187,746 results match your criteria African And Asian Studies[Journal]


Patient-Reported Experiences in Discussing Prescribed Medications with a Health Care Provider: Evidence for Racial/Ethnic Disparities in a Large Health Care Delivery System.

Popul Health Manag 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, Sutter Health, Palo Alto, California.

The objective was to understand patient-reported experiences in communicating with a health care provider about prescribed medications in a health care setting serving diverse racial/ethnic groups. Adult patients who completed a patient-experience survey and received a prescription for a hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes medication at the surveyed encounter were studied (N = 19,006). Data were collected in a large mixed-payer outpatient health care system in northern California between 2011 and 2014. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/pop.2018.0206
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pop.2018.0206DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Billed and Paid Amounts for Preventive Procedures in Dental Medicaid.

JDR Clin Trans Res 2019 Apr 23:2380084419842533. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

4 Department of Clinical Services, School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Objective: To examine trends and variations in billed and paid amounts for preventive dental procedures by race/ethnicity, age, and sex in Wisconsin dental Medicaid.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 2001 to 2013 Wisconsin Medicaid claims database for preventive dental procedures for children and adults. Billed and paid amounts for preventive dental procedures were aggregated over a visit and adjusted for inflation based on the Medical Care Consumer Price Index produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for 2013. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2380084419842533
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2380084419842533DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Novel RHD alleles in African Brazilians.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Colsan-Associação Beneficente de Coleta de Sangue, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15327DOI Listing

Group B streptococcus prevalence, serotype distribution and colonization dynamics in Western Australian pregnant women.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 The School of Medicine, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Purpose: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a leading neonatal pathogen that causes sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Globally, strategies have been implemented to address vertical transmission, and in Western Australia (WA), culture-based screening at 35-37 weeks' gestation is part of routine care and guides antibiotic administration. Previous Australian studies have focused on other regions or included low sample-size representatives; we aimed to describe antenatal GBS colonization in WA. Read More

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https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000980DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Use of Cancer-Specific Patient-Centered Technologies Among Underserved Populations in the United States: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 23;21(4):e10256. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

VA Health Services Research and Development, Center for Health Information & Communication, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Background: In the United States, more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer are estimated to be diagnosed each year. However, the burden of cancer among the US population is not shared equally, with racial and ethnic minorities and lower-income populations having a higher cancer burden compared with their counterparts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10256DOI Listing

Structural Insights into the Development of Cycloguanil Derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei Pteridine Reductase 1 Inhibitors.

ACS Infect Dis 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Cycloguanil is a known dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor, but there is no evidence of its activity on pteridine reductase (PTR), the main metabolic bypass to DHFR inhibition in trypanosomatid parasites. Here, we provide experimental evidence of cycloguanil as an inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei PTR1 (TbPTR1). A small library of cycloguanil derivatives was develop, resulting in 1 and 2a having IC50 of 692 and 186 nM, respectively, towards TbPTR1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00358DOI Listing

gen. nov., sp. nov.; gen. nov., sp. nov.; gen. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov. isolated from breast milk from healthy breastfeeding African women.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 May 23;29:100537. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Marseille, France.

Four strains isolated by microbial culturomics from breast milk of healthy mothers from Mali were not identified and characterized by taxono-genomics. This led us to propose the new genera and species , and containing type strain Marseille-P4301 (CSUR P4301), Marseille-P4302 (CSUR P4302) and Marseille-P4641 (CSUR P4641), respectively. The strain Marseille-P4482 represents a novel species, in a previously known genus with type strain being Marseille-P4482 (CSUR P4482). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2019.100537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462784PMC

Occupational skin disorders in a subset of Nigerian hairdressers.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 10;31:100. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria.

Introduction: Hairdressing is associated with a wide range of disorders. This is particularly true in the African hairdresser, who is saddled with the responsibility of 'taming' the rather difficult-to-manage African hair, and is thus exposed to a wide range of chemical, biological and physical materials in the hair grooming process. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of occupational skin disorders among hairdressers in Ibadan, one of the oldest and largest cities in Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.100.16499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461971PMC
October 2018

The Role of Age and Multimorbidity in Shaping Older African American Men's Experiences with Patient⁻Provider Communication.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 24;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 24.

