333,780 results match your criteria Africa Spectrum[Journal]


Oral habits in Children with Cleft (Lip and) Palate: A Pilot Study.

Folia Phoniatr Logop 2019 Apr 18:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Background/aims: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of oral habits and non-nutritive sucking habits in children with cleft (lip and) palate (CL/P) between 0-12 years, compared to peers without CL/P.

Methods: Children with CL/P (mean age 6.0 years, SD 2. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/495611
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495611DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Bioavailable Sr/Sr in European soils: A baseline for provenancing studies.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 31;672:1033-1044. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Eurogeosurveys, Brussels, Belgium.

We present Sr/Sr isotope ratios for ~1200 selected soil samples, collected by the GEMAS consortium from grazing (Gr) and agricultural (Ap) soils in Europe with the aim to better understand the strontium isotope distribution in the bioavailable fraction of the top-soil and its potential for provenancing applications. Spatial analysis shows that there is a clear distinction between coastal (<100 km) and non-coastal (>100 km) samples in their variance and that this variance is mirrored in the sodium concentration, suggesting an important but highly variable contribution from seaspray. We present two Sr/Sr maps at 25 km × 25 km scale: one based solely on the measured data using a classical kriging approach and one based on a Random Forest model using complementary GEMAS data to predict the strontium isotope composition at the remaining 3000+ GEMAS sampling locations, including appropriate uncertainty assessment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193138
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.387DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Leaves and stems of Capparis erythrocarpos, more sustainable than roots, show antiarthritic effects.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 15:111890. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Capparis erythrocarpos is a medicinal plant used widely in many parts of Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Its wide range of use, popularity and high value, make C. erythrocarpos containing products a target for economically driven adulteration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111890DOI Listing

Evaluation of the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction from Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. Roots on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver pathology in mice and its phytochemical characterization.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 15:111883. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Biology, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Centre for Schistosomiasis and Parasitology, P.O. Box 7244, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. (syn.: Heeria pulcherrrima Schweinf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111883DOI Listing

Glyphaea brevis - In vitro antioxidant and in silico biological activity of major constituents and molecular docking analyses.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Phytomedicine, Biochemical Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, PMB 704, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Previous studies have revealed that leaf extracts of Glyphaea brevis possess antioxidant activity but the bioactivity and mechanisms of action of its major constituents remain unknown. This study evaluated in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Glyphaea brevis twigs and leaves, and probable toxicity profile, pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of major phytoconstituents in silico. Phytochemical screening detected saponins, tannins, steroids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenolics in the extracts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.04.013DOI Listing

Paediatric emergency nurses' perceptions of parents' understanding of discharge information: A qualitative study.

Australas Emerg Care 2018 May 1;21(2):56-63. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: To identify paediatric emergency department nurses' perceptions of factors influencing parents' understanding of discharge information.

Procedures: Content analysis was used to analyse data from three semi-structured focus groups with nurses from a paediatric ED.

Findings: Findings were interpreted within the three domains of structure, process, and outcomes from the Donabedian model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2018.05.001DOI Listing

The possible role of cross-reactive dengue virus antibodies in Zika virus pathogenesis.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 18;15(4):e1007640. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been known for decades to circulate in Africa and Asia. However, major complications of a ZIKV infection have recently become apparent for reasons that are still not fully elucidated. One of the hypotheses for the seemingly increased pathogenicity of ZIKV is that cross-reactive dengue antibodies can enhance a ZIKV infection through the principle of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007640
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007640DOI Listing
April 2019
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Factors associated with recovery from stunting among under-five children in two Nairobi informal settlements.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215488. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Childhood stunting is a public health concern in many low-and-middle income countries, as it is associated with both short-term and long-term negative effects on child cognitive development, physical health, and schooling outcomes. There is paucity of studies on recovery from stunting among under five children in these countries. Most studies focused on the recovery much later in adolescence. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215488PLOS

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) supports Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in macrophages by inducing lysosomal dysfunction.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 18;15(4):e1007724. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB). TB-DM comorbidity is expected to pose a serious future health problem due to the alarming rise in global DM incidence. At present, the causal underlying mechanisms linking DM and TB remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007724DOI Listing

The effects of larval organic fertiliser exposure on the larval development, adult longevity and insecticide tolerance of zoophilic members of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215552. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Zoophilic members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are often associated with cattle. As such, it is likely that the immature aquatic stages will be exposed to cattle faeces as a pollutant. This study aimed to examine the effect of cattle manure on members of the An. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215552PLOS

Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography integrated with computed tomography in carcinoma of the cervix: Its impact on accurate staging and the predictive role of its metabolic parameters.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215412. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Objectives: To determine the impact of FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of cervical cancer among women with and without HIV and to determine the abilities of FDG-PET/CT metabolic parameters in predicting the presence of distant metastasis.

