215,018 results match your criteria African Entomology[Journal]

Increased Incidence of COVID-19 Infections Amongst Interpersonal Violence Patients.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 30;266:62-68. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: To investigate whether any specific acute care surgery patient populations are associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection.

Background: Acute care providers may be exposed to an increased risk of contracting the COVID-19 infection since many patients present to the emergency department without complete screening measures. However, it is not known which patients present with the highest incidence. Read More

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Biogeographic origins of southern African Silene (Caryophyllaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 10:107199. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22 B, 413 19 Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Box 461, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Silene (Caryophyllaceae) is distributed predominantly in the northern Hemisphere, where it is most diverse around the Mediterranean Basin. The genus is also well represented in North Africa, extending into tropical, sub-Saharan and southern Africa. Eight native species are recognized in southern Africa, taxonomically placed in two sections: Elisanthe and Silene s. Read More

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Advance Care Planning, Palliative Care, and End-of-life Care Interventions for Racial and Ethnic Underrepresented Groups: A Systematic Review.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.

Context: Persons from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups experience disparities in access to and quality of palliative and end-of-life care.

Objectives: To summarize and evaluate existing palliative and end-of-life care interventions that aim to improve outcomes for racial and ethnic underrepresented populations in the United States.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the English language from four databases through January 2020. Read More

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Degradation of p53 by HPV16-E6 variants isolated from cervical cancer specimens of Moroccan women.

Gene 2021 May 10:145709. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biology and Medical Research Unit, National Centre for Energy, Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), Rabat, Morocco. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in Moroccan women. The main etiological factor for developing cervical cancer is the persistent infection with HPV16. Genetic studies have reported the occurrence of amino acid variations within the E6 oncoprotein that promotes host cell transformation by targeting p53 for degradation. Read More

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Reconstructive Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, University of California San.

Background: There is limited literature identifying racial and ethnic health disparities among surgical modalities and outcomes in the field of urogynecology and specifically pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Objective: To evaluate differences in surgical approach for apical vaginal prolapse and postoperative complications by race and ethnicity STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing surgical repair for apical vaginal prolapse between 2014 and 2017 using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they underwent either a vaginal colpopexy or abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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Effectiveness of thermal screening in detection of COVID-19 among truck drivers at Mutukula Land Point of Entry, Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251150. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of National Health Laboratory and Diagnostic Services, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Despite the limited evidence for its effectiveness, thermal screening at points of entry has increasingly become a standard protocol in numerous parts of the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to determine the effectiveness of thermal screening as a key step in diagnosing COVID-19 in a resource-limited setting.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study based on a review of body temperature and Xpert Xpress SARS CoV-2 test results records for truck drivers entering Uganda through Mutukula between 15th May and 30th July 2020. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of an aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract, pioglitazone and atorvastatin combination therapy in diabetic db/db mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251069. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council (MRC), Tygerberg, South Africa.

Oral therapeutics used to treat type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease often fail to prevent the progression of disease and their comorbidities. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), an endemic South African plant used as an herbal tea, has demonstrated positive effects on glycemia and hypercholesterolemia. However, the treatment efficacy of rooibos extract in combination with conventional hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medications on blood glucose and lipid profiles has not been established. Read More

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Common genetic variants associated with obesity in an African-American and Hispanic/Latino population.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250697. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Introduction: Over 35% of all adults in the world are currently obese and risk of obesity in racial or ethnic minority groups exist in the US, but the causes of these differences are not all known. As obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, an improved understanding of risk factors across racial and ethnic groups may improve outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if susceptibility to obesity is associated with genetic variation in candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos. Read More

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Effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months in urban Moshi, Northern Tanzania: Cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250562. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Community Health, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). The prevalence of early introduction of complementary feeding, low meal frequency, and low dietary diversity are frequent in LMICs. The effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children is not well documented in East African countries including Tanzania. Read More

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Strengthening data collection for neglected tropical diseases: What data are needed for models to better inform tailored intervention programmes?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 13;15(5):e0009351. Epub 2021 May 13.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Locally tailored interventions for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are becoming increasingly important for ensuring that the World Health Organization (WHO) goals for control and elimination are reached. Mathematical models, such as those developed by the NTD Modelling Consortium, are able to offer recommendations on interventions but remain constrained by the data currently available. Data collection for NTDs needs to be strengthened as better data are required to indirectly inform transmission in an area. Read More

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Outcomes and costs of publicly funded patient navigation interventions to enhance HIV care continuum outcomes in the United States: A before-and-after study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 13;18(5):e1003418. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: In the United States, patients with HIV face significant barriers to linkage to and retention in care which impede the necessary steps toward achieving the desired clinical outcome of viral suppression. Individual-level interventions, such as patient navigation, are evidence based, effective strategies for improving care engagement. In addition, use of surveillance and clinical data to identify patients who are not fully engaged in care may improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programs. Read More

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Beyond the axes of inequality: Religion, race, and everything in between.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):217-235

School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.

