202,339 results match your criteria African Invertebrates[Journal]


Genome-wide admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, criterion count, and the self-rating of the effects of ethanol in African American populations.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32805DOI Listing

Mechanics of heel-strike plantigrady in African apes.

J Hum Evol 2020 Jul 7;145:102840. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, 22807, USA.

The initiation of a walking step with a heel strike is a defining characteristic of humans and great apes but is rarely found in other mammals. Despite the considerable importance of heel strike to an understanding of human locomotor evolution, no one has explicitly tested the fundamental mechanical question of why great apes use a heel strike. In this report, we test two hypotheses (1) that heel strike is a function of hip protraction and/or knee extension and (2) that short-legged apes with a midfoot that dorsiflexes at heel lift and long digits for whom digitigrady is not an option use heel-strike plantigrady. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102840DOI Listing

Pitted stones in the Acheulean from Olduvai Gorge Beds III and IV (Tanzania): A use-wear and 3D approach.

J Hum Evol 2020 Jul 8;145:102837. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Instituto de Historia, CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, Madrid, 28037, Spain.

The archaeological sequence of Olduvai Gorge Beds III and IV is essential for the study of the evolution of the African Acheulean between ∼1.3 Ma and 0.6 Ma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102837DOI Listing

"Clinical Characteristics, Outcomes and Prognosticators in Adult Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19".

Am J Infect Control 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

IU Health Physicians Inpatient Medicine, IU School of Medicine Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, 1801 N Senate Boulevard, Noyes Pavilion E-140, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of patients admitted with COVID-19 to one site in March 2020. Patients were stratified into three groups: survivors who did not receive mechanical ventilation (MV), survivors who received MV and those who received MV and died during hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.07.005DOI Listing

Fleas and flea-borne diseases of North Africa.

Acta Trop 2020 Jul 8:105627. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA; VITROME; IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille; France. Electronic address:

North Africa has an interesting and rich wildlife including hematophagous arthropods, and specifically fleas, which constitute a large part of the North African fauna, and are recognised vectors of several zoonotic bacteria. Flea-borne organisms are widely distributed throughout the world in endemic disease foci, where components of the enzootic cycle are present. Furthermore, flea-borne diseases could re-emerge in epidemic form because of changes in the vector-host ecology due to environmental and human behaviour modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105627DOI Listing

A Chicken Production Intervention and Additional Nutrition Behavior Change Component Increased Child Growth in Ethiopia: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

J Nutr 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Chicken production in the context of nutrition-sensitive agriculture may benefit child nutrition in low-income settings.

Objectives: This study evaluated effects of 1) a chicken production intervention [African Chicken Genetic Gains (ACGG)], and 2) the ACGG intervention with nutrition-sensitive behavior change communication (BCC) [ACGG + Agriculture to Nutrition (ATONU)], on child nutrition and health outcomes and hypothesized intermediaries.

Methods: Forty ACGG villages received 25 genetically improved chickens and basic husbandry guidance; of these, 20 ACGG + ATONU villages in addition received a nutrition-sensitive behavior change and homegardening intervention; 20 control clusters received no intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa181DOI Listing

High Blood Pressure Medication Adherence Among Urban, African Americans in the Midwest United States.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Hypertension is a chronic condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Managing high blood pressure (HBP) requires adherence to daily medication. However, many patients with hypertension take their HBP medication inconsistently, putting them at heightened risk of heart disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00819-2DOI Listing

Meta-analysis of the association between CHCHD10 Pro34Ser variant and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Sichuan Provincial Rehabilitation Hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, 81, Ba Yi Road, Wenjiang, Chengdu, 611135, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), one of the motor neuron diseases, appears to be caused by genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the influence of Pro34Ser variant of CHCHD10 gene in increasing risk of ALS remains indeterminate. This study conducted a meta-analysis to establish the association between Pro34Ser variant of CHCHD10 gene and risk of ALS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04579-zDOI Listing

The Cancer Clear & Simple Story: Developing a Cancer Prevention Curriculum for Rural Wisconsin Through a Community Partnership.

