187,619 results match your criteria African Invertebrates[Journal]


Development and pharmacokinetics of a combination vaginal ring for sustained release of dapivirine and the protein microbicide 5P12-RANTES.

Int J Pharm 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK. Electronic address:

The past fifteen years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in vaginal ring technologies for drug delivery applications, mostly driven by the impetus for development of vaginally-administered antiretroviral microbicides to help reduce the high acquisition rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Sub-Saharan African women. Currently, the lead candidate microbicide is a 28-day silicone elastomer vaginal ring releasing dapivirine (Ring-004), an experimental non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The ring was tested in two pivotal Phase III clinical studies in 2016 and is currently undergoing review by the European Medicines Agency. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03785173193030
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.040DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Factors associated with recovery from stunting among under-five children in two Nairobi informal settlements.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215488. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Childhood stunting is a public health concern in many low-and-middle income countries, as it is associated with both short-term and long-term negative effects on child cognitive development, physical health, and schooling outcomes. There is paucity of studies on recovery from stunting among under five children in these countries. Most studies focused on the recovery much later in adolescence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215488PLOS

Higher rates of HBsAg clearance with tenofovir-containing therapy in HBV/HIV co-infection.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215464. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Le Trait d'Union, HIV-Infection Care Center, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: Achieving functional cure of chronic HBV infection (Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] clearance, eventually followed by acquisition of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen [Anti-HBs]) in individuals with HIV and HBV infections is a rare event. In this setting, factors related to HBV cure have not yet been fully characterized.

Methods: HIV-infected individuals with chronic HBV infection enrolled in the French Dat'AIDS cohort (NCT02898987), who started combined antiretroviral (cART)-anti-HBV treatment were retrospectively analyzed for HBsAg loss and Anti-HBs seroconversion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215464PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity and associated factors - Cardiovascular responsiveness and psychological status.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215534. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Pain and Translational Symptom Science, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

This study evaluated the contributions of psychological status and cardiovascular responsiveness to racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. The baseline measures of 3,159 healthy individuals-non-Hispanic white (NHW): 1,637, African-American (AA): 1,012, Asian: 299, and Hispanic: 211-from the OPPERA prospective cohort study were used. Cardiovascular responsiveness measures and psychological status were included in structural equation modeling based mediation analyses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215534PLOS

Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography integrated with computed tomography in carcinoma of the cervix: Its impact on accurate staging and the predictive role of its metabolic parameters.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215412. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Objectives: To determine the impact of FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of cervical cancer among women with and without HIV and to determine the abilities of FDG-PET/CT metabolic parameters in predicting the presence of distant metastasis.

Methods: We reviewed the FDG-PET/CT images of women with FIGO stage IB2 to IVA carcinoma of the cervix. We compared the FIGO stage before and after FDG-PET/CT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215412PLOS

APOL1 renal risk variants promote cholesterol accumulation in tissues and cultured macrophages from APOL1 transgenic mice.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0211559. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Kidney Disease Section, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants G1 and G2, compared to the common allele G0, are major risk factors for non-diabetic kidney disease in African descent populations. APOL1 is a minor protein component of HDL, as well as being expressed in podocytes and vascular cells. Reverse cholesterol transport involves the transport of cholesterol to HDL by cellular ATP-binding cassette; ABCA1 and ABCG1 with subsequent delivery from peripheral tissues to the liver. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211559PLOS

Prevalence of Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Persons Aged 13-24 Years - Four Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2013-2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Apr 19;68(15):350-355. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Violence is a major public health and human rights concern, claiming over 1.3 million lives globally each year (1). Despite the scope of this problem, population-based data on physical and sexual violence perpetration are scarce, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (2,3). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6815a3DOI Listing

Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure reference values in Africans.

Blood Press Monit 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

South African Hypertension and Diet Study, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objective: We aimed to establish reference values for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in an African community.

Patients And Methods: We randomly recruited 1219 participants of African ancestry from Soweto, a township in Johannesburg. Twenty-four hour ABP was measured using ABP monitors (model 90207; Spacelab). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000376DOI Listing

XGBoost Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a menace that is affecting 10% of the world population and 15% of the South African population. The early and cheap diagnosis of this disease with accuracy and reliability will save 20,000 lives in South Africa per year. Scientists are developing smart solutions with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8693581/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2019.2911071DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Clinical and Angiographic Characteristics, Social Determinants of Health, and 1-Year Outcomes After Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent Procedures in Women.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Apr;12(4):e006918

Interventional Heart Program, Inova Health System, Inova Heart & Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA (W.B.).