College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Flint, MI 48502, USA.

This study investigated factors associated with older African American men's unmet health communication needs in the context of patient-provider interactions. Responses to a health survey were analyzed for 430 African American men attending a Midwest community health fair. The outcome measure was the extent to which men could get their health-related questions answered during recent medical visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040074DOI Listing
October 2018

Investigating the Enduring Impact of a Community-Based Health Education Program to Promote African American Elders' Use of Technology Designed to Support Chronic Disease Self-Management.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 13;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 13.

School of Communication and Information, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Elders experience chronic disease disparities and barriers to access technology designed to support recommended self-management behaviors. Elders from racial minority groups are among those who experience particular disparities in chronic disease incidence, outcomes, and barriers to technology use. In order to investigate strategies to address barriers, the study team recruited elder African Americans with diabetes and young adults connected to the elders through naturally occurring familial or social networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040070DOI Listing
October 2018

Chronic Kidney Disease and Older African American Adults: How Embodiment Influences Self-Management.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Aug 16;3(3). Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Patients living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must balance the medical management of their kidney disease and other chronic conditions with their daily lives, including managing the emotional and psychosocial consequences of living with a chronic disease. Self-management is critical to managing chronic kidney disease, as treatment consists of a complex regimen of medications, dosages, and treatments. This is a particularly important issue for older African American adults who will comprise a significant portion of the older adult population in the coming years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030052DOI Listing

Older African American Men's Perspectives on Factors That Influence Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management and Peer-Led Interventions.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Jul 6;3(3). Epub 2018 Jul 6.

School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Older African American men are at increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) but demonstrate high rates of poor illness management. They also participate in interventions targeting illness management at extremely low rates and are at high risk for dropout from clinical trials. One modifiable factor that has been identified in the literature that contributes to these disparities is health beliefs particular to men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030038DOI Listing

Genetic Regulation of enoyl-CoA hydratase Domain-Containing 3 in Adipose Tissue Determines Insulin Sensitivity in African Americans and Europeans.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157

Insulin resistance (IR) is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and partly determined by genetic factors. However, genetically-regulated mechanisms of IR remain poorly understood. Using gene expression, genotype, and insulin sensitivity data from an African American cohort (AAGMEx), we performed transcript-wide correlation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses to identify IR-correlated -regulated transcripts (-eGenes) in adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1229DOI Listing

[Asthma control in adult Algerian patients. Comparison with other North African and Middle-East countries].

Rev Mal Respir 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Service de pneumologie, CHU Beni-Messous, Alger, Algérie.

Introduction: Lack of recent data on asthma control in Algeria led to this study whose results were compared with those of the same study conducted in the Middle East and North Africa (Middle East and North Africa - MENA).

Method: This cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed on adults suffering from asthma for at least one year without exacerbation within the last 4 weeks. Asthma control was assessed using 2012 Global initiative for asthma (GINA) criteria and Asthma control test (ACT) questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2019.02.004DOI Listing

Genetic characterization of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cattle and sheep from three South African provinces.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, 080-8555, Japan. Electronic address:

Ticks are involved in the transmission of many public health and veterinary important pathogens. Although tick-borne pathogens are widely distributed in South Africa, information on tick-pathogen relationship needs to be updated particularly using modern molecular techniques. This study used PCR and sequencing to confirm the identity of the tick species collected from cattle and sheep from KwaZulu-Natal, Free State and Eastern Cape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Caring for patients with Ebola virus disease: Are U.S. biocontainment centers ready for the next outbreak?

Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Room H-185D, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The 2014 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest and deadliest EVD epidemic to date, resulting in fivefold more cases than all other outbreaks combined. This outbreak was particularly devastating to healthcare workers in West Africa and resulted in several EVD patients being medically evacuated for treatment in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Mandibular molar root and pulp cavity morphology in Homo naledi and other Plio-Pleistocene hominins.

J Hum Evol 2019 May 21;130:83-95. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Evolutionary Studies Institute and Centre for Excellence in PaleoSciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

The craniomandibular morphology of Homo naledi shows variable resemblances with species across Homo, which confounds an easy assessment of its phylogenetic position. In terms of skull shape, H. naledi has its closest affinities with Homo erectus, while mandibular shape places it closer to early Homo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Efficacy of diffeomorphic surface matching and 3D geometric morphometrics for taxonomic discrimination of Early Pleistocene hominin mandibular molars.