J Cancer Educ 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Medicine, Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin, Room 7.702, 1701 Trinity St., Austin, TX, 78712-1850, USA.

To address rural cancer disparities, the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center launched a rural cancer project through its Cancer Health Disparities Initiative (CHDI) in 2010. With support from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) National Outreach Network, CHDI conducted an assessment of rural counties and partnered with Adams County to implement a collaborative cancer education project. Together CHDI and Adams County partners selected an evidence-based educational curriculum, Understanding Cancer, as a basis for local adaptation for use with rural Wisconsin communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01819-wDOI Listing

History of the Pan African Paediatric Surgery Association (PAPSA).

Pediatr Surg Int 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Paediatric Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX39DU, UK.

The Pan African Paediatric Surgery Association (PAPSA) was formed in 1994. The need for an organisation in Africa to voice children's surgery and the trials and tribulations in forming this organisation was covered in this journal 2 years ago (Heinz R, Kyambi J, Lakhoo K. Surg Int 34(5):499-504, 2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-020-04708-xDOI Listing

Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from South Africa and Nigeria differ in virulence factor pathogenicity profile and associated gastric disease outcome.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11409. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Chair of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Max von Pettenkofer-Institute, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterial pathogen and the causative agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and classified as a WHO class I carcinogen. While the prevalence of H. pylori infections in Africa is among the highest in the world, the incidence of gastric cancer is comparably low. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66128-0DOI Listing

Large-scale mass wasting in the western Indian Ocean constrains onset of East African rifting.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3456. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FE, United Kingdom.

Faulting and earthquakes occur extensively along the flanks of the East African Rift System, including an offshore branch in the western Indian Ocean, resulting in remobilization of sediment in the form of landslides. To date, constraints on the occurrence of submarine landslides at margin scale are lacking, leaving unanswered a link between rifting and slope instability. Here, we show the first overview of landslide deposits in the post-Eocene stratigraphy of the Tanzania margin and we present the discovery of one of the biggest landslides on Earth: the Mafia mega-slide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17267-5DOI Listing

Within-host microevolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae is rapid and adaptive during natural colonisation.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3442. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Medical Research Council (MRC) Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Fajara, The Gambia.

Genomic evolution, transmission and pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an opportunistic human-adapted pathogen, is driven principally by nasopharyngeal carriage. However, little is known about genomic changes during natural colonisation. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing to investigate within-host microevolution of naturally carried pneumococci in ninety-eight infants intensively sampled sequentially from birth until twelve months in a high-carriage African setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17327-wDOI Listing

Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancers from Men with African and European Ancestry.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine; Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center; Bakar Computational Health Sciences Institute; Institute for Human Genetics; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center; University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Purpose: African American (AFR) men have the highest mortality rate from prostate cancer (PCa) compared with men of other racial/ancestral groups. Differences in the spectrum of somatic genome alterations in tumors between AFR men and other populations have not been well-characterized due to a lack of inclusion of significant numbers in genomic studies.

Experimental Design: To identify genomic alterations associated with race, we compared the frequencies of somatic alterations in PCa obtained from four publicly available datasets comprising 250 AFR and 611 European American (EUR) men and a targeted sequencing dataset from a commercial platform of 436 AFR and 3018 EUR men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-4112DOI Listing

Renal medullary carcinoma involving serous cavity fluids: a cytomorphologic study of 12 cases.

J Am Soc Cytopathol 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a highly lethal adenocarcinoma with a propensity for widespread metastatic disease in young patients. It is strongly associated with sickle cell trait and shows the loss of SMARCB1 (also known as INI1 or BAF47) protein expression. In the present study, we reviewed a series of 12 patients for whom the cytology specimens played a significant role in patient treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasc.2020.05.016DOI Listing

Gender differences in Epworth Sleepiness Scale revealed by paired patient-spouse scoring.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 7:107272. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for Health Equity and Quality Research (CHEQR), University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, 580 W. 8th St, Tower 1, 9th floor, UF Department of Neurology, Jacksonville, FL 32209, United States of America.

