200,522 results match your criteria African Entomology[Journal]


Anti-inflammatory, Antiplatelet Aggregation, and Antiangiogenesis Polyketides from : Toward an Understating of Its Biological Activities and Potential Applications.

ACS Omega 2020 May 6;5(19):11092-11099. Epub 2020 May 6.

Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

The ethyl acetate extract of an endophyte exhibited anti-inflammatory activity at a concentration of <10 μg/mL. By bioassay-guided fractionation, one new compound, named epicorepoxydon A (), and one unusual bioactive compound, 6-(hydroxymethyl)benzene-1,2,4-triol (), together with six known compounds, were isolated from . The structures of all isolates were established by spectroscopic analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c01000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241018PMC

Hyperprogressive Disease in an Advanced Stage Colon Cancer Patient on Pembrolizumab: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7764. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Hematology and Oncology, Saint Michael's Medical Center, Newark, USA.

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in recent years has transformed the landscape of the management of solid tumors. The advancement of immunotherapy has resulted in a brand new set of adverse outcomes not previously seen in classical chemotherapy. One such adverse effect has been termed as hyperprogressive disease (HPD), a phenomenon characterized by rapid tumor progression, which often leads to devastating outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243062PMC

Lamin A/C Cardiomyopathy with E203K Pathogenic Mutation.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7761. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Pediatrics, Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, USA.

Lamin A/C (LMNA) cardiomyopathy is an adult-onset, autosomal dominant, rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy which belongs to a spectrum of familial idiopathic cardiomyopathies. It is the most common type of familial dilated cardiomyopathy that is associated with conduction defects. A 76-year-old African American female with second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block presented for evaluation of persistent fatigue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243065PMC

Food Hygiene Practices at the Ghana School Feeding Programme in Wa and Cape Coast Cities.

J Environ Public Health 2020 12;2020:9083716. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Public Health Nursing, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Objective: The integrity and the wholesomeness of the food served to school pupils cannot be overlooked, especially when one considers the magnitude of health and sanitation issues that are plaguing the West African nations. This study aimed to investigate some of the personal hygiene practices by the pupils and the hygienic conditions in which food is cooked and served to these school-going children under the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP).

Design: A cross-sectional and descriptive survey research designs were used in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9083716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240644PMC

Exercise and Academic Performance Among Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2020 May 25:1-10. Epub 2020 May 25.

University of Illinois at Chicago.

Purpose: To examine effects of a 10-week after-school physical activity (PA) program on academic performance of 6- to 12-year-old African American children with behavior problems.

Methods: Participants were randomized to PA (n = 19) or sedentary attention control (n = 16) programs. Academic records, curriculum-based measures, and classroom observations were obtained at baseline, postintervention, and/or follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.2019-0224DOI Listing

Goals-of-Care Consultation Associated with Increased Hospice Enrollment Among Propensity-Matched Cohorts of Seriously Ill African American and White Patients.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania.

Context: African Americans are less likely to receive hospice care and more likely to receive aggressive end-of-life care than Whites. Little is known about how palliative care consultation to discuss goals-of-care (hereafter "PCC") is associated with hospice enrollment by race.

Objectives: To compare enrollment in hospice at discharge between propensity-matched cohorts of African Americans with and without PCC, and Whites with and without PCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Lifestyle clusters related to type 2 diabetes and diabetes risk in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS study.

Prev Med 2020 May 23:106141. Epub 2020 May 23.

Amsterdam UMC, Univ of Amsterdam, Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Meibergdreef 9, PO Box 11660, Amsterdam 1100 DD, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Little is known about how health-related behaviours cluster across different populations and how lifestyle clusters are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. We investigated lifestyle clusters and their association with T2D in a multi-ethnic population. 4396 Dutch, 2850 South-Asian Surinamese, 3814 African Surinamese, 2034 Ghanaian, 3328 Turkish, and 3661 Moroccan origin participants of the HELIUS study were included (2011-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106141DOI Listing

Chimpanzee lip-smacks confirm primate continuity for speech-rhythm evolution.

Biol Lett 2020 May 27;16(5):20200232. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Mary's Quad, South Street, St Andrews, KY16 9JP, UK.