J Hum Evol 2019 May 5;130:21-35. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Morphometric assessments of the dentition have played significant roles in hypotheses relating to taxonomic diversity among extinct hominins. In this regard, emphasis has been placed on the statistical appraisal of intraspecific variation to identify morphological criteria that convey maximum discriminatory power. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3D GM) approaches that utilize landmarks and semi-landmarks to quantify shape variation have enjoyed increasingly popular use over the past twenty-five years in assessments of the outer enamel surface (OES) and enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of fossil molars. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.01.009DOI Listing

A missing piece of the Papio puzzle: Gorongosa baboon phenostructure and intrageneric relationships.

J Hum Evol 2019 May 5;130:1-20. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

ICArEHB - Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behaviour, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal; Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution Lab, Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, UK; Gorongosa National Park, Sofala, Mozambique; Centre for Functional Ecology, Coimbra University, Portugal.

Most authors recognize six baboon species: hamadryas (Papio hamadryas), Guinea (Papio papio), olive (Papio anubis), yellow (Papio cynocephalus), chacma (Papio ursinus), and Kinda (Papio kindae). However, there is still debate regarding the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of gene flow occurring between species. Here, we present ongoing research on baboon morphological diversity in Gorongosa National Park (GNP), located in central Mozambique, south of the Zambezi River, at the southern end of the East African Rift System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.01.007DOI Listing

Improving glomerular filtration rate estimation.

Kidney Int 2019 May;95(5):1017-1019

Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations are widely used, but their accuracy is limited by the need for race-ethnicity factors and imprecision of the estimated GFR. In this issue, Bukabau et al. evaluated the accuracy of GFR estimating equations and race-ethnicity factors in 2 centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.01.016DOI Listing

Racial/ethnic differences in perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking in a sample of African American and Hispanic adults living with HIV/AIDS: A preliminary study.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2019 Apr 22:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a Yeshiva University , Bronx , New York.

Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) report very high prevalences of cigarette smoking, and there are racial/ethnic disparities in smoking consequences and quit outcomes. In this exploratory pilot study, we examined racial/ethnic differences in perceived risks and benefits of quitting cigarette smoking among 97 adult PLWH in the Bronx, New York (Hispanic, 53.6%; African American, 46. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2019.1598906DOI Listing

The Antioxidant from Ethanolic Extract of Fruits Activates Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog In Vitro and In Vivo: A New Insight on Its Antileukemic Effect.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 19;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Graduate Institute of Marine Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Pingtung 944, Taiwan.

Tratt is a Chinese herbal remedy that is used in the treatment of diarrhea, burns, rheumatoid arthritis, and hemorrhage. Despite its use in Asian folk medicine, there are limited reports on the biological activity of fruits. This study focused on the investigation of the antitumor effect of the antioxidative ethanolic extract of fruits (RCE) along with its underlying mechanism of action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081935DOI Listing

Breast Health Disparities: A Primer for Medical Students.

MedEdPORTAL 2016 Sep 28;12:10471. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Humanities, Health and Society, Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine.

Introduction: While breast cancer incidence rates have remained stable and mortality rates have declined for white women, breast cancer mortality has steadily increased for African American women since the 1950s. It has often been assumed that genetic risks linked to African ancestry are the cause for these disparities. However, a better understanding of the role of stress and social and environmental factors in health lends evidence to the social determinants behind the increasing gaps in breast health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464433PMC
September 2016

Corrigendum to Attitude of interns towards implementation and contribution of undergraduate Emergency Medicine training: Experience of an Ethiopian Medical School: [African Journal of Emergency Medicine 7(3): 108-112].

Afr J Emerg Med 2017 Dec 11;7(4):189. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.afjem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2017.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458542PMC
December 2017

No longer locally extinct? Tracing the origins of a lion () living in Gabon.