Background The impact of race/ethnicity on coronary stent outcomes in women is unknown. We compared baseline characteristics, social determinants of health, and 1-year outcomes in female African Americans (AA) and Hispanic/Latinas (HL) versus white women after coronary everolimus-eluting stent implantation in all-comer patients. Methods and Results We pooled 1863 women from the PLATINUM Diversity (n=1057 women) and PROMUS ELEMENT PLUS (n=806 women) postapproval studies, with some overlap in study sites. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.11
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.006918DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF) in low-income and urban adolescents.

Psychol Assess 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychology.

Reliable, brief, and cost-effective methods to assess parenting are critical for advancing etiological research and translational efforts within parenting science. In the current study, we adapted the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF) for use among a sample of mostly racial minority adolescents aged 15 years old, growing up in a low-income urban setting. A multiethnic team coded videotapes of a family interaction task designed to elicit conflict. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000719DOI Listing

First field evidence infection of by West Nile virus in Sahara Oasis of Algeria.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):305-309

Laboratoire d'Eco-épidémiologie Parasitaire et Génétique des Populations, Boumerdesse, Algeria.

Background & Objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is considered one of the most widely distributed arboviruses in the world which is transmitted by several mosquito species including the Culex genus. Culex pipiens is the major vector of this virus in Europe and USA whereas in African countries, other species such as Cx. perexiguus is considered as an important vector. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.256566DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Suspected resistance of Trypanosoma species to diminazene aceturate on a cattle farm in Nigeria.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria.

African animal trypanosomiasis is a major cause of mortality and economic losses for the livestock industry in Nigeria. Chemotherapy has been the most reliable option for cattle herders, and the most commonly found drug on the market is diminazene aceturate. To ascertain the long-term efficacy of this compound, we sampled a cattle herd in Ogun State, Nigeria, 2 months after they were treated with diminazene aceturate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11250-019-01902-5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01902-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comparative Effects of Medical Versus Surgical Weight Loss on Body Composition: a Pilot Randomized Trial.

Obes Surg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Bariatric surgery leads to more rapid and greater weight loss (WL) compared to medical weight loss (MWL), but the differences in body composition (BC) changes for these modalities remain unclear. Due to the known health risks associated with central adiposity, we compared the changes in regional distribution of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) after surgical versus MWL.

Methods: In this 1:1:1 randomized trial among 15 persons with type 2 diabetes and body mass index (BMI) 30-39. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-03879-4DOI Listing

New insight into poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Azomonas macrocytogenes isolate KC685000: large scale production, kinetic modeling, recovery and characterization.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Organization of African Unity St., Abbassia, 11566, Cairo, Egypt.

About 24 h incubation of Azomonas (A.) macrocytogenes isolate KC685000 in 14L fermenter produced 22% poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) biopolymer using 1 vvm aeration, 10% inoculum size, and initial pH of 7.2. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04798-4DOI Listing

Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers.

J Sport Health Sci 2019 Mar 24;8(2):114-121. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.

Purpose: To examine the associations among preschoolers fundamental motor skills, screen-time, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB).

Methods: Children ages 3-4years were enrolled in a prospective observational trial of PA. Trained assessors conducted the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rdedition (TGMD-3), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition, and parent-reported child screen-time and sociodemographic information. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20952546183010
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450921PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Global, regional and national burden of emergency medical diseases using specific emergency disease indicators: analysis of the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(2):e000733. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

The Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: There are currently no metrics for measuring population-level burden of emergency medical diseases (EMDs). This study presents an analysis of the burden of EMDs using two metrics: the emergency disease mortality rate (EDMR) and the emergency disease burden (EDB) per 1000 population at the national, regional and global levels.

Methods: We used the 1990 and 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study for morbidity and mortality data on 249 medical conditions in 195 countries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441258PMC

Analysis of pre-residency research productivity, dual degree status, and gender distribution of underrepresented minorities among a current United States radiation oncology junior resident class.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2019 May-Jun;24(3):284-287. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: Among the most competitive medical subspecialties, representation of underrepresented minorities (African-American race and/or Hispanic ethnicity) among resident trainees has historically been low compared to their United States Census general population representation. Research productivity and dual degree status may impact residency applicant competitiveness. To date, such an analysis has yet to be performed in Radiation Oncology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpor.2019.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451161PMC

Influence of infrared heating processing technology on the cooking characteristics and functionality of African legumes: a review.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Apr 8;56(4):1669-1682. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028 South Africa.