Speech is a human hallmark, but its evolutionary origins continue to defy scientific explanation. Recently, the open-close mouth rhythm of 2-7 Hz (cycles/second) characteristic of all spoken languages has been identified in the orofacial signals of several nonhuman primate genera, including orangutans, but evidence from any of the African apes remained missing. Evolutionary continuity for the emergence of speech is, thus, still inconclusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0232DOI Listing

Functional outcome in home health: Do racial and ethnic minority patients with dementia fare worse?

PLoS One 2020 26;15(5):e0233650. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States of America.

Objectives: Evaluate the independent and interactive effects of dementia and racial/ethnic minority status on functional outcomes during a home health (HH) admission among Medicare beneficiaries.

Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Outcome and Assessment Information Set [OASIS] and billing records in a non-profit HH agency in New York. Participants were adults ≥ 65 years old who received HH in CY 2017 with OASIS records at HH admission and HH discharge. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233650PLOS

Long-range movements coupled with heterogeneous incubation period sustain dog rabies at the national scale in Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008317. Epub 2020 May 26.

INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique IPLESP, Paris, France.

Dog-transmitted rabies is responsible for more than 98% of human cases worldwide, remaining a persistent problem in developing countries. Mass vaccination targets predominantly major cities, often compromising disease control due to re-introductions. Previous work suggested that areas neighboring cities may behave as the source of these re-introductions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008317DOI Listing

Cross-sectional prevalence study of MERS-CoV in local and imported dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia, 2016-2018.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(5):e0232790. Epub 2020 May 26.

King Fahd Medical Research Center, Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an endemic virus in dromedaries. Annually, Saudi Arabia imports thousands of camels from the Horn of Africa, yet the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in these animals is largely unknown. Here, MERS-CoV prevalence was compared in imported African camels and their local counterparts. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232790PLOS

Haplotypic characterization of BRCA1 c.5266dupC, the prevailing mutation in Brazilian hereditary breast/ovarian cancer.

Genet Mol Biol 2020 20;43(2):e20190072. Epub 2020 May 20.

Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Programa de Genética, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Specific pathogenic mutations associated with breast cancer development can vary between ethnical groups. One example is BRCA1 c.5266dupC that was first described as a founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, but was later also found in other populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590//1678-4685-GMB-2019-0072DOI Listing

Food and Drug Administration Safety Communication on the Use of Transvaginal Mesh in Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Surgery: The Impact of Social Determinants of Health.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College.

Objective: This study was to examine the impact of the July 2011 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication on the use of transvaginal mesh in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair by patients' race and ethnicity.

Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study of women undergoing POP repairs in 2008 to 2015 in New York State. We examined the changes in transvaginal mesh use in POP repairs before and after the FDA communication by patients' race and ethnicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000863DOI Listing

Viral Etiology, Clinical Features and Antibiotic Use in Children <5 Years of Age in the Gambia Presenting With Influenza-like Illness.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

From the Department of Vaccines & Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia.

Background: Knowledge regarding the prevalence, clinical features and etiology of pediatric influenza-like illness (ILI) remains limited in African settings. Furthermore, it is likely that many children presenting with ILI receive antibiotics unnecessarily. More data are required to develop antimicrobial stewardship practice and guide effective vaccine strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002761DOI Listing

High Burden of Serious Bacterial Infections in African Children Treated for Cancer.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital.

Background: Infections in children treated for cancer contribute to morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of studies on the incidence, etiology, risk factors and outcome of bacterial infections in African children treated for cancer. The aim of the study was to delineate the epidemiology of infectious morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002758DOI Listing

Placentation and hormonal maintenance of pregnancy in the impala (Aepyceros melampus).

Placenta 2020 Apr 23;95:91-105. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Sharjah Equine Hospital, Bridge No 6, Al Daid Road, Al Atain Area, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Introduction: The impala is a widely distributed African ungulate. Detailed studies of the placenta and ovaries in impala undertaken in the 1970s did not address the endocrine functions of the placenta.

Methods: The uteri of 25 pregnant impala estimated to be between 49 and 113 days of the 190 day gestation were examined grossly, histologically and immunohistochemically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2020.04.009DOI Listing

A Resource for Planning for Disasters and Outbreaks: Lessons From the West African Ebola Epidemic.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.73DOI Listing

An Exploration of Precancer and Post-Cancer Diagnosis and Health Communication Among African American Prostate Cancer Survivors and Their Families.