This study examined the mental health outcomes of a diverse group of 549 individuals experiencing discrimination based on their multiple subordinate identities: ethnicity/race, religion, nativity, and sexual orientation. Applying an intersectionality framework, the findings provide an understanding of the impact of discrimination and racism on minority groups' mental health within the heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) context. Significant differences were found on levels of discrimination and racism across ethnic, racial, sexual, and gender minority groups, particularly among Muslim/Jewish, Arab/African, male, and foreign-born participants. Read More

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January 2021

An investigation of coping in response to different race-related stressor experiences in school among racially diverse participants.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):181-192

Andrew Young Center for Global Leadership, Morehouse College.

The landmark Brown versus Board of Education decision led to the desegregation of public schools in the United States. Consequently, Black/African American, Latinx, Asian, and Native American (BALANA) students experienced multiple race-related stressors. Not surprisingly, BALANA students still report experiences with racial discrimination, exclusion, and harassment in public schools. Read More

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January 2021

White matter microstructure in trauma-exposed children: Associations with pubertal stage.

Dev Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Puberty represents a critical period in maturation during which major changes in neural architecture emerge; these changes are shaped, in part, by environmental experiences, including exposure to psychological trauma. However, little is known about how trauma exposure affects white matter microstructure across pubertal stages. This was the goal of the present cross-sectional study. Read More

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Hyperglycaemia-Induced Contractile Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocyte-Like Pulsatile Cells Derived from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Hyperglycaemia, a key metabolic abnormality in diabetes mellitus, is implicated in pathological cardiogenesis during embryological development. However, the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets remain unknown. We, therefore, studied the effect of hyperglycaemia on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) cardiac differentiation. Read More

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Bioreactance-derived haemodynamic parameters in the transitional phase in preterm neonates: a longitudinal study.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Neonatology, Dept. of Perinatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Amalia Children's Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Bioreactance (BR) is a novel, non-invasive technology that is able to provide minute-to-minute monitoring of cardiac output and additional haemodynamic variables. This study aimed to determine the values for BR-derived haemodynamic variables in stable preterm neonates during the transitional period. A prospective observational study was performed in a group of stable preterm (< 37 weeks) infants in the neonatal service of Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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Evaluation of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Treatment and Mortality Among Women With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: To our knowledge, there is no consensus regarding differences in treatment and mortality between non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic White women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Little is known about whether racial disparities vary by sociodemographic, clinical, and neighborhood factors.

Objective: To examine the differences in clinical treatment and outcomes between African American and White women in a nationally representative cohort of patients with TNBC and further examine the contributions of sociodemographic, clinical, and neighborhood factors to TNBC outcome disparities. Read More

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Effects on smoking behavior of switching menthol smokers to non-menthol cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Introduction: Bans of menthol characterizing flavor in cigarettes have been implemented in some localities and have been proposed more broadly. One proposed benefit of such a ban is to increase cessation rates among current menthol smokers. There is currently relatively limited data regarding how smoking behavior changes if menthol smokers switch to non-menthol cigarettes. Read More

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Optical wireless communication performance enhancement using Hamming coding and an efficient adaptive equalizer with a deep-learning-based quality assessment.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3677-3688

Optical wireless communication (OWC) technology is one of several alternative technologies for addressing the radio frequency limitations for applications in both indoor and outdoor architectures. Indoor optical wireless systems suffer from noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). These degradations are produced by the wireless channel multipath effect, which causes data rate limitation and hence overall system performance degradation. Read More

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Web-scraping applied to acquire difficult to access animal disease outbreak information, using African Swine Fever in Europe as an example.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia.