Conserv Genet 2018 1;19(3):611-618. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

1Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Lions () are of particular conservation concern due to evidence of recent, widespread population declines in what has hitherto been seen as a common species, robust to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use non-invasive methods to recover complete mitochondrial genomes from single hair samples collected in the field in order to explore the identity of the Gabonese Plateaux Batéké lion. Comparison of the mitogenomes against a comprehensive dataset of African lion sequences that includes relevant geographically proximate lion populations from both contemporary and ancient sources, enabled us to identify the Plateaux Batéké lion as a close maternal relative to now extirpated populations found in Gabon and nearby Congo during the twentieth century, and to extant populations of Southern Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-1039-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448349PMC
February 2018

C9orf72 repeat expansions in South Africans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Apr 17;401:51-54. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Neurology research group, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic variant found in individuals with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), occurring at a frequency of between 7 and 11% in cohorts of European ancestry. While limited data suggest that C9-expansions (>30 repeats) are less frequent in African-Americans with ALS, there is no data on the frequency of C9-expansions among ALS subjects residing in Africa. We therefore investigated the frequency of this expansion mutation (using repeat-primed PCR) in a cohort of 143 South Africans (SA) with ALS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.04.026DOI Listing

Nuclease activity decreases the RNAi response in the sweetpotato weevil Cylas puncticollis.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the process of suppression of gene expression in eukaryotes, which has a great potential for the control of pest and diseases. Unfortunately, the efficacy of this technology is limited or at best variable in some insects. In the African sweet potato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis, a devastating pest that affects the sweet potato production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the RNAi response was highly efficient when dsRNA was delivered by injection, but it showed a reduced response by oral feeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.001DOI Listing

The inquiry model of medicine.

Authors:
Alex Broadbent

CMAJ 2019 Jan;191(4):E105-E106

African Centre for Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.180508DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk Factors and Outcomes for Sepsis after Appendectomy in Adults.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Sepsis is an uncommon occurrence after appendectomy, but the morbidity and mortality of patients who develop sepsis after appendectomy remains exceedingly high. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors and adverse post-operative outcomes associated with sepsis after appendectomy in adults. The American College of Surgery National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant user database was queried from 2012 to 2015. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/sur.2019.003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2019.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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QUANTIFYING THE SEVERITY OF GIRAFFE SKIN DISEASE VIA PHOTOGRAMMETRY ANALYSIS OF CAMERA TRAP DATA.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

1   Research on the Ecology of Carnivores and Their Prey Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 480 Wilson Road, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Developing techniques to quantify the spread and severity of diseases afflicting wildlife populations is important for disease ecology, animal ecology, and conservation. Giraffes () are in the midst of a dramatic decline, but it is not known whether disease is playing an important role in the broad-scale population reductions. A skin disorder referred to as giraffe skin disease (GSD) was recorded in 1995 in one giraffe population in Uganda. Read More

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Advancing Cancer Research in Africa Through Early-Career Awards: The BIG Cat Initiative.

J Glob Oncol 2019 Apr(5):1-8

5 National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: The burden of cancer in Africa is growing rapidly, and increased cancer research on the continent is a critical component of an effective response. In 2010, the US National Cancer Institute, in partnership with the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer, launched the Beginning Investigator Grant for Catalytic Research (BIG Cat) initiative to support cancer research projects conducted by early-career African investigators.

Methods: To date, BIG Cat has provided 18 awards of up to $50,000 to support 2-year cancer research projects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.18.00223DOI Listing

Projecting impacts of global climate and land-use scenarios on plant biodiversity using compositional-turnover modelling.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

CSIRO Land and Water, Building 101, Black Mountain Laboratories, Clunies Ross St., Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

Nations have committed to ambitious conservation targets in response to accelerating rates of global biodiversity loss. Anticipating future impacts is essential to inform policy decisions for achieving these targets, but predictions need to be of sufficiently high spatial resolution to forecast the local effects of global change. As part of the intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models of the IPBES, we present a fine-resolution assessment of trends in the persistence of global plant biodiversity. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14663
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14663DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Purification of Extracellular Trypanosomes, Including African, from Blood by Anion-Exchangers (Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose Columns).