Methods: We reviewed the FDG-PET/CT images of women with FIGO stage IB2 to IVA carcinoma of the cervix. We compared the FIGO stage before and after FDG-PET/CT. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215412PLOS

"Hey, that could be me": The role of similarity in narrative persuasion.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215359. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Stories are often used in health communication because of accumulating evidence of their potential to affect people's attitudes and health behavioral intentions. Similarity between the reader and the story's protagonist appears to positively influence narrative persuasion, but the exact role of similarity on persuasive outcomes is debated, as some research finds clear effects of similarity manipulations whereas others do not. Possibly, these mixed results were found because the similarity manipulations were not always relevant to the topic of the story. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215359PLOS

Prevalence of Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Persons Aged 13-24 Years - Four Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2013-2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Apr 19;68(15):350-355. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Violence is a major public health and human rights concern, claiming over 1.3 million lives globally each year (1). Despite the scope of this problem, population-based data on physical and sexual violence perpetration are scarce, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (2,3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6815a3DOI Listing

Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure reference values in Africans.

Blood Press Monit 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

South African Hypertension and Diet Study, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objective: We aimed to establish reference values for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in an African community.

Patients And Methods: We randomly recruited 1219 participants of African ancestry from Soweto, a township in Johannesburg. Twenty-four hour ABP was measured using ABP monitors (model 90207; Spacelab). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000376DOI Listing

XGBoost Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a menace that is affecting 10% of the world population and 15% of the South African population. The early and cheap diagnosis of this disease with accuracy and reliability will save 20,000 lives in South Africa per year. Scientists are developing smart solutions with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8693581/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2019.2911071DOI Listing
April 2019
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Preliminary serological investigation of Rift Valley fever in Poland.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):324-326

Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.256570DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mainstreaming human and large carnivore coexistence through institutional collaboration.

Conserv Biol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.

Achieving human-large carnivore coexistence in Human Dominated Landscapes (HDL) is a key challenge for societies globally. This challenge cannot be adequately met with the current sectoral approaches of HDL governance and an academic sector largely dominated by disciplinary silos. In this essay, we urge academia (universities and other research institutions and organisations) to take a more active role in embracing societal challenges around large carnivore conservation in HDL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13334DOI Listing

Female Sex Workers' Experiences Selling Sex during Pregnancy and Post-Delivery in South Africa.

Stud Fam Plann 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nearly 75 percent of female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Elizabeth, South Africa are mothers, many of whom engage in sex work during pregnancy or after delivery. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 postpartum and 8 pregnant FSWs in Port Elizabeth. Interview guides were used to probe women's experiences, challenges, and concerns about selling sex during pregnancy and post-delivery in a high-HIV-prevalence context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sifp.12090DOI Listing

Improving TB infection control in a regional hospital in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

BMJ Open Qual 2019 1;8(1). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Improving Global Health through Leadership Development, NHS Thames Valley and Wessex Leadership Academy, Otterbourne, UK.

This quality improvement (QI) work was carried out in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital (CMH), a regional public hospital in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (SA). SA has among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the world and this is a leading cause of death in SA. Nosocomial infection is an important source of TB transmission. Read More

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http://qir.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjoq-2018-000347
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2018-000347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440607PMC
March 2019
1 Read

'Management of a spoiled identity': systematic review of interventions to address self-stigma among people living with and affected by HIV.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 19;4(2):e001285. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Frontline AIDS, Brighton, UK.

Background: Self-stigma, also known as internalised stigma, is a global public health threat because it keeps people from accessing HIV and other health services. By hampering HIV testing, treatment and prevention, self-stigma can compromise the sustainability of health interventions and have serious epidemiological consequences. This review synthesised existing evidence of interventions aiming to reduce self-stigma experienced by people living with HIV and key populations affected by HIV in low-income and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441299PMC
March 2019
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Immunisation financing and programme performance in the Middle East and North Africa, 2010 to 2017.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(2):e001248. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa, Amman, Jordan.