Am J Mens Health 2020 May-Jun;14(3):1557988320927202

College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among American men, with Black men at the highest risk for the disease. Few studies have been published on how communication between Black prostate cancer survivors and their family members affect health outcomes and subsequent health communication. The purpose of this study was to understand cancer and health communication among Black prostate cancer survivors and their families before and after disclosing their diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988320927202DOI Listing

Smartphone use as a possible risk factor for myopia.

Clin Exp Optom 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centre for Eye Research Ireland, School of Physics, Clinical and Optometric Sciences, Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates an association between myopia and smartphone data usage. Youths now spend more time participating in near tasks as a result of smartphone usage. This poses an additional risk factor for myopia development/progression and is an important research question in relation to potential myopia management strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cxo.13092DOI Listing

Heterogeneity of fibrillin-rich microfibrils extracted from human skin of diverse ethnicity.

J Anat 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centre for Dermatology Research, The University of Manchester & Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

The dermal elastic fibre network is the primary effector of skin elasticity, enabling it to extend and recoil many times over the lifetime of the individual. Fibrillin-rich microfibrils (FRMs) constitute integral components of the elastic fibre network, with their distribution showing differential deposition in the papillary dermis across individuals of diverse skin ethnicity. Despite these differential findings in histological presentation, it is not known if skin ethnicity influences FRM ultrastructure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13217DOI Listing

The regulation of Akt and FoxO transcription factors during dehydration in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

Cell Stress Chaperones 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Institute of Biochemistry and Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) naturally tolerates severe dehydration using biochemical adaptation, one of which is the elevation of antioxidant defenses during whole-body dehydration. The present study investigated the role and regulation of a pathway known to regulate oxidative stress response, the Akt-FoxO signaling pathway, in clawed frog skeletal muscle, responding to medium (15%) and high (30%) dehydration. Protein levels of total and phosphorylated Akt, FoxO1, and FoxO3 were assessed via immunoblotting, in addition to the levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase known to be associated with muscle atrophy, MAFbx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12192-020-01123-yDOI Listing

Ostrich ejaculate characteristics and male libido around equinox and solstice dates.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa.

The study evaluated the effect of time of the year in which changes in photoperiod occurs on ostrich semen characteristics and male libido. Semen was collected for 5 days before, on and 5 days after winter solstice (21 June 2016), spring equinox (22 September 2016), summer solstice (21 December 2016) and autumn equinox (20 March 2017) in the southern hemisphere. Semen was collected from 10 South African Black ostrich males (average age ± standard deviation; 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02299-2DOI Listing

Lipoprotein(a) and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention across Diverse Populations.

Cardiol Ther 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a highly proatherogenic lipid fraction that is genetically determined and minimally responsive to lifestyle or behavior changes. Mendelian randomization studies have suggested a causal link between elevated Lp(a) and heart disease, stroke, and aortic stenosis. There is substantial inter-ethnic variation in Lp(a) levels, with persons of African descent having the highest median values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40119-020-00177-4DOI Listing

Structure of African swine fever virus p15 reveals its dual role for membrane-association and DNA binding.

Protein Cell 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology and College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13238-020-00731-9DOI Listing

Perceptions of Menthol Cigarettes and Reasons for Unsuccessful Quits in an African American Community Sample.

J Immigr Minor Health 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Public Health, Hennepin County, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

This study aimed to better understand African Americans' perceptions of menthol tobacco and reasons for unsuccessful quit attempts among menthol smokers. A cross-sectional survey of 407 U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-020-01028-zDOI Listing

RISK6, a 6-gene transcriptomic signature of TB disease risk, diagnosis and treatment response.

Sci Rep 2020 May 25;10(1):8629. Epub 2020 May 25.

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Improved tuberculosis diagnostics and tools for monitoring treatment response are urgently needed. We developed a robust and simple, PCR-based host-blood transcriptomic signature, RISK6, for multiple applications: identifying individuals at risk of incident disease, as a screening test for subclinical or clinical tuberculosis, and for monitoring tuberculosis treatment. RISK6 utility was validated by blind prediction using quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR in seven independent cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65043-8DOI Listing

Genomic analysis of the natural history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using Neanderthal and ancient Homo sapiens samples.

