun;9(6)

LOEWE-Centre for Translational Biodiversity Genomics, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany.

Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have simplified the generation of genome data and reduced the costs for genome assemblies, even for complex genomes like those of vertebrates. More practically oriented genomic courses can prepare university students for the increasing importance of genomic data used in biological and medical research. Low-cost third-generation sequencing technology, along with publicly available data, can be used to teach students how to process genomic data, assemble full chromosome-level genomes, and publish the results in peer-reviewed journals, or preprint servers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa058DOI Listing

DNA Methylation Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a South African Autism Spectrum Disorder Cohort.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture which includes distinctive epigenetic patterns. We report differential DNA methylation patterns associated with ASD in South African children. An exploratory whole-epigenome methylation screen using the Illumina 450 K MethylationArray identified differentially methylated CpG sites between ASD and controls that mapped to 898 genes (P ≤ 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2310DOI Listing

Does HIV infection modify the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index and adverse birth outcomes?

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: South Africa faces dual epidemics of HIV and obesity; however, little research has explored whether HIV status influences associations between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse birth outcomes.

Objectives: To examine associations between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse birth outcomes, and if they differ by HIV status.

Methods: We followed HIV-uninfected and -infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) from first antenatal visit through delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12688DOI Listing

Racial disparities in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to COVID-19 in the USA.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Health Research & Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Background: Recent reports indicate racial disparities in the rates of infection and mortality from the 2019 novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). The aim of this study was to determine whether disparities exist in the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) related to COVID-19.

Methods: We analyzed data from 1216 adults in the March 2020 Kaiser Family Foundation 'Coronavirus Poll', to determine levels of KAPs across different groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa069DOI Listing

Gender differentials in technical efficiency of Ghanaian cocoa farms.

Heliyon 2020 May 28;6(5):e04012. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.

This study considers the presence of a gender gap in technical efficiency in Ghana's cocoa production sector. The two-stage double bootstrap data envelopment analysis (DEA) procedure was applied to estimate the bias-corrected technical efficiency scores for male and female cocoa farm managers. The results indicate that there is a potential for male and female cocoa farm managers to increase output without altering the quantities of inputs employed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260293PMC

Examining the external-factors-led growth hypothesis for the South African economy.

Heliyon 2020 May 22;6(5):e04009. Epub 2020 May 22.

Nord University Business School (HHN), Post Box 1490, 8049 Bodø, Norway.

Reducing unemployment rate and achieving a sustainable economic growth underscore the Sustainable Development Goal 8. Our study investigates a new model that specifies the external-factors-led growth hypothesis for the South African economy. The independent variables include trade openness, external debt, FDI and exchange rate against GDP as the targeted variable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256302PMC

Insights into the gut microbiota of Nigerian elderly with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic elderly persons.

Heliyon 2020 May 29;6(5):e03971. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a prevalent non-communicable disease among the world's growing elderly population. The contribution of the gut microbiota to T2D in several Westernized countries has been established. However, there is little information on the role of the gut microbiota in T2D from the African continent where lifestyle and life expectancy are different. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262409PMC

Primary Erythromelalgia Complicated by Cellulitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Am J Med Case Rep 2020 5;8(6):153-158. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY 11203 USA.

Background: Erythromelalgia is a rare disease with increasing incidence. It manifests as episodic painful red extremities triggered by heat. External cooling provides temporary symptomatic relief but may lead to complications such as cellulitis. Read More

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Conservative management of bladder endometriosis with acute renal failure.

Urol Case Rep 2020 Nov 19;33:101263. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.

Endometriosis involving the bladder is rare, but generally has a severe presentation with prominent lower urinary tract symptoms and can progress to renal failure. As endometriosis has a significant effect on quality of life and fertility, treatment plans must be centered on the patient's symptoms, expectations, and priorities. We present a case of a 37-year-old African American female with advanced bladder endometriosis and consequent renal failure, who desired to avoid extensive surgery and maintain her fertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2020.101263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260429PMC
November 2020

Determinants of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease in the Slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

Glob Heart 2020 Apr 10;15(1):33. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

African Population and Health Research Center, 2 Floor APHRC Campus, Manga Close, Off Kirawa Road, Kitisuru, Nairobi, KE.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) comprise eighty percent of non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries and are increasingly impacting the poor inequitably. Traditional and socioeconomic factors were analyzed for their association with CVD mortality over 10 years of baseline assessment in an urban slum of Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods And Results: A 2008 survey on CVD risk factors was linked to cause of death data collected between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218782PMC

Heart Rate Variability, HIV and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural South Africa.

