216,457 results match your criteria African Natural History[Journal]

Psychiatry on a Shoestring: Developing New Standards of Care for a Severe, Prolonged, and Widespread Emergency.

James E Black

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):168

University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Study Objective: The COVID-19 crisis has severely stressed our healthcare system and pushed our economy to the brink. This long emergency will probably cause years of severe suffering in every region. Health expenses greatly increased, supply chains were disrupted, and governments coped with much less revenue. Read More

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Mood symptoms Associated with CADASIL Syndrome: A Case Report.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):144


Objective: To discuss the psychiatric symptoms that are associated with CADASIL syndrome Abstract Cerebral:Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare type of hereditary disease involving the small cerebral vessels. The clinical symptoms are various and include recurrent ischemic strokes, migraine with aura, seizures with epilepsy, psychiatric problems such as mood disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline leading to dementia. This disease needs awareness amongst the psychiatrists even though it is discussed much more in neurology literature. Read More

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Implementation of NAVIGATE Coordinated Specialty Care for First Episode Psychosis: the Michigan Experience.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):177-178

The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA.

Study Objectives: Coordinated specialty care (CSC) is widely accepted as an evidence-based treatment for first episode psychosis (FEP). The NAVIGATE intervention from the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study is a CSC intervention which offers a suite of evidence-based treatments shown to improve engagement and clinical outcomes, especially in those with shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Coincident with the publication of this study, legislation was passed by the United States Congress in 2014-15 to fund CSC for FEP via a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) block grant set-aside for each state. Read More

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Development of a theory-based HPV vaccine promotion comic book for East African adolescents in the US.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 14;21(1):1137. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Health Services, University of Washington and Division of Public Health Science, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Hans Rosling Center for Public Health, 3980 15th Avenue NE, UW Mailbox 351621, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is low among East African adolescents in the US. Adolescents' preferences influence HPV vaccine decisions, yet few interventions exist that address East African adolescents' beliefs about HPV vaccines. We describe a multi-step process on how to create a theory-based comic book by integrating empirical findings, theory and focus group data from East African parents in the US. Read More

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Three transmission events of Vibrio cholerae O1 into Lusaka, Zambia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):570. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Cholera has been present and recurring in Zambia since 1977. However, there is a paucity of data on genetic relatedness and diversity of the Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for these outbreaks. Understanding whether the outbreaks are seeded from existing local isolates or if the outbreaks represent separate transmission events can inform public health decisions. Read More

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Magnitude and determinants of neural tube defect in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 14;21(1):426. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of disorders that arise from the failure of the neural tube close between 21 and 28 days after conception. About 90% of neural tube defects and 95% of death due to these defects occurs in low-income countries. Since these NTDs cause considerable morbidity and mortality, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of NTDs in Africa. Read More

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Ripple effects of research capacity strengthening: a study of the effects of a project to support test facilities in three African countries towards Good Laboratory Practice certification.

Gates Open Res 2020 10;4:175. Epub 2021 May 10.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Strengthening capacity for public health research is essential to the generation of high-quality, reliable scientific data. This study focuses on a research capacity strengthening project supporting seven test facilities in Africa conducting studies on mosquito vector control products towards Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) certification. It captures the primary effects of the project on each facility's research capacity, the secondary effects at the individual and institutional level, and the ripple effects that extend beyond the research system. Read More

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Survival of south african women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV.

Breast 2021 Jun 3;59:27-36. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193 South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Breast cancer outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa is reported to be poor, with an estimated five-year survival of 50% when compared to almost 90% in high-income countries. Although several studies have looked at the effect of HIV in breast cancer survival, the effect of ARTs has not been well elucidated.