J Vis Exp 2019 Apr 6(146). Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Univ. Bordeaux UMR INTERTRYP 177 IRD CIRAD; IRD UMR 177 INTERTRYP CIRAD; Centre Hospitalier Université Bordeaux;

This method allows the separation of trypanosomes, parasites responsible for animal and human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), from infected blood. This is the best method for diagnosis of first stage HAT and furthermore this parasite purification method permits serological and research investigations. HAT is caused by Tsetse fly transmitted Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58415DOI Listing

Race/Ethnicity-specific Disparities in In-Hospital Mortality and Hospital Charges Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease-related Hospitalizations in the United States.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA.

Goal: The goal of this study was to evaluate disparities in hospital outcomes among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) related hospitalizations in the United States with a focus on ethnicity-specific disparities.

Background: IBD-related hospitalizations contribute to significant morbidity and health care economic burden.

Methods: IBD-related hospitalizations (identified with ICD-9) among US adults were evaluated using 2007 to 2013 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004836-900000000-9773
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001204DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Simplifying switch to second line ART: Predicted effect of defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens in sub-Saharan Africa by a single viral load > 1000 copies/ml.

AIDS 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Many individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa never initiate second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) or do so after significant delay. For people on ART with a viral load (VL) > 1000 copies/ml, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a second VL measurement 3 months after the first VL and enhanced adherence support. Switch to a second-line regimen is contingent upon a persistently elevated VL > 1000 copies/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002234DOI Listing

Distress tolerance trajectories following substance use treatment.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Objective: Distress tolerance (DT), the ability to withstand aversive internal states, represents an important risk factor for substance use relapse and a potential treatment target. Neurobiological research in substance using populations suggests that continued substance use could erode DT, whereas abstinence could bolster it. The current study characterized trajectories of behavioral and self-reported indices of DT and examined the prospective effect of substance use on DT trajectories among those seeking treatment for substance use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000403DOI Listing

A novel hepatitis B virus recombinant genotype D4/E identified in a South African population.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 6;5(4):e01477. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Services, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Genetic diversity is a characteristic trait of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and has been associated with different clinical outcomes. In South Africa, HBV infection is a major public health concern. Most HBV infections are caused by genotype A strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453802PMC

Urban young women's preferences for intervention strategies to promote physical and mental health preconception: A Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI).

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 15;14:100846. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

South African Medical Research Council Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

This study aimed to qualitatively investigate young women's preferences for preconception intervention strategies to promote physical and mental health in a rapidly transitioning, urban setting. Four semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with young women (n = 29, 18-24 years old) from Soweto, South Africa. Qualitative data were thematically analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458479PMC

Progress towards elimination of measles in Kenya, 2003-2016.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;31:65. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kenya.

Introduction: Measles is targeted for elimination in the World Health Organization African Region by the year 2020. In 2011, Kenya was off track in attaining the 2012 pre-elimination goal. We describe the epidemiology of measles in Kenya and assess progress made towards elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.65.16309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457729PMC
September 2018

A cross-sectional study of traditional practices affecting maternal and newborn health in rural Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;31:64. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Introduction: Certain traditional practices which have negative effects on maternal and child health continue to be practiced in sub-Saharan African countries. A survey was carried out in a rural village in Nigeria to understand the scale and range of these practices.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which trained interviewers administered pre-tested questionnaires on child-bearing women using questionnaires embedded on android devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.64.15880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457866PMC
September 2018

Infrequent detection of human papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancers in the Central African Republic: a retrospective study.

Infect Agent Cancer 2019 8;14. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

4Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Virologie, and Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Université Paris V, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.

We carried out a retrospective study on the prevalence of HPV and genotype distribution by nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of 135 head and neck cancers (HNC) and 29 cervical cancers received between 2009 and 2017 for diagnosis at the Laboratoire National de Biologie Clinique et de Santé Publique of Bangui, the capital city of the Central African Republic. One oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma sample was positive for HPV type 16. The overall HPV prevalence in HNC biopsies was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-019-0225-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454762PMC

of the femoral bone.

J Res Med Sci 2019 25;24:19. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Lautech Teaching Hospital, Ogbomosho, Nigeria.