Glob Heart 2020 Feb 12;15(1):17. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, NL.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Possible HIV-associated complications have emerged including cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Objectives: This study aims to determine the heart rate variability (HRV) distribution and association between HRV and HIV treated with ART in a rural African population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218774PMC
February 2020

Cardiovascular Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa Compared to High-Income Countries: An Epidemiological Perspective.

Glob Heart 2020 Feb 12;15(1):15. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, US.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the second common cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounting for about 35% of all deaths, after a composite of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases. Despite prior perception of low NCDs mortality rates, current evidence suggests that SSA is now at the dawn of the epidemiological transition with contemporary double burden of disease from NCDs and communicable diseases. In SSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most frequent causes of NCDs deaths, responsible for approximately 13% of all deaths and 37% of all NCDs deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218780PMC
February 2020

Long-Term Outcomes and Factors Associated with Mortality in Patients with Moderate to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Kenya.

Glob Heart 2020 Feb 6;15(1). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, KE.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension is poorly studied in Africa. The long-term survival rates and prognostic factors associated with mortality in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in Africa are not well described.

Objectives: To determine the causes of moderate to severe PH in patients seen in contemporary hospital settings, determine the patients' one-year survival and the factors associated with mortality following standard care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218784PMC
February 2020

Biome stability predicts population structure of a southern African aridland bird species.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 27;10(9):4066-4081. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Integrative Biology Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California Berkeley CA USA.

Environments are heterogeneous in space and time, and the permeability of landscape and climatic barriers to gene flow may change over time. When barriers are present, they may start populations down the path toward speciation, but if they become permeable before the process of speciation is complete, populations may once more merge. In Southern Africa, aridland biomes play a central role in structuring the organization of biodiversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244808PMC

Plant traits and phenotypic variability effect on the phytomass production of  (Desf.) De Winter.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 12;27(6):1553-1561. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Arid Land of Tunisia (LEBIOMAT), University of Sfax, Faculty of Sciences, Sfax 3000, Tunisia.

A process of continuous degradation of plant communities, due mainly to long-term overgrazing has been revealed by most ecological studies in North African arid climate. Notably, this degradation appeared across the depletion of perennial grass species exhibiting low density in the majority of range ecosystems. This study aimed to examine the phenology and the aboveground phytomass production of (Desf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253882PMC

A Review and Considerations on Palliative Care Improvements for African Americans With Cancer.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2020 Jun 3:1049909120930205. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Health Equities, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Hospice and Palliative care benefits are infrequently realized by African American patients with cancer. With the increasing recognition of the critical role of early utilization of palliative services for optimal and quality patient care, it is important to acknowledge disparities and barriers to access that minority patients may face. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the status of palliative care delivery for African American patients within the structure and framework of the clinical practice guideline domains established by the National Consensus Project for Palliative Care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909120930205DOI Listing

Insulin clearance as the major player in the hyperinsulinaemia of black African men without diabetes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Diabetes, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Aims: Despite their low levels of ectopic fat accumulation, populations of African ancestry exhibit hyperinsulinaemia and increased metabolic risk. We aimed to investigate relationships between insulin clearance, insulin secretion, hepatic fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity in black African (BA) and white European (WE) men.

Methods: 23 BA and 23 WE men with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age and body mass index, underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp to measure insulin secretion and clearance; hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with stable glucose isotope infusion to measure whole-body and hepatic-specific insulin sensitivity; and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify intrahepatic lipid (IHL) RESULTS: BA men had higher glucose-stimulated peripheral insulin levels (48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14101DOI Listing

Racial Discrimination, Inflammation, and Chronic Illness Among African American Women at Midlife: Support for the Weathering Perspective.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 157 IBR Psychology Building, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

It is widely accepted that socioeconomic status (SES) is a fundamental cause of health inequality. There is evidence, however, that race is also a fundamental cause of disparities in health. Based on this idea, the weathering hypothesis developed by Geronimus and her colleagues views the elevated rates of illness and disability seen among Black Americans as a physiological response to the structural barriers, daily slights, and other threats to identity that comprise the Black experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00786-8DOI Listing

Operative Case Volume Minimums Necessary for Surgical Training Throughout Rural Africa.