Sci Rep 2020 May 25;10(1):8622. Epub 2020 May 25.

CNAG-CRG, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Barcelona, Spain.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing neurodevelopmental condition highly prevalent in current populations. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this paradox, mainly in the context of the Paleolithic versus Neolithic cultural shift but especially within the framework of the mismatch theory. This theory elaborates on how a particular trait once favoured in an ancient environment might become maladaptive upon environmental changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65322-4DOI Listing

The relatively young and rural population may limit the spread and severity of COVID-19 in Africa: a modelling study.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 May;5(5)

Mathematics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to all regions of the world. There is great uncertainty regarding how countries' characteristics will affect the spread of the epidemic; to date, there are few studies that attempt to predict the spread of the epidemic in African countries. In this paper, we investigate the role of demographic patterns, urbanisation and comorbidities on the possible trajectories of COVID-19 in Ghana, Kenya and Senegal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002699DOI Listing

The potential effects of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the World Health Organization African Region: a predictive model.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 May;5(5)

Regional Director, World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been unprecedented in its speed and effects. Interruption of its transmission to prevent widespread community transmission is critical because its effects go beyond the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths and affect the health system capacity to provide other essential services. Highlighting the implications of such a situation, the predictions presented here are derived using a Markov chain model, with the transition states and country specific probabilities derived based on currently available knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002647DOI Listing

Tools to Measure Health Literacy among US African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

Patient Educ Couns 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1819 West Polk St., Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Office of Health Literacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 808 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To provide an overview of the health literacy tools that have been validated in samples of African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos with type 2 diabetes, growing segments of the US population.

Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, three electronic databases were searched. The following inclusion criteria were used: peer-reviewed research; examined validity of a health literacy tool; and included US African American and/or Hispanic/Latino adults with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.04.012DOI Listing

A decade in the battlefield (2004-2014): A French military perspective on the high mortality associated with non-exclusively orthopedic or brain combat injuries.

Injury 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Digestive surgery department, hôpital d'instruction des armées Percy, 101, avenue Henri-Barbusse, BP 406, 92141 Clamart cedex, France.; French Military Health Service, Val de Grâce Military Academy, Paris, Paris, France.. Electronic address:

Background: During the last few decades, French armed forces have regularly deployed in asymmetric conflicts. Surgical support for casualties of these conflicts occurs in NATO role 2 and 3 medical treatment facilities (MTF); definitive surgical care occurs in France following a strategic medical evacuation. The aim of this study was to describe the combat injury profile of these soldiers who presented with either non-exclusively orthopedic and/or brain injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.04.035DOI Listing

Factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa: a systematic mapping review.

Public Health Nutr 2020 May 26:1-18. Epub 2020 May 26.

Public Health Section, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, SheffieldS14DA, UK.

Objective: To identify factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa and identify areas for future research.

Design: We systematically reviewed published/grey literature (protocol CRD4201706893). Findings were compiled into a map using a socio-ecological model on four environmental levels: individual, social, physical and macro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019005305DOI Listing

Lifestyle and the presence of helminths is associated with gut microbiome composition in Cameroonians.

Genome Biol 2020 May 25;21(1):122. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: African populations provide a unique opportunity to interrogate host-microbe co-evolution and its impact on adaptive phenotypes due to their genomic, phenotypic, and cultural diversity. We integrate gut microbiome 16S rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequence data with quantification of pathogen burden and measures of immune parameters for 575 ethnically diverse Africans from Cameroon. Subjects followed pastoralist, agropastoralist, and hunter-gatherer lifestyles and were compared to an urban US population from Philadelphia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-020-02020-4DOI Listing

Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 25;20(1):779. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Clinical Research and Infection Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Many southern African countries are nearing the global goal of diagnosing 90% of people with HIV by 2020. In 2016, 84 and 86% of people with HIV knew their status in Malawi and Zimbabwe, respectively. However, gaps remain, particularly among men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08855-7DOI Listing

Genetic variation in toll like receptors 2, 7, 9 and interleukin-6 is associated with cytomegalovirus infection in late pregnancy.