Histoplasmosis due to is an emerging AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV positive seen predominantly on the African continent between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. is an invasive fungal organism with tropism for lymph nodes, skin and bones. The infection occurs more in patients with a CD4 count <50/mm and is usually dissemnnated Histoplasmosis due to is an emerging AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV positive seen predominantly on the African continent between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_97_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450135PMC

A method for generating virus-free cassava plants to combat viral disease epidemics in Africa.

Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Jan;105:77-87

Genetic Technologies International Limited (GTIL), P.O. Box 47430-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Here, we report a method to clean cassava plants from viral infections that cause cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Africa. Infected plants of resistant or tolerant varieties from Malawi, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda were cleaned in the UK using a combination of tissue culture, chemotherapy and thermotherapy. In the first cycle of our virus-indexing procedure, we successfully cleaned 27 of the 31 varieties (87%), and after an additional three cleaning cycles, all plants were virus-free. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2018.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472600PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of resistance to cassava mosaic disease in selected African cassava cultivars using combined molecular and greenhouse grafting tools.

Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 2019 Jan;105:47-53

Central Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technique, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) threatens cassava () production in Africa. A total of 24 selected cultivars were screened against CMD using combined molecular and greenhouse grafting tools. Disease severity was recorded for 10 weeks after inoculation and the molecular markers associated with were detected by PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2018.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472601PMC
January 2019

Mantle Sources of Recent Anatolian Intraplate Magmatism: A Regional Plume or Local Tectonic Origin?

Tectonics 2018 Dec 15;37(12):4535-4566. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Earth Sciences Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.

We present an extensive study of rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions, olivine phenocrysts, and chromian spinel inclusions to explore the link between geodynamic conditions and the origin and composition of Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate magmatism in Anatolia at Kula, Ceyhan-Osmaniye, and Karacadağ. Exceptional compositional variability of these products reveals early and incomplete mixing of distinct parental melts in each volcanic center, reflecting asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle sources. The studied primitive magmas consist of (1) two variably enriched ocean island basalt (OIB)-type melts in Kula; (2) both OIB-type and plume mid-ocean ridge basalt (P-MORB)-like melts beneath Toprakkale and Üçtepeler (Ceyhan-Osmaniye); and (3) two variably enriched OIB-type melts beneath Karacadağ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018TC005219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472637PMC
December 2018

Evaluation of cowpea ( (L.) Walp.) landraces to bacterial blight caused by pv. .

Crop Prot 2019 Feb;116:77-81

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Cowpea is an important protein source for human populations in many nations across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, cowpea production is constrained by bacterial blight (CoBB) caused by pv. (), a disease affecting most cowpea-growing areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2018.10.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472675PMC
February 2019

A user-generated data based approach to enhancing location prediction of financial services in sub-Saharan Africa.

Appl Geogr 2019 Apr;105:25-36

Spatial Development International, Seattle, USA.

The recent increase in user-generated content and social media adoption in developing countries offers an unprecedented opportunity to better understand the accessibility and spatial distribution of financial services in sub-Saharan Africa. Financial inclusion has been identified as a priority by multiple agencies in the region and on-the-ground efforts are currently underway to identify previously unknown financial access points in numerous developing African countries. Existing techniques for estimating the location of these access points rely on spatial analysis of often outdated or unsuitable publicly available datasets such as population density, road networks, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472520PMC

Comparative in vitro transportation of pentamidine across the blood-brain barrier using polycaprolactone nanoparticles and phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1428-1436

c School of Pharmacy , University of the Western Cape , Bellville , South Africa.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained importance in addressing drug delivery challenges across biological barriers. Here, we reformulated pentamidine, a drug used to treat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in polymer based nanoparticles and liposomes and compared their capability to enhance pentamidine penetration across blood brain barrier (BBB). Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, pentamidine loading and drug release profiles were determined by various methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1596923DOI Listing
December 2019

Prediction of adverse perinatal outcomes by fetal biometry: a comparison of customized and population-based standards.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (NICHD/NIH/DHHS).

Objective: To compare the predictive ability of estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentiles, according to seven growth standards, to detect fetuses at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 3,437 African-American women. Population-based (Hadlock, INTERGROWTH-21st, WHO, FMF), ethnic specific (NICHD), customized (GROW) and African American customized (PRB/NICHD) growth standards were applied to the last available scan prior to delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20299DOI Listing