World J Surg 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Resident operative case volumes are an important aspect of surgical education, and minimums are required in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) programs. Minimum operative case volumes for training do not exist in rural Africa. Our objective was to determine the optimal minimum operative case volume necessary for general surgery training in rural Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05609-9DOI Listing

When Home is Not a Safe Place: Impacts of Social Distancing Directives on Women Living with HIV.

AIDS Behav 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Burnaby, Canada, Simon Fraser University, Blusson Hall, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, B.C, V5A 1S6, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02941-yDOI Listing

Comparative study of collagen and elastin content of abdominal wall fascia in inguinal hernia and non-hernia patients in an African population.

Hernia 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Purpose: Altered composition of collagen and elastin in abdominal fascia has been linked with the pathogenesis of hernias. This has not been studied amongst Africans who have hernia presentations which vary significantly from Caucasian cohorts. The aim of this study was to determine, and compare, the collagen and elastin contents of the transversalis fascia and rectus sheath of inguinal hernia patients with non-hernia controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10029-020-02238-yDOI Listing

Substitution of warthog NF-κB motifs into RELA of domestic pigs is not sufficient to confer resilience to African swine fever virus.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 2;10(1):8951. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, APHA-Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, KT15 3NB, UK.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a lethal, haemorrhagic disease in domestic swine that threatens pig production across the globe. Unlike domestic pigs, warthogs, which are wildlife hosts of the virus, do not succumb to the lethal effects of infection. There are three amino acid differences between the sequence of the warthog and domestic pig RELA protein; a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65808-1DOI Listing

Ethnic and Racial Diversity in Academic PM&R Compared to All Other Medical Specialties.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Long School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

The primary aim of this study was to compare ethnic/racial diversity in academic Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) to all other medical specialties in academia. The secondary aim was to characterize ethnic/racial diversity of current PM&R program directors. Self-reported ethnicity/race information was collected from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001486DOI Listing

Syndemic theory, structural violence and HIV among African-Americans.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2020 Jul;15(4):250-255

University of North Carolina School of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: This paper will review recent use of syndemic frameworks in HIV research among African-Americans.

Recent Findings: Researchers have used syndemic theory in diverse African-American study populations, including MSM, cis-women, trans-women, heterosexual men and adolescents. These studies have evaluated the associations between syndemic conditions and a variety of outcomes, such as sexual behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, HIV testing, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, HIV suppression and preexposure prophylaxis use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000634DOI Listing

Clinical aspects of Ebola virus disease: a review.

Infez Med 2020 Jun;28(2):212-222

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan.

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), also known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF), initially emerged over 40 years ago in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Endemic to Africa, outbreaks have been recorded in six African countries since its detection in 1976. Fruit bats are believed to be the natural hosts of Ebola viruses (EBoV), with humans and other mammals serving as accidental hosts. Read More

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Race Does Not Affect Survival in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jun;40(6):3307-3314

Department of Radiation Oncology, New York - Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Recent evidence has shown that African American men with prostate cancer may have more radiosensitive disease with greater overall survival (OS) with radiotherapy compared to Caucasian men. We compared OS in African American and Caucasian men receiving radiotherapy utilizing the National Cancer Database.

Patients And Methods: African American or Caucasian men with N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were selected and grouped into favorable and unfavorable risk based on clinical T-stage, clinical Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14313DOI Listing

Assessment of the association of plant-based diets with cardiovascular disease risk profile in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 Jun 1;10(6):e036792. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, Tygerberg, South Africa.

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death worldwide. In Africa where infectious diseases are still the leading cause of death, the contribution of non-communicable diseases led by CVDs has significantly increased in recent years. The rise of CVDs in Africa is attributed at least in part to the adoption of sedentary behaviours and unhealthy eating habits, which are linked with urbanisation and westernisation of cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036792DOI Listing

Current HIV Testing & Risk Behaviors among Students at Historically Black Colleges & Universities in a Southern State.

