240,927 results match your criteria African Invertebrates[Journal]

Physical Activity Associates with Lower Systemic Inflammatory Gene Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Division of Rheumatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA, USA. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NIH/NIAMS R01 AR069616, NIH/NHLBI K23HL138461-01A1, and the Rheumatology Research Foundation. Corresponding Author: Sarah Patterson, M.D. Division of Rheumatology, University of California, San Francisco Box 0500, San Francisco, CA 94122 Email:

Objective: While general population studies have shown inverse associations between physical activity and common inflammatory biomarkers, the effects of physical activity on inflammatory gene expression and signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether physical activity independently associates with expression of inflammatory genes among people with RA.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of adults with RA. Read More

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The acceptance of xenotransplantation among african immigrants living in Spain: Short Title: Africans in Spain and Xenotransplantation.

Cir Esp (Engl Ed) 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante (International Collaborative Donor Project). Murcia, Spain; Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca. IMIB-Arrixaca. Unidad de Trasplantes, Murcia, Spain; Universidad de Murcia. Departamento de Cirugía, Pediatría, Obstetricia y Ginecología. Murcia, Spain.

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Initiation of anti-hypertensive drugs and outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and persistent hypertension.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; Uniformed Services University, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: National heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend that in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (EF;HFpEF) and hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) should be maintained below 130 mmHg. To examine the association between initiation of anti-hypertensive drugs and outcomes in patients with HFpEF with persistent hypertension.

Methods: Of the 8873 hospitalized patients with HFpEF (EF ≥50%) with a history of hypertension without renal failure in Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF, 3315 had a discharge SBP ≥130 mmHg, of whom 1971 were not receiving anti-hypertensive drugs, thiazides and calcium channel blockers, before hospitalization. Read More

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Aspalathus linearis suppresses cell survival and proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells via inhibition of c-Myc and stability of androgen receptor.

PLoS One 2022 1;17(7):e0270803. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan.

Enzalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, significantly prolonged the survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, patients receiving enzalutamide frequently develop drug resistance. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a shrub-like leguminous fynbos plant endemic to the Cedarberg Mountains area in South Africa. Read More

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Award rate inequities in biomedical research.

PLoS One 2022 1;17(7):e0270612. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Office of Research, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.

Purpose: The analysis of existing institutional research proposal databases can provide novel insights into science funding parity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between race/ethnicity and extramural research proposal and award rates across a medical school faculty and to determine whether there was evidence that researchers changed their submission strategies because of differential inequities across submission categories.

Method: The authors performed an analysis of 14,263 biomedical research proposals with proposed start dates between 2010-2022 from the University of Michigan Medical School, measuring the proposal submission and award rates for each racial/ethnic group across 4 possible submission categories (R01 & Equivalent programs, other federal, industry, and non-profit). Read More

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Prevalence and Risk Factors of PrEP Use Stigma Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Johannesburg, South Africa and Mwanza, Tanzania Participating in the EMPOWER Trial.

AIDS Behav 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Wits RHI, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), yet stigma may limit PrEP acceptance and continuation. We examined factors associated with PrEP use stigma among 307 participants of the EMPOWER trial (2016-2018), an unblinded randomized controlled trial among HIV-negative, AGYW, aged 16-24, in South Africa and Tanzania. The 6-item, brief-PrEP use stigma scale (B-PSS) had high internal reliability. Read More

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A novel "HIV salience and Perception" scale is associated with PrEP dispensing and adherence among adolescent girls and young women in Kampala, Uganda.

AIDS Behav 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Low perceived HIV risk is a barrier to effective pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among African adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). Single-item risk perception measures are stigmatizing and alienating to AGYW and may not predict PrEP use. There is a need for a tool capturing domains of perceived HIV risk and salience that align with PrEP use among AGYW. Read More

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Seasonal variations and associated health risks of polychlorinated naphthalenes in Markman Canal, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Environ Geochem Health 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

This study focused on evaluation of the levels, seasonal variations and human health risks associated with polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in water and sediment samples of Markman Canal using solid phase and soxhlet extraction methods respectively, followed by clean-up and quantification with gas chromatograph coupled with microelectron capture detector. The sum of eight PCNs congener's (∑PCNs) in water and sediments varied from 0.035 to 0. Read More

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A Review of Prevalence Estimation Methods for Human Trafficking Populations.