Immunisation is a cornerstone to primary health care and is an exceptionally good value. The 14 low-income and middle-income countries in the Middle East and North Africa region make up 88% of the region's population and 92% of its births. Many of these countries have maintained high immunisation coverage even during periods of low or negative economic growth. Read More

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http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001248
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441300PMC
March 2019
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'' Current childcare practices and caregivers' perceptions of and receptivity to early childhood development activities in rural Burkina Faso.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(2):e001233. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Effective stimulation and responsive caregiving during the first 2 years is crucial for children's development. By age 3-4 years, over 40% of children in sub-Saharan Africa fail to meet basic cognitive or socioemotional milestones, but there are limited data on parenting and childcare practices. This study, conducted to inform the design of a mass media intervention, explored practices, perceptions, motivators and obstacles to childhood development-related practices among parents and caregivers of children aged 0-2 years in rural Burkina Faso. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441292PMC

How and why front-line health workers (did not) use a multifaceted mHealth intervention to support maternal and neonatal healthcare decision-making in Ghana.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 8;4(2):e001153. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Ghana Health Service, Research and Development Division, Dodowa Research Centre, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Despite increasing use of mHealth interventions, there remains limited documentation of 'how and why' they are used and therefore the explanatory mechanisms behind observed effects on beneficiary health outcomes. We explored 'how and why' an mHealth intervention to support clinical decision-making by front-line providers of maternal and neonatal healthcare services in a low-resource setting was used. The intervention consisted of phone calls (voice calls), text messaging (short messaging service (SMS)), internet access (data) and access to emergency obstetric and neonatal protocols via an Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441261PMC

Tandem Peterson olefination and chemoselective asymmetric hydrogenation of β-hydroxy silanes.

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 4;10(12):3649-3653. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Organic Chemistry , Arrhenius Laboratory , Stockholm University , 106 91 , Stockholm , Sweden . Email:

Here, we report the first Ir-N,P complex catalyzed tandem Peterson olefination and asymmetric hydrogenation of β-hydroxy silanes. This reaction resulted in the formation of chiral alkanes in high isolated yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee) under mild conditions. Modification of the reaction conditions provides a choice to transform either an olefin or the β-hydroxy silane in a chemoselective manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc05261aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438149PMC

Improving iron and zinc bioaccessibility through food-to-food fortification of pearl millet with tropical plant foodstuffs (moringa leaf powder, roselle calyces and baobab fruit pulp).

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Apr 20;56(4):2244-2256. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

1Department of Consumer and Food Sciences and Institute of Food Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028 South Africa.

Essential mineral (iron and zinc) deficiencies are still prevalent in the Semi-arid Tropics, where many people consume monotonous, predominantly cereal-based diets. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of including tropical plant foodstuffs high in iron and zinc (moringa leaves and roselle calyces) or mineral availability enhancers (baobab fruit pulp) in a pearl millet-based food containing a plant food-based provitamin A source, with the aim of preventing iron and zinc deficiencies in the Semi-arid Tropics. Mineral bioaccessibility was assessed by dialysability assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03711-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443743PMC

Influence of infrared heating processing technology on the cooking characteristics and functionality of African legumes: a review.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Apr 8;56(4):1669-1682. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028 South Africa.

African legumes are an important protein source in the human diet. However, a long and often extended cooking process has been identified as a major challenge in the consumption and utilisation of these legumes. The application of infrared heating as a method of shortening the cooking-time of African legume seeds and flour, by increasing their water absorption rates and pasting viscosity is emphasised in literature. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03661-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443696PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Direct detection of bacteremia by exploiting host-pathogen interactions of lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6203. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States.

Bacteremia is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa where childhood mortality rates are the highest in the world. The early diagnosis of bacteremia and initiation of treatment saves lives, especially in high-disease burden areas. However, diagnosing bacteremia is challenging for clinicians, especially in children presenting with co-infections such as malaria and HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42502-5DOI Listing

Needle-like structures discovered on positively charged lightning branches.

Nature 2019 Apr 17;568(7752):360-363. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands.

Lightning is a dangerous yet poorly understood natural phenomenon. Lightning forms a network of plasma channels propagating away from the initiation point with both positively and negatively charged ends-called positive and negative leaders. Negative leaders propagate in discrete steps, emitting copious radio pulses in the 30-300-megahertz frequency band that can be remotely sensed and imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1086-6DOI Listing

Near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from the early South African epidemic, detecting a BD unique recombinant form (URF) from a sample in 1985.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6227. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa.

HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent subtype in South Africa. Although subtype B was previously detected in South Africa, there is limited sequence information available. We characterized near full-length HIV-1 subtype B sequences from samples collected at the start of the South African HIV-1 epidemic, in the 1980s. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42417-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42417-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comparisons of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope variants in blood and genital fluids near the time of male-to-female transmission.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA

To better understand the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), the genetic characteristics of male blood and genital viruses were compared to the imputed founding virus population in their female partners. Initially serodiscordant heterosexual African couples with sequence-confirmed male-to-female HIV-1 transmission and blood and genitial specimens near the time of transmission were studied. Single viral templates from blood plasma and genital tract RNA and DNA were sequenced across HIV-1 gp160. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01769-18DOI Listing

Interplay between the epigenetic enzyme lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

The histone modifier lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) plays a role in differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and its expression appears to be deregulated in certain cancers of hematological and lymphoid origins. We have previously found that the gene is differentially methylated in cell lines derived from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) compared with EBV-negative sporadic BL cells. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in eBL development has not been previously investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00273-19DOI Listing

Economics of tobacco control (part 3): evidence from the ITC Project.

Tob Control 2019 May;28(Suppl 1):s1-s2

Business School, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054832DOI Listing

Beyond Fever and Pain: Diagnostic Methods for Chikungunya Virus.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Emory University, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that is primarily transmitted by species mosquitoes. Though reports of an illness consistent with chikungunya date back over 200 years, CHIKV only gained worldwide attention during a massive pandemic that began in East Africa in 2004. Chikungunya, the clinical illness cause by CHIKV, is characterized by a rapid onset of high fever and debilitating joint pain, though in practice, etiologic confirmation of CHIKV requires the availability and use of specific laboratory diagnostics. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.00350-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00350-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hospital-derived antibody profiles of malaria patients in Southwest India.

Malar J 2019 Apr 17;18(1):138. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemistry and Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Naturally acquired immunity to malaria across the globe varies in intensity and protective powers. Many of the studies on immunity are from hyperendemic regions of Africa. In Asia, particularly in India, there are unique opportunities for exploring and understanding malaria immunity relative to host age, co-occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections, varying travel history, and varying disease severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2771-5DOI Listing

Systematic Review of Important Bacterial Zoonoses in Africa in the Last Decade in Light of the 'One Health' Concept.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 16;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and wildlife, immunosuppression as well as coinfection with other diseases. The interconnections between humans, animals and the environment are essential to understand the spread and subsequent containment of zoonoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020050DOI Listing

Evaluating Maize Genotype Performance under Low Nitrogen Conditions Using RGB UAV Phenotyping Techniques.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Integrative Crop Ecophysiology Group, Plant Physiology Section, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Maize is the most cultivated cereal in Africa in terms of land area and production, but low soil nitrogen availability often constrains yields. Developing new maize varieties with high and reliable yields using traditional crop breeding techniques in field conditions can be slow and costly. Remote sensing has become an important tool in the modernization of field-based high-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP), providing faster gains towards the improvement of yield potential and adaptation to abiotic and biotic limiting conditions. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/19/8/1815
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081815DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Microbiology and Water Activity Relationship in the Processing and Storage of Sudanese Dry Meat (Sharmoot).

J Food Prot 1989 Jan;52(1):13-20

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Call Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas U.S.A. 66506.

The Sudanese dry meat SHARMOOT is a major food product in East Africa. No information is available on microbial profiles or improved methods of processing the product. We have developed a pre-cooking and grinding procedure that produces the meat efficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.1.13DOI Listing
January 1989

Destruction of Aflatoxin During the Production of Hydrolysed Vegetable Protein.

J Food Prot 1988 Nov;51(11):887-891

Department of Biochemistry, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa.

An investigation into the breakdown of aflatoxins during the hydrolysis of artificially contaminated vegetable protein was conducted using a laboratory scale reactor. The conditions were selected to emulate a commercial process used to produce a protein hydrolysate used in processed food and soup ingredients. Chromatographic analysis showed that aflatoxins at relatively high concentration are totally destroyed and removed from the product. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.11.887DOI Listing
November 1988

Lentiviral Gene Therapy Combined with Low-Dose Busulfan in Infants with SCID-X1.

N Engl J Med 2019 04;380(16):1525-1534

From the Departments of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (E.M., B.T., W.J., S.G.), Hematology (S.Z., Z.M., J.C., J.D., X.T., B.Y.R., M.J.W., B.P.S.), Therapeutics Production and Quality (T.L., M.M.M.), Immunology (H.A., B.Y.), Pharmaceutical Sciences (S.J.C.), Biostatistics (G.K., C.L.), and Infectious Diseases (G.M.), St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; the Allergy and Clinical Immunology Division, Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru (J.C.A.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Allergy-Immunology Division, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles (J.A.C.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology-Bone Marrow Transplantation, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Benioff Children's Hospital, San Francisco (J.R.L.-B., J.M.P., M.J.C.) - both in California; the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.D.); University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa (J.T.L.); Departamento de Pediatria da Universidade de Taubaté, Conselho Nacional de Medicina, São Paulo (A.C.M.A.); Copperfield Childcare, Claremont, South Africa (H.W.); and the Genetic Immunotherapy Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (S.S.D.R., H.L.M.).