J Natl Med Assoc 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Health Behavior & Health Education, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Public Health, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background/purpose: HIV testing prevalence is low among young adults (YA) ages 18-24. Previous research supports routine testing among African-American college students. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are uniquely situated to support HIV education and prevention efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2020.04.008DOI Listing

Problem solving therapy (PST) tailored for intimate partner violence (IPV) versus standard PST and enhanced usual care for pregnant women experiencing IPV in rural Ethiopia: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 1;21(1):454. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre for Global Mental Health, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: In rural Ethiopia, 72% of women are exposed to lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV); IPV is most prevalent during pregnancy. As well as adversely affecting women's physical and mental health, IPV also increases the risk of child morbidity and mortality associated with maternal depression, thus making antenatal care an important opportunity for intervention. Adapting generic, task-shared, brief psychological interventions for perinatal depression and anxiety to address the needs and experiences of women affected by IPV may improve acceptability to women and feasibility for health workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04331-0DOI Listing

Malaria outbreak investigation in a rural area south of Zimbabwe: a case-control study.

Malar J 2020 Jun 1;19(1):197. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Ministry of Health and Child Care, P.O Box 441, Bulawayo, Matabeleland North Province, Zimbabwe.

Background: Ninety percent of the global annual malaria mortality cases emanate from the African region. About 80-90% of malaria transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur indoors during the night. In Zimbabwe, 79% of the population are at risk of contracting the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03270-0DOI Listing

Parent-child sexual and reproductive health communication among very young adolescents in Korogocho informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

Reprod Health 2020 Jun 1;17(1):79. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Parents are an important source of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information for very young adolescents and are likely to have a significant influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes, values, and risk-related beliefs. This study explored the nature and content of parent-child communication about SRH issues.

Methods: Thirty-two parents and 30 adolescent boys and girls aged between 11 and 13 years participated in narrative interviews in a resource-poor urban setting in Nairobi, Kenya. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00938-3DOI Listing

Community factors affecting participation in larval source management for malaria control in Chikwawa District, Southern Malawi.

Malar J 2020 Jun 2;19(1):195. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Training and Research Unit of Excellence, School of Public Health, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.

Background: To further reduce malaria, larval source management (LSM) is proposed as a complementary strategy to the existing strategies. LSM has potential to control insecticide resistant, outdoor biting and outdoor resting vectors. Concerns about costs and operational feasibility of implementation of LSM at large scale are among the reasons the strategy is not utilized in many African countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03268-8DOI Listing

Capacity building for implementation research: a methodology for advancing health research and practice.

Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Jun 1;18(1):53. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Implementation research is increasingly being recognised as an important discipline seeking to maximise the benefits of evidence-based interventions. Although capacity-building efforts are ongoing, there has been limited attention on the contextual and health system peculiarities in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, given the challenges encountered during the implementation of health interventions, the field of implementation research requires a creative attempt to build expertise for health researchers and practitioners simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12961-020-00568-yDOI Listing

Access to skilled attendant at birth and the coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine across 14 West African countries - an equity analysis.

Int J Equity Health 2020 Jun 1;19(1):78. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

African Population and Health Policy Initiative, Gombe, Nigeria.

Background: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) remains a critical public health goal that continues to elude many countries of the global south. As countries strive for its attainment, it is important to track progress in various subregions of the world to understand current levels and mechanisms of progress for shared learning. Our aim was to compare multidimensional equity gaps in access to skilled attendant at birth (SAB) and coverage of the third dose of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP3) across 14 West African countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01204-5DOI Listing

Poor mental health of livestock farmers in Africa: a mixed methods case study from Ghana.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):825. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: Agriculture represents the mainstay of African economies and livestock products are essential to the human population's nutritional needs. However, in many developing countries, including Ghana, livestock production fails to meet demand due to population growth and negative effects of climate change. One of the challenges to production is livestock loss affecting farmers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08949-2DOI Listing

Predictors of silicosis and variation in prevalence across mines among employed gold miners in South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):829. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The stated intention to eliminate silicosis from the South African goldmining industry as well as current programmes to find and compensate ex-miners with silicosis require an understanding of variation in silicosis prevalence across the industry. We aimed to identify the predictors of radiological silicosis in a large sample of working miners across gold mines in South Africa.

Methods: Routine surveillance chest radiographs were collected from 15 goldmine "clusters" in a baseline survey undertaken in preparation for a separate tuberculosis isoniazid prophylaxis trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08876-2DOI Listing

Diversity of endogenous avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions in indigenous chickens.

Genet Sel Evol 2020 Jun 1;52(1):29. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.