African legumes are an important protein source in the human diet. However, a long and often extended cooking process has been identified as a major challenge in the consumption and utilisation of these legumes. The application of infrared heating as a method of shortening the cooking-time of African legume seeds and flour, by increasing their water absorption rates and pasting viscosity is emphasised in literature. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443696PMC
April 2019
1 Read

[Chronic phosphoproteomic in temporal lobe epilepsy mouse models induced by kainic acid].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):197-205

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To investigate functions of proteins and signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy in mouse models.

Methods: Kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy models were conducted, when reaching stage 4 using racine scale, the mice of experimental group were supposed to be successfully established. Pentobarbital sodium was injected to stop epileptic seizure in case of death. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from the early South African epidemic, detecting a BD unique recombinant form (URF) from a sample in 1985.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6227. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa.

HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent subtype in South Africa. Although subtype B was previously detected in South Africa, there is limited sequence information available. We characterized near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from samples collected at the start of the South African HIV-1 epidemic, in the 1980s. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42417-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42417-1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Territoriality and variation in home range size through the entire annual range of migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius).

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6238. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Behavioural and Physiological Ecology group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Variation in home range size throughout the year and its causes are not well understood yet. Migratory brood parasites offer a unique opportunity to incorporate this spatio-temporal dimension into the study of the factors regulating home range dynamics. Using satellite transmitters, we tracked sixteen migratory great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) of both sexes for up to three years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41943-2DOI Listing

Comparisons of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope variants in blood and genital fluids near the time of male-to-female transmission.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA

To better understand the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), the genetic characteristics of male blood and genital viruses were compared to the imputed founding virus population in their female partners. Initially serodiscordant heterosexual African couples with sequence-confirmed male-to-female HIV-1 transmission and blood and genitial specimens near the time of transmission were studied. Single viral templates from blood plasma and genital tract RNA and DNA were sequenced across HIV-1 gp160. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01769-18DOI Listing

Timing of Palliative Consultation for Children During a Fatal Illness.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio;

Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends palliative care for children at the diagnosis of serious illness. Yet few children who die receive specialty palliative care consultation, and when it is provided, palliative care consultation tends to occur after >75% of the time from diagnosis until death. Focusing on the timing of palliative consultation in relation to the date of diagnosis, we evaluated factors predicting earlier receipt of pediatric palliative care in a cohort of decedents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2018-0169DOI Listing

Multivariate genome-wide association study of rapid automatised naming and rapid alternating stimulus in Hispanic American and African-American youth.

J Med Genet 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Background: Rapid automatised naming (RAN) and rapid alternating stimulus (RAS) are reliable predictors of reading disability. The underlying biology of reading disability is poorly understood. However, the high correlation among RAN, RAS and reading could be attributable to shared genetic factors that contribute to common biological mechanisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105874DOI Listing

Predictors of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants under 29-weeks gestation.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Apr 17:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

d Division of Neonatology , Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , MN , USA.

Purpose: Preterm infants <29 weeks of gestation are at risk for severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Lower gestational age, birth weight, severe illness, as indexed by higher Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology - Perinatal Extension II (SNAPPE-II) are associated with severe IVH. The role of coagulation abnormalities on the first day after birth in severe IVH remains controversial. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1601698DOI Listing

Systematic Review of Important Bacterial Zoonoses in Africa in the Last Decade in Light of the 'One Health' Concept.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 16;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and wildlife, immunosuppression as well as coinfection with other diseases. The interconnections between humans, animals and the environment are essential to understand the spread and subsequent containment of zoonoses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020050DOI Listing

Microanalytical Quality of Imported Green Coffee Beans.

J Food Prot 1988 Jul;51(7):569-570

Division of Microbiology and Division of Mathematics, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC 20204.

A 3-year national survey was made to determine the sanitary quality of green coffee beans offered for import into the United States. The methods of the Food and Drug Administration's Macroanalytical Procedures Manual were used to analyze samples for mammalian excreta, insect damage and mold. Insect damage was the most frequently encountered defect. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.7.569DOI Listing

Survival Advantage of African American Dialysis Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Causes Related to APOL1.

Cardiorenal Med 2019 Apr 17;9(4):212-221. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Kidney Disease Branch, NIDDK, Bethesda, Maryland, USA,

Background: Observational studies show that African American (AA) dialysis patients have longer survival than European Americans. We hypothesized that apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variation, associated with nephropathy in AAs, contributes to the survival advantage in AA dialysis patients.