BMC Med Genet 2020 May 25;21(1):113. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and/or reactivation in pregnancy is associated with a myriad of adverse infant outcomes. However, the role of host genetic polymorphisms in modulating maternal CMV status is inconclusive. This study investigated the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine genes with maternal plasma CMV DNA status in black Zimbabweans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01044-8DOI Listing

Initial Facial Feminization Surgery Experience in a Multicenter Integrated Health Care System.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 May 26:194599820924635. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, California, USA.

Objective: There are few large studies on facial feminization surgery (FFS). We provide the largest comprehensive report to date of an FFS cohort regarding the safety of multilevel surgery, patient-specific considerations with FFS procedures, and complications of surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599820924635DOI Listing

Prenatal maternal stress and child hair cortisol Four years later: Evidence from a low-income sample.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 May 17;117:104707. Epub 2020 May 17.

University of California, Los Angeles, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal stress during pregnancy can influence the trajectory of fetal development, shaping offspring physiology and health in enduring ways. Some research implicates fetal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as a mediator of these effects. The present study is the first to examine child hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and maternal stress during pregnancy in a diverse, low-income sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104707DOI Listing

Reproductive health professional's reported knowledge on diagnosis and management of rheumatic heart disease in pregnant women in Maputo, Mozambique.

Int J Cardiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Mozambique Institute for Health Education and Research, Rua Pereira Marinho, no.145, Maputo, Mozambique; Instituto Nacional de Saúde em Moçambique, Moçambique, Vila de Marracuene, Estrada Nacional, N°1, Parcela N°3943, Província de Maputo, Mozambique; Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, 560, Avenida Salvador Allende, Maputo. Electronic address:

Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) poses a threat to African women in their reproductive years, being an important cause of maternal mortality and poor foetal outcomes. Timely diagnosis and adequate management reduce significantly obstetric complications. Our study aimed to describe the knowledge of diagnosis and management of RHD in pregnant women among reproductive health professionals (RHP) working in a highly endemic area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.051DOI Listing

Detection of African swine fever virus in cell culture and wild boar tissues using a commercially available monoclonal antibody.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 22:113886. Epub 2020 May 22.

Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, National Food Chain Safety Office, H-1143, Budapest, Tábornok Utca 2, Hungary.

Following the introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV) into Europe in 2007, ASFV infection has spread continuously over the past years and it became a high level disease threat in Europe and also Asia. Examination of suspect clinical cases for ASF with rapid and sensitive laboratory methods can substantially contribute to the detection and characterization of new outbreaks. In this study two sensitive tests were developed for the detection of the p72 major capsid protein of ASFV both in cell culture with an immunocytochemical (IC) and in tissue samples with an immunohistochemical (IHC) method using a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 1BC11). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113886DOI Listing

Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity is Not Associated with Serum Hemoglobin in Children with Malaria-Associated Anemia.

J Neuroimaging 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background And Purpose: Hemoglobin (Hbg) is often thought to impact cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). This study was performed to investigate the relationship between Hbg value and CBFV in African children with malaria.

Methods: In this prospective, observational study, children aged 3 months to 18 years with malaria and a normal Blantyre coma score underwent a single transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) examination with a concurrent Hbg check. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12715DOI Listing

Fermentability and nutritional characteristics of sorghum Mahewu supplemented with Bambara groundnut.

J Food Sci 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Processing functionality in terms of fermentability and nutritional characteristics of Mahewu (a sorghum-based nonalcoholic beverage product) supplemented with different proportions of Bambara groundnut (BGN) (80:20 and 70:30, respectively) was investigated to develop a sorghum-based beverage product with improved nutritional quality. Sorghum-BGN Mahewu blends showed a rapid reduction in pH and significantly (P < 0.05) lower final pH (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15154DOI Listing

Evolution of the insecticide target Rdl in African Anopheles is driven by interspecific and interkaryotypic introgression.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The evolution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in natural populations of Anopheles malaria vectors is a major public health concern across Africa. Using genome sequence data, we study the evolution of resistance mutations in the resistance to dieldrin locus (Rdl), a GABA receptor targeted by several insecticides, but most notably by the long-discontinued cyclodiene, dieldrin. The two Rdl resistance mutations (296G and 296S) spread across West and Central African Anopheles via two independent hard selective sweeps that included likely compensatory nearby mutations, and were followed by a rare combination of introgression across species (from A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa128DOI Listing

Intergenerational Support between Older Adults and Adult Children in Nigeria: The Role of Reciprocity.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2020 May 25:1-21. Epub 2020 May 25.