Public Health Rep 2022 Jul-Aug;137(1_suppl):46S-52S

308457 African Programming and Research Initiative to End Slavery (APRIES), School of Social Work, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Human trafficking has long-lasting implications for the well-being of trafficked people, families, and affected communities. Prevention and intervention efforts, however, have been stymied by a lack of information on the scale and scope of the problem. Because trafficked people are mostly hidden from view, traditional methods of establishing prevalence can be prohibitively expensive in the recruitment, participation, and retention of survey participants. Read More

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Post tuberculosis chronic lung disease in tuberculosis HIV coinfected and non-HIV individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2022 Apr-Jun;11(2):139-144

Department of Public Health, Arsi University, Ethiopia.

Background: Post tuberculosis (TB) sequelae are faced by many individuals who survive TB. The most common of all is post-TB chronic lung disease (CLD) and pulmonary impairment. We reviewed studies that estimated the prevalence of post-TB CLD in patients with TB only and those with TB-HIV coinfection. Read More

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Steri-strip versus subcuticular skin closure of paediatric groin wounds: A randomised study.

Afr J Paediatr Surg 2022 Jul-Sep;19(3):137-143

Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: A technique that offers the best chance of an optimal result is most appropriate to be employed for wound closure.

Aims: We set out to compare the cosmetic outcome, and wound complication rates associated with clean paediatric groin wounds closed using Steri-Strip™ or subcuticular suturing.

Settings And Design: A prospective randomised study. Read More

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Ethnic Minorities' Perceptions of COVID-19 Vaccines and Challenges in the Pandemic: A Qualitative Study to Inform COVID-19 Prevention Interventions.

Health Commun 2022 Jul 1:1-12. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Community and Behavioral Health, Colorado School of Public Health.

To inform health communication campaigns for COVID-19 prevention and vaccine promotion among racial and ethnic minorities facing disparities, we conducted formative research by interviewing Hispanic/Latino American (Latino), Black/African American (AA), and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) participants to explore their challenges during the pandemic, the barriers and facilitators to receiving COVID-19 vaccines, acceptability of using chatbots to deliver COVID-19 and vaccine information, and preferred features and suggestions for culturally tailored prevention messages. Positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine were mainly derived from beliefs that the vaccine can protect oneself and families from getting infected and help stop the pandemic. Negative perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine were driven by concerns about vaccine safety due to the rapid development process and side effects. Read More

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Identification of a rapidly-spreading triple mutant for high-level metabolic insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae provides a real-time molecular diagnostic for anti-malarial intervention deployment.

Mol Ecol 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Studies of insecticide resistance provide insights into the capacity of populations to show rapid evolutionary responses to contemporary selection. Malaria control remains heavily dependent on pyrethroid insecticides, primarily in long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Resistance in the major malaria vectors has increased in concert with the expansion of LLIN distributions. Read More

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Burden of and risk factors for sexual violence among women with and without disabilities in two sub-Saharan African countries.

Glob Health Action 2022 Dec;15(1):2077904

Direction de la Recherche, de la Coopération et de l'Appui Technique, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographique (IFORD), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Available data suggest that women with disabilities have an increased risk of sexual violence, but little is known about the situation of those women living in resource-limited settings.

Objectives: To assess the burden and examine the drivers of sexual violence among women with disabilities.