Methods: We examined the association between race and mortality among 37,097 adult dialysis patients, including 54% AAs and 46% European Americans from a large dialysis organization (entry period from July 2001 to June 2006, follow-up through June 2007), within each cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) category associated with APOL1 renal risk variants using Cox proportional hazard models. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/496472
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496472DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Generation of ERK-Independent Human and Non-Human Primate Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2019 Apr 17:e85. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

The production of human organs inside human-animal interspecies chimeras might one day comprise a viable strategy for generating patient-specific organs, but such experiments will require human chimera-competent pluripotent stem (PS) cells. The stabilization of PS cell self-renewal in serum-free medium and ERK blockade might be critical for capturing primate chimera-competent pluripotency. It has recently been shown that shielding primate cells from the activation of ERK, WNT, and PKC signaling is crucial for deriving African green monkey ERK-independent PS cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpsc.85DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Longitudinal relations between trauma-related psychological distress and physical aggression among urban early adolescents.

J Clin Psychol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

There is convincing evidence that trauma-related psychological distress and aggressive behavior are highly related among adolescents. The evidence is less clear regarding the direction of this relation.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal longitudinal relations between trauma-related distress and physical aggression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22781DOI Listing

Effects of water supplementation of an organic acid-trace mineral complex on production and slaughter parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and macronutrient digestibility in growing ostriches.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran 14159-4-4341, Iran.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of water supplementation of organic acid-chelated trace minerals (OTM) on production traits, carcass characteristics, intestinal histomorphology, and nutrient digestibility in African ostrich chicks from 8 to 12 mo of age. A total of 20 growing ostriches, with almost similar body weight (73.4 to 75. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://academic.oup.com/ps/advance-article/doi/10.3382/ps/p
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez221DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cerebral inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in microglia, astrocytes and neurons in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215070. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Malaria Research Unit, UMR 5246 CNRS, Claude-Bernard Lyon-1 University, Villeurbanne, France.

To study the anatomo-biochemical substrates of brain inflammatory processes, Wistar male rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. With this reproducible animal model of human African trypanosomiasis, brain cells (astrocytes, microglial cells, neurons) expressing the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme were revealed. Immunohistochemistry was achieved for each control and infected animal through eight coronal brain sections taken along the caudorostral axis of the brain (brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215070PLOS

Chronic kidney disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an urban cohort.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215575. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nephrology Training Program at Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Our purpose was to understand the genesis of CKD in HIV patients from a large urban clinic in Houston, Texas, USA, and to characterize progression of CKD in the cohort. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215575PLOS

Evolutionary history of burrowing asps (Lamprophiidae: Atractaspidinae) with emphasis on fang evolution and prey selection.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214889. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Atractaspidines are poorly studied, fossorial snakes that are found throughout Africa and western Asia, including the Middle East. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses and divergence dating approaches to investigate evolutionary relationships and biogeographic patterns of atractaspidines with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1). We sampled 91 individuals from both atractaspidine genera (Atractaspis and Homoroselaps). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214889PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 17;13(4):e0007343. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; St. Paul, MN, United States of America.

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Recent studies identified mutations in ZIKV infecting humans that arose coincident with the outbreak in French Polynesia and were stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007343DOI Listing

Apparent interference with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by liposomal amphotericin B in a patient with disseminated blastomycosis receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Drake University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Des Moines, IA.

Purpose: We describe the use of liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B deoxycholate in a critically ill patient with pulmonary blastomycosis receiving both venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).

Summary: A 50-year-old African American man presented for dyspnea and cough and was noted to have blastomycosis on bronchoscopy. He developed respiratory failure and acute kidney injury, requiring mechanical ventilation, ECMO, and CRRT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz054DOI Listing

Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180479. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180479DOI Listing

Euphausiacea diversity in a trans-oceanic transect through the South Atlantic Ocean: the first Atlantic record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180034. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica/PPGOFQG, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8 , Campus Carreiros, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.

Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil-Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180034DOI Listing

Glaucoma in Phacomatosis Pigmentovascularis in a Young African Male: A Case Report.

J Glaucoma 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis has previously almost exclusively been reported in Asians and in dermatological journals. In this report, we present a case of a young black South African male referred to our eye clinic.

Case Presentation: A 15-year-old male patient presented with gradual, painless loss of vision in his right eye. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001264DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pilot Evaluation of a Conservation Corps Program for Young Adults.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2019 Apr 17:306624X19843424. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 University of California, Irvine, USA.