Purpose: Evaluation of daytime sleepiness in the clinical sleep practice is commonly performed by administering the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Our study investigates gender differences of ESS responses in patients (PTs) with a primary complaint of nighttime sleep disruption as they relate to ESS responses obtained from PTs' spouses (Ss).

Methods: One hundred and sixty-four patient-spouse (PT-S) pairs were recruited for the study and asked to independently complete ESS questionnaires consisting of 8 sleepiness scenarios (Q1-Q8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107272DOI Listing

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality among Non-Hispanic African American and White Women, United States, 1999-2015.

J Natl Med Assoc 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hudson College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Background: Cervical cancer, a preventable cancer, has disproportionately affected African American women. To better understand the burden of cervical cancer, we assessed incidence and mortality rates and analyzed trends among non-Hispanic (NH) African American and White women in the US from 1999 to 2015.

Methods: From age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for comparison between the two races. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2020.06.007DOI Listing

The immunogenetic diversity of the HLA system in Mexico correlates with underlying population genetic structure.

Authors:
Rodrigo Barquera Diana Iraíz Hernández-Zaragoza Alicia Bravo-Acevedo Esteban Arrieta-Bolaños Stephen Clayton Víctor Acuña-Alonzo Julio César Martínez-Álvarez Concepción López-Gil Carmen Adalid-Sáinz María Del Rosario Vega-Martínez Araceli Escobedo-Ruíz Eva Dolores Juárez-Cortés Alexander Immel Hanna Pacheco-Ubaldo Liliana González-Medina Abraham Lona-Sánchez Julio Lara-Riegos María Guadalupe de Jesús Sánchez-Fernández Rosario Díaz-López Gregorio Ulises Guizar-López Carolina Elizabeth Medina-Escobedo María Araceli Arrazola-García Gustavo Daniel Montiel-Hernández Ofelia Hernández-Hernández Flor Del Rocío Ramos-de la Cruz Francisco Juárez-Nicolás Jorge Arturo Pantoja-Torres Tirzo Jesús Rodríguez-Munguía Vicencio Juárez-Barreto Héctor Delgado-Aguirre Ariadna Berenice Escutia-González Isis Goné-Vázquez Gamaliel Benítez-Arvizu Francia Paulina Arellano-Prado Víctor Eduardo García-Arias Marla Estefanía Rodríguez-López Patricia Méndez-Mani Raquel García-Álvarez Marisela Del Rocío González-Martínez Guadalupe Aquino-Rubio Néstor Escareño-Montiel Tannya Verónica Vázquez-Castillo María Guadalupe Uribe-Duarte María de Jesús Ruíz-Corral Andrea Ortega-Yáñez Natalia Bernal-Felipe Benjamín Gómez-Navarro Agustín Jericó Arriaga-Perea Virginia Martínez-Bezies Rosa María Macías-Medrano Jesús Abraham Aguilar-Campos Raúl Solís-Martínez Ricardo Serrano-Osuna Mario J Sandoval-Sandoval Yolanda Jaramillo-Rodríguez Antonio Salgado-Adame Federico Juárez-de la Cruz Bárbara Novelo-Garza María de Los Ángeles Pavón-Vargas Norma Salgado-Galicia Maria Cátira Bortolini Carla Gallo Gabriel Bedoya Francisco Rothhammer Rolando González-José Andrés Ruiz-Linares Samuel Canizales-Quinteros Sandra Romero-Hidalgo Johannes Krause Joaquín Zúñiga Edmond J Yunis Carolina Bekker-Méndez Julio Granados