Methods: This is a pooled analysis of two population-based surveys conducted in Cameroon and Burundi. Read More

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December 2022

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Life Insurance Denial Due to Cancer among Cancer Survivors.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Jul;31(7):1511-1512

Purpose Of The Study: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in health and life insurance denial due to cancer among cancer survivors after the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2012 through 2020. The dependent variable asked: "Were you ever denied health insurance or life insurance coverage because of your cancer?" Cancer survivors were included if they were diagnosed with cancer after the Affordable Care Act (N=14,815). Read More

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Understanding Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment Intentions in a Tailored Risk Communication Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Jul;31(7):1513-1514

Background: Pathogenic variants in cancer predisposition genes increase second, hereditary cancer risk among women with breast and/or ovarian cancer, and primary cancers in their relatives. National guidelines recommend cancer genetic risk assessment (CGRA) (genetic counseling and/or genetic testing) for women at increased hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk. Yet, less than half of high risk women, including rural dwellers and racial minorities have accessed CGRA. Read More

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"Should I Give it to My Kids?": Factors that Influence HPV Vaccine Hesitancy Among African American Parents.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 Jul;31(7):1512

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to describe the influences that impact vaccine hesitancy in African American parents who have previously delayed or denied vaccinating their children against HPV.

Methods: We conducted three focus groups, approx. 90 minutes each. Read More

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Clinical guideline utilization in Uganda: A scoping review and comparison.

Trop Doct 2022 Jul 1:494755221094167. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Canadian Network for International Surgery, Vancouver, Canada.

Countries such as Uganda often depend on clinical practice guidelines from developed countries, non-profit charities, and international organizations. The sources and organizations that provide most of the guidelines used in Uganda are not well documented. The primary objective of this article was to determine whether a scoping review of scientific, peer-reviewed literature could identify the clinical guidelines actually used in Uganda. Read More

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Surveillance and Control of African Swine Fever in the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic, March-May 2020: A Multi-Country E-Survey.

Front Vet Sci 2022 6;9:867631. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, Unit of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Stringent COVID-19 public health and social measures (PHSMs) have challenged the work of animal health professionals, especially in the early phase of the pandemic. We aimed to qualitatively describe how COVID-19 PHSMs have affected the surveillance and control of African swine fever (ASF) in Europe, assess how professionals engaged in these activities perceived the impact of the COVID-19 crisis, and identify potential areas of improvement. An online questionnaire was proposed email between 9 December 2020 and 22 January 2021 to professionals engaged in ASF-related activities in Europe and Eastern neighboring countries. Read More

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Analysis of Risk Factors for High-Risk Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

Arthroplast Today 2022 Jun 8;15:196-201.e2. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Luminis Health Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and redefine patients at high risk for increased resource utilization and complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), so interventions may focus on patients standing to receive the most benefit.

Material And Methods: This is a retrospective study of 787 patients undergoing primary unilateral TJA from September 1, 2020, to September 31, 2021. Patients were deemed to be at "high risk" based on criteria derived from published literature and triaged to an enhanced preoperative education program. Read More

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in a Newly Diagnosed HIV Patient.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2022 4;9(5):003363. Epub 2022 May 4.

Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL, USA.

HIV infection is associated with multisystemic manifestations due both to secondary infections caused by a decrease in the CD4+ T-cell count and to the pathogenicity of the HIV virus itself. A common renal manifestation is HIV-associated nephropathy, which is frequently seen in the African population with the APOL1 gene mutation; however, other forms of glomerulopathy such as IgA nephropathy, commonly noted in other ethnicities, are also seen. Vasculitis has rarely been associated with HIV infection and mainly involves small blood vessels, although any size of blood vessel may be involved. Read More

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Understanding the Experiences of Black Women Medical Students and Residents: A Narrative Review.

Front Public Health 2022 14;10:879135. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: Few research studies examine medical students and residents with intersectional identities. In the emerging literature, data on Black women's experiences may be misrepresented and misinterpreted as studies aggregate data for women, students of color, and Black/African American men. As such, these studies do not account for the nuanced experiences of gendered racism that Black women students and residents may encounter during their medical education. Read More

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Structural Design and Assessing of Recombinantly Expressed African Swine Fever Virus p72 Trimer in .