Education and employment programs may be effective at reducing problem behaviors among at-risk young adults. This pilot study evaluated whether participants in a Conservation Corps program ( N = 100) showed changes in antisocial behavior, gang membership, and substance use during the program. Participants were young adults between 18 and 24 years who were predominantly male (60%) and ethnic minority (62% Latino; 31% African American). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19843424DOI Listing

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0171DOI Listing

Metformin modifies disparity in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in men with type 2 diabetes but without chronic liver diseases.

Cancer Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), San Antonio, Texas.

Background: We assessed racial/ethnic disparity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence among men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but without chronic liver diseases (CLD), and whether metformin use modified the disparity.

Methods: Study cohort: the nationwide Veterans Administration Health Care System electronic medical records among 40-89 years old men with T2D; without CLD, cancer, cardiovascular or renal diseases previously; insulin and thiazolidinedione naive. Logistic regression analyses compared HCC incidence between race/ethnicity groups under no metformin use adjusted for covariates and inverse propensity score weights (IPSW) for race/ethnicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cam4.2142
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2142DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Characteristics of melanoma in white and nonwhite children, adolescents, and young adults: Analysis of a pediatric melanoma institutional registry, 1995-2018.

Pediatr Dermatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program, Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, California.

Objectives: To characterize clinical differences among nonwhite/multiethnic vs white children, adolescents, and young adults with melanoma or atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including atypical Spitz tumors.

Patients And Methods: A cohort of 55 patients (< 25 years of age) prospectively followed from 1995 to 2018 in the Stanford Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program was analyzed for differences in clinical presentation, including skin phototype, race/ethnicity, age, sex, tumor/melanoma characteristics, and outcome.

Results: Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females) were classified as nonwhite (predominantly skin phototype IV) and of Hispanic, Asian, or Black/African American ethnicity, and 38 patients (21 males and 17 females) were classified as white (predominantly phototypes I/II). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.13836DOI Listing

Barriers and Facilitators of PrEP Adherence for Young Men and Transgender Women of Color.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Craig A. Dalsimer Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We aimed to discover barriers and facilitators of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in young men and transgender women of color who have sex with men (YMSM/TW). Short-term and sustained adherence were measured by urine tenofovir concentration and pharmacy refills, respectively. Optimal adherence was defined as having both urine tenofovir concentration consistent with dose ingestion within 48 h and pharmacy refills consistent with ≥ 4 doses per week use. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-y
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02502-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Nephrotic Syndrome in South African Children: Changing Perspectives in the New Millennium.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Apr 12;4(4):522-534. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

The epidemiological landscape of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in South Africa has changed drastically in the New Millennium. Although the pattern of disease in the 3 main non-Black racial groups (White, Indian, and Mixed race) mirror that seen in Western countries, Black African children show a pattern of disease that is at variance with these 3 racial groups. The incidence of infectious diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus associated nephropathy has sharply declined to being almost extinct in Black children in the New Millennium whereas HIV-related nephropathy surfaced. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24680249193004
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451079PMC
April 2019
1 Read

A spatial database of lowland cropping systems in Benin, Mali and Sierra Leone.

Data Brief 2019 Jun 26;24:103876. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551 Bouaké 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

This paper presents data collected in 2013, 2014 and 2015 on the cultural practices and agronomic performance of cropping systems in 500 lowland rice fields located in five regions of three West African countries, Benin, Mali and Sierra Leone. Data were collected in two stages. In the first stage, the main regions containing inland valleys were identified in each of the three countries and the most cultivated inland valley in each region was selected. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23523409193022
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449772PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Etorphine-Ketamine Constant Rate Infusion for Maintenance of Anaesthesia in a Compromised White Rhinoceros ().

Case Rep Vet Med 2019 12;2019:4309043. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

A subadult white rhinoceros bull presented for oesophageal endoscopic evaluation and foreign body removal under general anaesthesia. The animal had a history of nasal and oral regurgitation of water and ingesta with weight-loss for 6 days prior to the procedure and had been diagnosed with oesophageal obstruction caused by a bailing wire. Anaesthesia was induced with intramuscular etorphine and azaperone delivered remotely by dart, followed by an intravenous bolus of ketamine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4309043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434309PMC

Dentinogenesis imperfecta in Osteogenesis imperfecta type XI in South Africa: a genotype-phenotype correlation.

BDJ Open 2019 11;5. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

2University of the Western Cape/University of Cape Town Collaborative Dental Genetics Clinic, Red Cross Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The maxillofacial and dental manifestations of Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have significant implications in terms of management. Although the occurrence of abnormal dentine in some forms of OI is well documented, there is scant information on the association of abnormal dentine in the Black African persons with phenotypic OI III and genotypic OI XI in South Africa.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytic study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41405-019-0014-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459848PMC