Hum Immunol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Transplantation, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" (INCMNSZ), Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) allele groups and alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in a total of 15,318 mixed ancestry Mexicans from all the states of the country divided into 78 sample sets, providing information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies and their linkage disequilibrium, as well as admixture estimates and genetic substructure. We identified the presence of 4268 unique HLA extended haplotypes across Mexico and find that the ten most frequent (HF > 1%) HLA haplotypes with significant linkage disequilibrium (Δ'≥0.1) in Mexico (accounting for 20% of the haplotypic diversity of the country) are of primarily Native American ancestry (A*02~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*35~DRB1*08~DQB1*04, A*68~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*24~B*39~DRB1*14~DQB1*03:01, A*24~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*24~B*39~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*40:02~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*68~B*35~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02, A*02~B*15:01~DRB1*04~DQB1*03:02). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2020.06.008DOI Listing

The impact of historical racism on modern gun violence: Redlining in the city of Louisville, KY.

Injury 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 530 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40203. Electronic address:

Background: The Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC) was created in 1933 to provide government backing of troubled mortgages during the Great Depression. Residential security maps were created to guide investment in over 200 US cities. Neighborhoods were assigned grades of 'A' through 'D' (with corresponding color coding of green, blue, yellow and red) to indicate desirability for investment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.06.042DOI Listing

Physical activity-mediated associations between perceived neighborhood social environment and depressive symptoms among Jackson Heart Study participants.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 Jul 10;17(1):91. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Social Determinants of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Laboratory, Cardiovascular Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Background: Little is known about the associations between perceived neighborhood social environment (PNSE) and depressive symptoms among African Americans. Furthermore, the role of physical activity (PA) as a mediator of this association has not been investigated. The two-fold objectives of this study, therefore, were (1) to examine the associations between PNSE and depressive symptoms among African Americans, and (2) to test the degree to which these associations were mediated by total PA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00991-yDOI Listing

Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Jul 10;16(1):236. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Road, P.O. Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02453-wDOI Listing

Testing the regulatory framework in South Africa - a single-blind randomized pilot trial of commercial probiotic supplementation to standard therapy in women with bacterial vaginosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10;20(1):491. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases HIV risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. Standard-of-care (SOC) for BV are antibiotics; however, cure rates are low. Probiotics for vaginal health may be useful in improving cure and recurrence although the regulatory framework governing probiotics and the conduct of randomized clinical trials to evaluate these has not been established in South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05210-4DOI Listing

Evidence of genetic differentiation in cigar wrasse Cheilio inermis (Labridae) within the Western Indian Ocean.

Genome 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, 61805, Molecular Biology and Systematics, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape , South Africa ;

Patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the monotypic cigar wrasse Cheilio inermis within Western Indian Ocean (WIO) are poorly understood. Whether the species exists as a single panmictic population across the WIO is unclear. Sequence data were generated from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and ATPase 6) and one nuclear intron (S7 intron I). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2019-0185DOI Listing

Burden of Uterine Fibroids: An African Perspective, A Call for Action and Opportunity for Intervention.

Curr Opin Gynecol Obstet 2019 11;2(1):287-294. Epub 2019 Aug 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Black women carry the burden of uterine fibroids, (AKA uterine leiomyomas), at a much higher rate than their racial counterparts. Thus, increasing awareness and discovering a solution to an endemic problem that plagues Sub-Saharan Africa is of critical importance, not only for the region itself, but also for the medical community globally. A collaborative, patient oriented, cost effective, and culturally sensitive approach must be at the forefront of this endeavor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18314/cogo.v2i1.1701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344264PMC

Incorporation of solar-thermal energy into a gasification process to co-produce bio-fertilizer and power.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 28;266(Pt 3):115103. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, 02504, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is attracting increased interest because it can achieve high system energy efficiency (>50%), which is predicted to increase with the increase in the solar share in biomass IGCC. This study evaluated the potential of crop residues numerically for the co-production of power and bio-fertilizer using ASPEN Plus® simulation software. The results showed that the gas yield increases with increasing temperature and decreasing pressure while the yield of bio-fertilizer is dependent on the biomass composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115103DOI Listing

Race and cultural factors in an RCT of prolonged exposure and sertraline for PTSD.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 29;132:103690. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress, University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Guthrie Hall, Box 351525, Seattle, WA, 98195-1525, USA.

The efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among African Americans is less clear given underrepresentation in clinical research. Additionally, intervention research examining race has typically not considered within-group heterogeneity, such as acculturation, ethnic identity, and cultural attitudes. In a randomized controlled trial, African American (n = 43) and Caucasian (n = 130) individuals received prolonged exposure (PE) or sertraline for PTSD, comparing: treatment response, retention, and treatment beliefs and preferences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103690DOI Listing

Is South Africa being spared the global opioid crisis? A review of trends in drug treatment demand for heroin, nyaope and codeine-related medicines in South Africa (2012-2017).

Int J Drug Policy 2020 Jul 7;83:102839. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, South Africa; Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Electronic address:

Introduction: South Africa has seen a sharp increase in treatment admission trends for opioids despite beliefs that rates of opioid use remain low and do not represent a major problem. To advocate for the extension of Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) treatment and harm minimisation services in South Africa, better estimates of the extent of opioid use is needed. This paper responds to this need by describing (i) trends in treatment utilization for opioid-related problems in South Africa and (ii) differences in the profile of patients accessing treatment for different classes of opioids - heroin, 'nyaope' and codeine use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102839DOI Listing

Unsupervised Modeling and Genome-Wide Association Identify Novel Features of Allergic March Trajectories.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The allergic march refers to the natural history of allergic conditions during infancy and childhood. However, population-level disease incidence patterns do not necessarily reflect the development of allergic disease in individuals. A better understanding of the factors that predispose to different allergic trajectories is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.06.026DOI Listing

Optimal donor for African Americans with hematologic malignancy: HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

While hematopoietic cell transplant from an HLA-matched unrelated donor is potentially curative for hematologic malignancy, survival is lower for African Americans compared to Caucasians. As only about 20% of African Americans will have an HLA-matched unrelated donor many of these patients undergo HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplantation. Thus, the current analyses studied transplant-outcomes after HLA-haploidentical relative (n=249) and umbilical cord blood (n=118) transplants for African Americans with hematologic malignancy between 2008 and 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.029DOI Listing

COVID-19 and Kidney Transplantation: Results from the TANGO International Transplant Consortium.

Am J Transplant 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Schuster Transplantation Research Center, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Kidney transplant recipients may be at high risk of developing critical COVID-19 illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the US, Italy and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, immunosuppression and treatment strategies were reviewed and predictors of poor clinical outcomes were determined through multivariable analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16185DOI Listing

Evaluating the respective weights of some facial signs on perceived ages in differently-aged women of five ethnic origins.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

L'Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly-Larue, France.

Objective: To determine the facial signs that most influence the perception of age in women of five different ethnic ancestries, assessed by a same ethnical naïve panel.

Materials And Methods: The faces of 1,351 women, differently-aged (18-80 years), from five countries (China, France, India, Japan & South Africa) were photographed under same standardized conditions in the five countries. 14 to 24 facial signs (grouped under 5 clusters, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13612DOI Listing

Chromosome-level de novo assembly of the pig-tailed macaque genome using linked-read sequencing and HiC proximity scaffolding.