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) often fails to reconstitute immunity associated with T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells when matched sibling donors are unavailable unless high-dose chemotherapy is given. In previous studies, autologous gene therapy with γ-retroviral vectors failed to reconstitute B-cell and NK-cell immunity and was complicated by vector-related leukemia.

Methods: We performed a dual-center, phase 1-2 safety and efficacy study of a lentiviral vector to transfer complementary DNA to bone marrow stem cells after low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in eight infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1815408
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1815408DOI Listing
April 2019
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Malaria Standby Emergency Treatment (SBET) for Travelers Visiting Malaria Endemic Areas: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Travel Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of research, innovation and training, Unisanté, Center for Primary Care and Public Health, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Malaria prevention methods for travelers to low or moderate malaria risk areas varies and remains controversial. Standby Emergency Treatment (SBET) for malaria is one possible strategy increasingly recommended since 1988 with little evidence on its effectiveness or how it is truly being used. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed based on a structured search in Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science on September 7, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taz027DOI Listing

Evolutionary history of burrowing asps (Lamprophiidae: Atractaspidinae) with emphasis on fang evolution and prey selection.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214889. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Atractaspidines are poorly studied, fossorial snakes that are found throughout Africa and western Asia, including the Middle East. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses and divergence dating approaches to investigate evolutionary relationships and biogeographic patterns of atractaspidines with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1). We sampled 91 individuals from both atractaspidine genera (Atractaspis and Homoroselaps). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214889PLOS
April 2019
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Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 17;13(4):e0007343. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; St. Paul, MN, United States of America.

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Recent studies identified mutations in ZIKV infecting humans that arose coincident with the outbreak in French Polynesia and were stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007343DOI Listing

A Warm-Up Program to Reduce Injuries in Youth Field Hockey Players: A Quasi-Experiment.

J Athl Train 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Context: Field hockey is popular worldwide; however, it entails a risk of injury. Injuries hamper players' participation in the sport and impose a burden on public health.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a structured exercise program among youth field hockey players on the injury rate, severity, and burden. Read More

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http://natajournals.org/doi/10.4085/1062-6050-79-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-79-18DOI Listing
April 2019
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Euphausiacea diversity in a trans-oceanic transect through the South Atlantic Ocean: the first Atlantic record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180034. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica/PPGOFQG, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8 , Campus Carreiros, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.

Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil-Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180034DOI Listing

Glaucoma in Phacomatosis Pigmentovascularis in a Young African Male: A Case Report.

J Glaucoma 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis has previously almost exclusively been reported in Asians and in dermatological journals. In this report, we present a case of a young black South African male referred to our eye clinic.

Case Presentation: A 15-year-old male patient presented with gradual, painless loss of vision in his right eye. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001264DOI Listing
April 2019
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Inadequate diagnostics: the case to move beyond the bacilli for detection of meningitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) meningitis is extremely difficult to diagnose due to its pauci-bacillary disease nature and new techniques are needed. Improved test sensitivity would allow for greater clinician confidence in diagnostic testing and has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Traditional microbiologic and molecular tests for TB meningitis focus on detection of TB bacilli and are inadequate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000975DOI Listing
April 2019
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Adolescent girls' perceptions of breastfeeding in two low-income periurban communities in South Africa.

Health Care Women Int 2019 Apr 17:1-17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

c Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Cape Town , Observatory , South Africa.

In South Africa, exclusive breastfeeding rates are low, and rates of teenage pregnancy are high. Educational policy enables mothers' return to school, which conflicts with policy emphasizing exclusive breastfeeding. We elicited adolescent women's perceptions and experiences of infant feeding choices, and conducted six focus groups (N = 57) in two periurban settlements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1549043DOI Listing

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Accuracy of vaginal Self-Sampling for Screening Human Papillomavirus Types in Women from Rural Areas in Senegal.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Vaginal self-sampling and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be useful tools for women with limited access to health care living in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of vaginal self-sampling and high-risk HPV prevalence in two villages of central Senegal, women were asked to self-sample vaginal swabs for HPV detection in May, 2016. Vaginal swabs were collected from 133 women and were tested for HPV genotyping. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0045DOI Listing
April 2019
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