Methods: All females newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from May 2015-September 2017 at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital were enrolled. Read More

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Imidazole antifungal drug clotrimazole alters the behavior, brain acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 11;248:109108. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Electronic address:

This study was carried out to determine the effect of clotrimazole (CTZ), an imidazole fungicide on behavior, brain acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters in Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Fish were acutely exposed to five nominal concentrations of CTZ and control to assess the behavioral effects on fish. To determine the effects on brain acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters, fish were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations vis 7. Read More

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Incorporating oral PrEP into standard prevention services for South African women: a nested interrupted time-series study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: As oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) becomes the standard of prevention globally, its potential effect on HIV incidence in clinical trials of new prevention interventions is unknown, particularly for trials among women. In a trial measuring HIV incidence in African women, oral PrEP was incorporated into the standard of prevention in the trial's last year. We assessed the effect of on-site access to PrEP on HIV incidence in this natural experiment. Read More

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Determinants of Lung Fissure Completeness.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University Medical Center Groningen, Pulmonary diseases, Groningen, Netherlands.

Rationale: New advanced bronchoscopic treatment options for patients with severe COPD have led to increased interest for COPD phenotyping, including fissure completeness.

Objectives: We investigated clinical, environmental, and genetic factors contributing to fissure completeness in patients with and without COPD.

Methods: We used data of 9926 participants of the COPDGene study who underwent chest computed tomography (CT). Read More

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Maternal age at first childbirth and geographical variation in HBV prevalence in Cameroon: Important role of mother-to-child transmission.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Unité d'Épidémiologie des Maladies Émergentes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection varies geographically around the world. However, the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Using a nationally representative population-based sample from all 58 administrative divisions in Cameroon, we examined the association between median maternal age at first childbirth in a preceding generation, a proxy for the frequency of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV in a region, and the risk of chronic HBV infection, defined as positive surface antigen (HBsAg), in the index generation. Read More

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Early mortality in tuberculosis patients initially lost to follow up following diagnosis in provincial hospitals and primary health care facilities in Western Cape, South Africa.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0252084. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

In South Africa, low tuberculosis (TB) treatment coverage and high TB case fatality remain important challenges. Following TB diagnosis, patients must link with a primary health care (PHC) facility for initiation or continuation of antituberculosis treatment and TB registration. We aimed to evaluate mortality among TB patients who did not link to a TB treatment facility for TB treatment within 30 days of their TB diagnosis, i. Read More

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Meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus prevalence among tuberculosis patients in Asia and Africa.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1200-1205

Department of Statistics, GC Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus among active tuberculosis patients, and to assess the impact of age in this regard.

Methods: The meta-analysis comprised studies conducted in Asian and African countries from 2012 to 2018. Data was extracted from the selected studies and was analyzed using the Meta extension of Excel. Read More

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Racial Diversity Among American Cardiologists: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future.

Circulation 2021 Jun 14;143(24):2395-2405. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Medicine (A.E.J., M.B.T., E.B., A.J.C., E.M.D., P.K.D., L.M.D.C., U.R.E., A.M.G., M.V.H., A.J.J., C.R.J., N.L.J., L.M., M.A.N., G.S.N., O.O., S.O.-A., A.J.C.S., T.L.S., O.T., R.T., E.U., J.D.W., J.E.S.-P.).

In the United States, race-based disparities in cardiovascular disease care have proven to be pervasive, deadly, and expensive. African American/Black, Hispanic/Latinx, and Native/Indigenous American individuals are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and are less likely to receive high-quality, evidence-based medical care as compared with their White American counterparts. Although the United States population is diverse, the cardiovascular workforce that provides its much-needed care lacks diversity. Read More

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Imbalance in Heart Transplant to Heart Failure Mortality Ratio Among African American, Hispanic, and White Patients.

Circulation 2021 Jun 14;143(24):2412-2414. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sarver Heart Center (K.B., N.K.S.), University of Arizona, Tucson.

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An Evaluation of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test's Psychometric Properties and scores in South Africa-Cultural Implications.

Psychol Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Business Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, 2000, South Africa.