Gigascience 2020 Jul;9(7)

Department of Genetics, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Background: Macaque species share >93% genome homology with humans and develop many disease phenotypes similar to those of humans, making them valuable animal models for the study of human diseases (e.g., HIV and neurodegenerative diseases). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa069DOI Listing

Association of chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis among an indigenous black population with chronic kidney disease.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0232741. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: Inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a major receptor for lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) and other ligands involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. We determined whether endotoxin levels and the presence of TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis among South African CKD patients. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232741PLOS

A molecular and epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae isolates from cholera outbreaks in southern Ghana.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0236016. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Cholera remains a major global public health threat and continuous emergence of new Vibrio cholerae strains is of major concern. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to detect virulence markers and antimicrobial resistance patterns of V. cholerae isolates obtained from the 2012-2015 cholera outbreaks in Ghana. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236016PLOS

Equity in Genomics: A Brief Report on Cardiovascular Health Disparities in African American Adults.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Jewel Scott, PhD, MSN, FNP-C Doctoral Trainee, Duke University School of Nursing, Durham, North Carolina. Lakeshia Cousin, PhD, APRN Postdoctoral Fellow, Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. Jennifer Woo, PhD, CNM/WHNP, FACNM Assistant Professor, Texas Women's University, Dallas. Rosa Gonzalez-Guarda, PhD, MPH, RN, CPH, FAAN Associate Professor, Duke University School of Nursing, Durham, North Carolina. Leigh Ann Simmons, PhD, MFT Professor and Chair, Department of Human Ecology, University of California, Davis.

Background: African Americans are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than all other populations in the United States. Although technological advances have supported rapid growth in applying genetics/genomics to address CVD, most research has been conducted among European Americans. The lack of African American representation in genomic samples has limited progress in equitably applying precision medicine tools, which will widen CVD disparities if not remedied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000725DOI Listing

Acute Paraspinal Compartment Syndrome After Deadlifting: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):e0279

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

Case: A 27-year-old African man was admitted with acute right-sided loin pain that had started 4 hours after deadlifting. Renal colic was suspected, but clinical and radiological examination revealed no pathology of the urinary system. Further investigation revealed rhabdomyolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00279DOI Listing

Cancer and noncancer mortality among aluminum smelting workers in Badin, North Carolina.

Am J Ind Med 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: Badin, North Carolina, hosted an aluminum smelting plant from 1917 to 2007. The Concerned Citizens of West Badin reported suspected excess cancer mortality among former employees. This study aimed to investigate these concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23150DOI Listing

Effects of heat stress on reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle in the North African arid region.

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Laboratoire de Recherche : Matériaux Molécules et Applications, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Université de Carthage, 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, Tunis, 1082, Tunisie.

This work aims to study the relationship between variations of the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the parameters of reproduction especially the first conception rate (FCR) and to determine the threshold THI value where cows' fertility rate dropped in 12 Holstein dairy herds raised in the arid climatic conditions of Tunisia. THI values were calculated over 22 years (1996-2018), the mean monthly temperature and relative humidity data were obtained from the Meteorological Institute of Tunisia. A total of 20396 individual records (Insemination and calving dates) were extracted from the Livestock and Pasturing Office (OEP, Tunisia) with regard to the highest THI before breeding, on the breeding day, and after breeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13772DOI Listing

Impact of Viral Load Monitoring on Retention and Viral Suppression: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of South Africa's National Laboratory Cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads exceed 1,000 copies/mL, South African guidelines recommend repeat viral load testing within 6-months. We assessed whether South African facilities follow viral load monitoring guidelines and whether guidelines improve HIV-related outcomes using a regression discontinuity design in a national HIV cohort of 174,574 patients (2013-2015). We assessed whether patients with viral loads just above versus just below 1,000 copies/mL were more likely to receive repeat testing in 6-months, and compared differences in clinic transfers, retention, and viral suppression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa140DOI Listing

Cinematherapy with African American couples.

J Clin Psychol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Psychology and Counseling, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois, USA.

Cinematherapy is the use of movies as an intervention with clients. When done well, it is used to evoke and process emotion, psychoeducate, increase empathy, and problem-solve. However, there is no literature on utilizing movies as an intervention with African American couples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22999DOI Listing

Cumulative incidence and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in New York.

Ann Epidemiol 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

New York State Department of Health, Albany NY.