Surveillance data are key to informing decisions on the control and prevention of transboundary and emerging diseases. Here, we describe new methods for acquiring difficult to access, publicly available disease surveillance data. We use World Organisation for Animal Heath (OIE) data on African Swine Fever (ASF) outbreaks in European countries to showcase the importance of adequate disease surveillance data to inform decision-making. Read More

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Coastal dunefields maintain pre-holocene genetic structure in a rocky shore red alga.

J Phycol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa.

Most intertidal algae have limited dispersal potential, and areas that lack hard substratum suitable for attachment are thus expected to isolate regional populations from each other. Here, we used nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to compare genetic structure in two co-distributed intertidal red algae with different dispersal potential along the South African coastline. Gelidium pristoides is divided into a south-eastern and a south-western evolutionary lineage separated by extensive, continuous sandy shoreline habitat adjacent to coastal dunefields. Read More

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Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations among Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Child Functioning in HIV-affected Families.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mothers living with HIV (MLH) face unique stressors impacting parenting, parenting stress, and child psychosocial functioning, but longitudinal, bidirectional relations among family processes have not been examined in this population. This study examined relations among parenting quality, parenting stress, and child functioning in 174 MLH-child dyads (aged 6-14, M = 9.65, SD = 2. Read More

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Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rural West Elderly Texans.

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2021 Mar 19;5(1):213-226. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Julia Jones Matthews Department of Public Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Background: The prevalence of cognitive dysfunction increases in elderly due to cardiovascular disease related risk factors in rural communities like West Texas.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to find risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to cognitive dysfunction and their impact on elderly adults in rural West Texans.

Methods: Statistical methods such as Pearson's chi-squared and a multinomial logistic regression were utilized to analyze data. Read More

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HLA major allele group frequencies in a diverse population of the Free State Province, South Africa.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 21;7(4):e06850. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Haematology and Cell Biology, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Background: Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) play a vital role in disease pathogenesis and transplant rejection. HLA-typing is a useful tool in predicting disease progression and to identify potential organ donors. Due to human migration and known ethnic variation, frequent targeted HLA sequencing of specific populations is crucial to increase their representation in global reference panels. Read More

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Promoting Healthy Ageing in South Africa Through Vaccination of the Elderly.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:635266. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

South African Vaccination and Immunisation Centre, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa.

The World Health Organization estimates that globally, the proportion of people aged ≥60 years will more than double by the year 2050, with the majority of elderly people living in low- and middle-income countries such as South Africa. Population ageing is an impending public health concern, potentially negatively impacting on South Africa's economy and health system if the government does not adequately prepare for this change. Globally, many potential solutions to ensure healthy ageing are being discussed and implemented, including adopting a "life-course" approach to vaccination which includes vaccination of the elderly, since they are at considerable risk of severe morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. Read More

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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Mental Health Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in Bangladesh: A Survey-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Ann Glob Health 2021 Apr 26;87(1):43. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Health Science, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia; African Vision Research Institute (AVRI), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, 3629, South Africa.

Background: Feelings of isolation, insecurity, and instability triggered by COVID-19 could have a long-term impact on the mental health status of individuals.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression, and stress) in Bangladesh and the factors associated with these symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: From 1 to 30 April 2020, we used a validated self-administered questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional study on 10,609 participants through an online survey platform. Read More

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International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas: structures, organization, and services for the management of kidney failure in Africa.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2021 May 12;11(2):e11-e23. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Urinary Tract Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Casablanca, University Hassan II of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco.

Despite positive economic forecasts, stable democracies, and reduced regional conflicts since the turn of the century, Africa continues to be afflicted by poverty, poor infrastructure, and a massive burden of communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal illnesses. With the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure worldwide, these factors continue to hinder the ability to provide kidney care for millions of people on the continent. The International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas project was established to assess the global burden of kidney disease and measure global capacity for kidney replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Read More

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Therapeutic Potentials of Antiviral Plants Used in Traditional African Medicine With COVID-19 in Focus: A Nigerian Perspective.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:596855. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by an infectious novel strain of coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was earlier referred to as 2019-nCoV. The respiratory disease is the most consequential global public health crisis of the 21st century whose level of negative impact increasingly experienced globally has not been recorded since World War II. Up till now, there has been no specific globally authorized antiviral drug, vaccines, supplement or herbal remedy available for the treatment of this lethal disease except preventive measures, supportive care and non-specific treatment options adopted in different countries via divergent approaches to halt the pandemic. Read More

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