Background: Avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions are endogenous retroviruses (ERV) that are restricted to the domestic chicken and its wild progenitor. In commercial chickens, ALVE are known to have a detrimental effect on productivity and provide a source for recombination with exogenous retroviruses. The wider diversity of ALVE in non-commercial chickens and the role of these elements in ERV-derived immunity (EDI) are yet to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-020-00548-4DOI Listing

Mind the gaps: age and cause specific mortality and life expectancy in the older population of South Korea and Japan.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 1;20(1):819. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Recent life expectancy gains in high-income Asia-pacific countries have been largely the result of postponement of death from non-communicable diseases in old age, causing rapid demographic ageing. This study compared and quantified age- and cause-specific contributions to changes in old-age life expectancy in two high-income Asia-pacific countries with ageing populations, South Korea and Japan.

Methods: This study used Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing life expectancy to compare age- and cause-specific contributions to changes in old-age life expectancy between South Korea and Japan during 1997 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08978-xDOI Listing

The role of mentoring in research ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some experiences through the CARTA opportunity.

Glob Public Health 2020 Jun 2:1-12. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Mentoring is important for improving capacity development in population and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa. A variety of experiences have been documented since Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA) admitted the first cohort in 2011. However, the experience of mentoring opportunities in CARTA has not been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1776365DOI Listing

Comparison of pathogenicity of four clades in a neutropenic bloodstream infection murine model.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1160-1169

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

is an emerging worldwide concern, but comparative data about the virulence of different lineages in mammalian hosts is lacking. Different isolates of the four prevalent clades (South Asian = 5, East Asian = 4, South African = 5, and South American = 5) were compared to assess their virulence in a neutropenic murine bloodstream infection model with as reference. , regardless of clade, proved to be less virulent than Highest overall mortality at day 21 was observed for the South American clade (96%), followed by the South Asian (80%), South African (45%) and East Asian (44%) clades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1771218DOI Listing
December 2020

Pediatric Quality-of-Life Scores Following a Multidisciplinary Aerodigestive Team Approach to Manage Chronic Cough.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2020 Jun 2:3489420931558. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: Chronic recalcitrant cough is present in 2/3 of pediatric patients evaluated in our tertiary-care multidisciplinary aerodigestive clinic (ADC). This study aimed to determine the impact of chronic cough and efficacy of ADC treatment using the validated Pediatric-Cough Quality-of-Life-27 tool (PC-QOL-27).

Methods: The PC-QOL-27 survey was administered to ADC patients with chronic cough at initial clinic visit and 6 to 12 weeks after cough management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003489420931558DOI Listing

Circulating and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Black South African Women with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Nutrients 2020 May 31;12(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7700, South Africa.

: Background and Aims: During positive energy balance, excess lipid storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is associated with increased lipolysis. Elevated circulating fatty acid (FA) concentrations from both SAT lipolysis and dietary fat intake may result in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, impairment of glucose metabolism, altogether increasing obesity-associated metabolic risks. We aimed to test the hypothesis that FA composition of red blood cell total phospholipids (RBC-TPL) and SAT is associated with body fat centralisation (VAT/SAT ratio) and insulin sensitivity (S) in black South African women with obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061619DOI Listing

Combretastatins: An Overview of Structure, Probable Mechanisms of Action and Potential Applications.

Molecules 2020 May 31;25(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, 8330507 Santiago, Chile.

Combretastatins are a class of closely related stilbenes (combretastatins A), dihydrostilbenes (combretastatins B), phenanthrenes (combretastatins C) and macrocyclic lactones (combretastatins D) found in the bark of (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Kuntze, commonly known as the South African bush willow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112560DOI Listing

Effect of Blanching Pomegranate Seeds on Physicochemical Attributes, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Extracted Oil.

Molecules 2020 May 31;25(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Postharvest Technology Research Laboratory, South African Research Chair in Postharvest Technology, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa.

This study investigated the effect of blanching pomegranate seeds (PS) on oil yield, refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), conjugated trienes (K270), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging of the extracted oil. Furthermore, phytosterol and fatty acid compositions of the oil extracted under optimum blanching conditions were compared with those from the oil extracted from unblanched PS. Three different blanching temperature levels (80, 90, and 100 °C) were studied at a constant blanching time of 3 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112554DOI Listing