Purpose: New York State (NYS) is an epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States. Reliable estimates of cumulative incidence in the population are critical to tracking the extent of transmission and informing policies.

Methods: We conducted a statewide seroprevalence study among a 15,101 patron convenience sample at 99 grocery stores in 26 counties throughout NYS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.06.004DOI Listing

Barriers Driving Racial Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2020 Jul 9;22(8):41. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

The Dr. Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1468 Madison Avenue, Box 1069, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Colorectal cancer screening has been shown to decrease mortality from colorectal cancer. Screening disparities continue to exist among ethnic minorities, particularly for African Americans. We herein review the barriers of colorectal cancer screening in this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-020-00776-0DOI Listing

A review of social determinants of prostate cancer risk, stage, and survival.

Prostate Int 2020 Jun 27;8(2):49-54. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Social determinants of health that have been examined in relation to prostate cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival include socioeconomic status (income, education), neighborhood disadvantage, immigration status, social support, and social network. Other social determinants of health include geographic factors such as neighborhood access to health services. Socioeconomic factors influence risk of prostate cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prnil.2019.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335972PMC

Association Between Type B Insulin Resistance Syndrome and Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in an Arab African Man.

Oman Med J 2020 May 30;35(3):e134. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Islamabad Diagnostic Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIRS) has not been previously reported in Arab populations. We report a case of TBIRS in an Arab patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Investigations revealed a clinical condition marked by positive anti-insulin receptor and ribonucleoprotein antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2020.52DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335451PMC

Combining host-derived biomarkers with patient characteristics improves signature performance in predicting tuberculosis treatment outcomes.

Commun Biol 2020 Jul 9;3(1):359. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health concern. Treatment is prolonged, and patients on anti-TB therapy (ATT) often experience treatment failure for various reasons. There is an urgent need to identify signatures for early detection of failure and initiation of a treatment switch. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1087-xDOI Listing

IDEAL, the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock project open access database and biobank.

Sci Data 2020 Jul 9;7(1):224. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

The Epidemiology, Economics and Risk Assessment (EERA) Group, The Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project was a longitudinal cohort study of calf health which was conducted in Western Kenya between 2007-2010. A total of 548 East African shorthorn zebu calves were recruited at birth and followed at least every 5 weeks during the first year of life. Comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data, blood and tissue samples were collected at every visit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0559-7DOI Listing

Evolving geographic diversity in SARS-CoV2 and in silico analysis of replicating enzyme 3CL targeting repurposed drug candidates.

J Transl Med 2020 Jul 9;18(1):278. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, F10A, 2 Technology Place, North Ryde, NSW, 2109, Australia.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been initiating pandemics since the beginning of the century. In December 2019, the world was hit again by a devastating SARS episode that has so far infected almost four million individuals worldwide, with over 200,000 fatalities having already occurred by mid-April 2020, and the infection rate continues to grow exponentially. SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single stranded RNA pathogen which is characterised by a high mutation rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02448-zDOI Listing

Diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and changes in physical function over time among older women: a prospective cohort study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 Jul 9;17(1):88. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, 92093, USA.

Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is linked to negative health outcomes in older adults. Most studies use summary values, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00992-xDOI Listing

Diminished Returns of Parental Education in Terms of Youth School Performance: Ruling out Regression toward the Mean.

Children (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;7(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Background: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to systemically weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes of ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic (non-Latino) Whites. Similar MDRs also exist for the effects of parental education on the school performance of ethnic minority youth.

Aim: To assess whether regression toward the mean (RTM) has any role in explaining the diminished effects of parental education on the school performance of Black and Hispanic youth relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7070074DOI Listing

Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Training for Ugandan Seniors Living with HIV: A Validation Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychology, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) for mitigating neurocognitive decline was evaluated in African adults ≥50 years old. Eighty-one Ugandans with ( = 40) and without ( = 41) chronic human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were allocated CCRT-i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072137DOI Listing