Emerging Researchers and Professionals in Ageing African-Network , Abuja, Nigeria.

The rapid change in the family support structure in developing countries could jeopardize the concept of reciprocal support an older adult receives in later life. This study explored the perception of reciprocity between older parents and adult children on intergenerational support in Northern Nigeria. We purposely selected 18 participants and conducted face-to-face interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2020.1768459DOI Listing

Coffee and tea consumption in the early adult lifespan and left ventricular function in middle age: the CARDIA study.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aims: The long-term impact of coffee or tea consumption on subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic or diastolic function has not been previously studied. We examined the association between coffee or tea consumption beginning in early adulthood and cardiac function in midlife.

Methods And Results: We investigated 2735 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants with long-term total caffeine intake, coffee, and tea consumption data from three visits over a 20 year interval and available echocardiography indices at the CARDIA Year-25 exam (2010-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12684DOI Listing

Awareness of and attitudes toward pre-exposure prophylaxis among African American women living in low-income neighborhoods in a Southeastern city.

AIDS Care 2020 May 25:1-5. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Health Behavior, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

African American women in the South are disproportionately affected by HIV but have often been ignored in HIV prevention efforts, including in the rollout of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). To inform strategies to promote PrEP awareness and access in this population, we conducted a venue-based community survey with 53 African American women living in low-income neighborhoods of a Southeastern city to understand women's knowledge of and attitudes toward PrEP. Awareness of PrEP was very low (37%) with only 16% being aware that PrEP is used for HIV prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1769834DOI Listing

Barriers and motivators to pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake among Black and Latina transgender women in Los Angeles: perspectives of current PrEP users.

AIDS Care 2020 May 23:1-9. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify barriers and motivators to PrEP uptake from the perspective of Black and Latina transgender women (TW) who are currently using PrEP to suggest intervention and outreach activities to increase PrEP uptake in this population. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model guided the development of the semi-structured interview guide. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1769835DOI Listing

Microvascular anatomy of ovary and oviduct in the adult African Clawed Toad (Xenopus laevis DAUDIN, 1802)-Histomorphology and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

Anat Histol Embryol 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Biosciences, Vascular and Exercise Biology Research Group, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Ovaries and oviducts of the adult African Clawed Toad (Xenopus laevis DAUDIN, 1802) were studied by light microscopy (LM) of paraplast embedded tissue sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Histomorphology revealed that ovarian vessels located in the thecal layers. Ovarian and interlobar arteries displayed a horse-shoe shaped longitudinally running bundle of vascular smooth muscle cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12569DOI Listing

Reassessment of the TM 1517 odonto-postcranial assemblage from Kromdraai B, South Africa, and the maturational pattern of Paranthropus robustus.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 24:e24082. Epub 2020 May 24.

UMR 7194 CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, Paris, France.

Objectives: The Pleistocene taxon Paranthropus robustus was established in 1938 following the discovery at Kromdraai B, South Africa, of the partial cranium TM 1517a and associated mandible TM 1517b. Shortly thereafter, a distal humerus (TM 1517g), a proximal ulna (TM 1517e), and a distal hallucial phalanx (TM 1517k) were collected nearby at the site, and were considered to be associated with the holotype. TM 1517a-b represents an immature individual; however, no analysis of the potentially associated postcranial elements has investigated the presence of any endostructural remnant of recent epiphyseal closure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24082DOI Listing

Cervical cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa by age, stage at diagnosis and Human Development Index (HDI): A population-based registry study.

Int J Cancer 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

The African Cancer Registry Network, INCTR African Registry Programme, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in African women. We sought to estimate population-based survival and evaluate excess hazards for mortality in African women with cervical cancer, examining the effects of country-level Human Development Index (HDI), age and stage at diagnosis.We selected a random sample of 2760 incident cervical cancer cases, diagnosed in 2005-2015 from 13 population-based cancer registries in 11 countries (Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe) through the African Cancer Registry Network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33120DOI Listing