Front Microbiol 2022 14;13:802098. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

In an effort to control the outbreak of the African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), there is an urgent need to develop an effective method to prevent the pandemic, including vaccines and diagnostic methods. The major capsid protein of ASFV p72 (B646L), which forms a trimer with each monomer adopting a double jelly roll fold, is the main component of the virus particle and major antigen of ASFV. Thus, the p72 protein may be considered an antigen candidate for vaccine and diagnostic development. Read More

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Application of Light-Sheet Mesoscopy to Image Host-Pathogen Interactions in Intact Organs.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 14;12:903957. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by the extracellular parasite that affects the central nervous system (CNS) during the chronic stage of the infection, inducing neuroinflammation, coma, and death if left untreated. However, little is known about the structural change happening in the brain as result of the infection. So far, infection-induced neuroinflammation has been observed with conventional methods, such as immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and 2-photon microscopy only in small portions of the brain, which may not be representative of the disease. Read More

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Genetic Structure of the Mangrove Killifish Costa, 2011 (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei) Supports A Wide Connection among its Populations.

Zool Stud 2022 23;60:e4. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa. E-mail: (Bragança).

The species group is composed of the only three vertebrate species that lack females. These species present only males and simultaneously hermaphroditic individuals; that are able to reproduce by allogamy, with males, or by autogamy, performing self-fertilization and generating clones of themselves. The proportion of males is variable among those species and even among their populations. Read More

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February 2022

Assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning experiences within a large southeast training program.

Med Educ Online 2022 Dec;27(1):2093692

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The USA has become increasingly diverse resulting in greater strides to improve workforce diversity and inclusivity. The objective of this study is to compare the experiences of trainees in Graduate Medical Education who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender or Questioning (LGBTQ) to the experiences of non-LGBTQ trainees within the medical workplace. We conducted a cross-sectional, exploratory survey from 1 December 2020 to 14 January 2021 at a single, large teaching institution. Read More

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December 2022

Interactive Voice Response Service to Improve High School Students Covid-19 Literacy in Burkina Faso: A Usability Study.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 Jun;295:454-457

BPH Centre Inserm 1219 - University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Mobile technology is widely used in healthcare. However, designers and developers in many cases have focused on developing solutions that are often tailored to highly literate people. While the advent of the pandemic has called for people to seek and use Covid-19 related information to adapt their behaviors, it is relatively difficult for low literate to get easily access to health information through digital technologies. Read More

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Applying Participatory Design Mixed-Methods Approaches to Refine Twitter-Based Social Support Interventions for African Americans and Hispanic Family Caregivers of Persons with Dementia.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 Jun;295:324-327

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, USA.

We applied mixed-methods to refine our first version of the Twitter message library (English 400, translated into Spanish 400) for African Americans and Hispanic family caregivers for a person with dementia. We conducted a series of expert panels to collect quantitative and qualitative data using surveys and in-depth interviews. Using mixed methods to ensure unbiased results, the panelists first independently scored them (1 message/5 panelist) on a scale of 1 to 4 (1: lowest, 4: highest), followed by in-depth interviews and group discussions. Read More

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A Systematic Review on Improving Health Literacy in Rural Africa Using Mobile Serious Games.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 Jun;295:140-143

BPH Centre Inserm 1219 - University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Driven by an increase in the availability of cheap low-cost mobile phones and a jump in the number of telecom subscribers, the African gaming world is booming. Most importantly, it has opened an opportunity for rural communities to have an almost identical mobile phone experience than people living in urban areas. It has also opened an opportunity to leverage this high penetration of mobile devices to design mobile-based applications such as mobile serious games. Read More

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A risk measurement tool for targeted HIV prevention measures amongst young pregnant and lactating women in South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2022 Jun 30;22(1):1277. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

HIV and other Infectious Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, 491 Peter Mokaba Ridge, Durban, 4001, South Africa.

Background: We aimed to develop and validate a tool to identify which pregnant/lactating young South African women (≤ 24 years) are at risk of HIV infection.

Methods: Data from three national South African Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) evaluations were used to internally validate three HIV acquisition risk models for young postpartum women. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine which risk factors were significant. Read More

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