The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET) has been translated and tested in many cultural settings. Results indicate that items show variability in meeting the original psychometric testing criteria. Individuals from non-Western cultures score differently on the RMET. Read More

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The pattern of human papillomavirus infection and genotypes among Nigerian women from 1999 to 2019: a systematic review.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):944-959

WHO National Polio Reference Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There are no robust national prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Nigerian women despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

The Objective Of Study: This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence and risk factors of genital HPV infection in Nigeria through a systemic review protocol.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and AJOL were searched between 10 April to 28 July 2020. Read More

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December 2021

It is like 'judging a book by its cover': An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England.

Isaac Tuffour

Nurs Inq 2021 Jun 14:e12436. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Read More

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Genome-wide association study of phenotypes measuring progression from first cocaine or opioid use to dependence reveals novel risk genes.

Explor Med 2021 28;2:60-73. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Medicine (Biomedical Genetics), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Aim: Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). Read More

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February 2021

Continuous research monitoring improves the quality of research conduct and compliance among research trainees: internal evaluation of a monitoring programme.

AAS Open Res 2020 25;3:57. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School Hygiene Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

Research site monitoring (RSM) is an effective way to ensure compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP). However, RSM is not offered to trainees (investigators) at African Institutions routinely. The Makerere University/Uganda Virus Research Institute Centre of Excellence in Infection and Immunity Research and Training (MUII-Plus) introduced internal monitoring to promote the quality of trainees' research projects. Read More

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November 2020

The complete chloroplast genome of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 3;6(7):1824-1825. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Chengdu Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

is of the unique edible bamboo specie of high quality in China. We studied the complete chloroplast(cp) genome of in this study. The cp genome of (GenBank accession: MW186792) was 138,911 bp in length, including a large single-copy (LSC) region of 82,498 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 12,743 bp and a pair of inverted repeated (IR) regions of 21,835 bp. Read More

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Trends of Antibacterial Resistance at the National Reference Laboratory in Cameroon: Comparison of the Situation between 2010 and 2017.

Biomed Res Int 2021 22;2021:9957112. Epub 2021 May 22.

Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Cameroon Pasteur Centre, Member of Institut Pasteur International Network, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance represents a growing public health threat. One of the World Health Organization's strategic objectives is "strengthening knowledge through surveillance and research." Sub-Saharan African countries are still far from achieving this objective. Read More

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Needs of Young African Neurosurgeons and Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Surg 2021 28;8:647279. Epub 2021 May 28.

NIHR Global Health Research Group on Neurotrauma, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Africa has many untreated neurosurgical cases due to limited access to safe, affordable, and timely care. In this study, we surveyed young African neurosurgeons and trainees to identify challenges to training and practice. African trainees and residents were surveyed online by the Young Neurosurgeons Forum from April 25th to November 30th, 2018. Read More

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Training the Next Generation of Academic Global Neurosurgeons: Experience of the Association of Future African Neurosurgeons.

Front Surg 2021 28;8:631912. Epub 2021 May 28.

Research Department, Association of Future African Neurosurgeons, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Although the past decade has seen a substantial increase in African neurosurgeons' academic productivity, productivity remains low compared to their colleagues from other regions. Aspiring neurosurgeons can contribute to the academic neurosurgery workforce by taking care of less technical and time-consuming research tasks. Fortunately, global neurosurgery institutions have also made efforts to increase research exposure and scholarly output in academic global neurosurgery. Read More

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Retention in HIV care and its predictors among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Plateau state, North Central Nigeria.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1596-1601. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Background: Retention in HIV care is the constancy of engagement in HIV treatment, care and support services which is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the infection as well as halting the development of resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In most African countries, Nigeria inclusive, men who have sex with men (MSM) are major contributors to HIV/AIDS burden. HIV-positive MSM are generally understudied and mostly underserved due to social, political and legislation factors resulting in limited characterization and documentation of the existing health disparities particularly with regards to retention in HIV care. Read More

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Public opinion regarding government response to COVID-19: case study of a large commercial city in Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 17;38:282. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: government measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be effective without widespread compliance by the public. A greater understanding of citizens' perceptions of these measures can help government agencies adapt their strategies to boost compliance. We examined citizens' perceptions of government's measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications on compliance using data from Onitsha city, Anambra State Nigeria. Read More

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