82,665 results match your criteria Afr J Agr Res[Journal]


Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on livelihoods and wild meat use in communities surrounding the Dja Faunal Reserve, South-East Cameroon.

Afr J Ecol 2022 Mar 25. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Zoology Interdisciplinary Centre for Conservation (ICCS) University of Oxford Oxford UK.

The COVID-19 outbreak has had considerable negative impacts on the livelihoods and living conditions of communities around the world. Although the source of COVID-19 is still unknown, a widely spread hypothesis is that the virus could be of animal origin. Wild meat is used by rural communities as a source of income and food, and it has been hypothesised that the pandemic might alter their perceptions and use of wild meat. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bedside colorimetric reagent dipstick in the diagnosis of meningitis in low- and middle-income countries: A prospective, international blinded comparison with laboratory analysis.

Afr J Emerg Med 2022 Sep 13;12(3):161-164. Epub 2022 May 13.

Departments of Pediatrics & Internal Medicine, Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya.

Background: Colorimetric reagent dipstick (CRD) for leukocyte esterase (LE) has shown potential for diagnosing and ruling out bacterial meningitis. Potential advantages over traditional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis include the small quantity of CSF required, rapid results, and easy interpretation. Our study aimed to determine whether clinicians in LMICs could accurately diagnose bacterial meningitis using CRD at the bedside. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2022

Comparison of inferior vena cava collapsibility and central venous pressure in assessing volume status in shocked patients.

Afr J Emerg Med 2022 Sep 17;12(3):165-171. Epub 2022 May 17.

Emergency Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Introduction: Determination of intravascular volume status in patients admitted to the emergency centre is critical. Physical signs of hypovolaemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and obstructive shock frequently overlap, making an accurate diagnosis of shock state difficult. This is problematic because fluid loading is considered the first step in haemodynamically unstable patients' resuscitation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2022

The next generation: Pregnancy in adolescents and women living with perinatally acquired HIV in South Africa.

Authors:
E Buchanan

S Afr Med J 2022 04 1;112(4):13546. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

South African Medical Association, South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Profile, presentation and outcomes of prosthetic valve endocarditis in a South African tertiary hospital: Insights from the Groote Schuur Hospital Infective Endocarditis Registry.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):13554. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PVE in South African retrospective studies ranges between 13% and 17%.

Objectives: To define the clinical profile and outcomes of patients with PVE, and compare them with those of native valve endocarditis (NVE) patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Patterns of disease on admission to children's wards and changes during a COVID-19 outbreak in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):279-287. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Health Systems Strengthening Unit, Health Systems Trust, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Major causes of under-5 child deaths in South Africa (SA) are well recognised, and child mortality rates are falling. The focus of child health is therefore shifting from survival to disease prevention and thriving, but local data on the non-fatal disease burden are limited. Furthermore, COVID-19 has affected children's health and wellbeing, both directly and indirectly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Predictors of mortality in acute hospitalised COVID-19 pneumonia patients: A retrospective cohort study at two tertiary-level hospitals in Zambia.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):273-278. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Internal Medicine, Ndola Teaching Hospital, Zambia; Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Namibia.

Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased acute hospitalisations, a high demand for intensive care and high in-hospital mortality, placing a huge burden on healthcare systems.

Objectives: To assess in-hospital mortality outcomes and associated factors in acute hospitalised COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Zambia.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort review of patients admitted to two tertiary-level hospitals in Zambia from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion: A South African experience.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):268-272. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

SAEndovascular, Kuils River Netcare Hospital, Kuils River, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with all-cause mortality, heart failure and non-fatal stroke, and thromboprophylaxis is traditionally provided with oral anticoagulants (OACs). Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) with a dedicated device is an alternative approach to thromboprophylaxis in patients with AF who are: (i) intolerant to OACs (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High prevalence of multimorbidity and non-communicable disease risk factors in South African adolescents and youth living with HIV: Implications for integrated prevention.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):259-267. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Research Initiative for Cities Health and Equity (RICHE), Division of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Adolescents and youth living with HIV (AYLHIV) face an elevated non-communicable disease (NCD) risk resulting from HIV, psychosocial challenges, and the complications of antiretroviral therapy.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of common NCDs and their risk factors among AYLHIV in urban Cape Town, South Africa, in order to inform an integrated approach to NCD screening and prevention in AYLHIV.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in six primary care facilities in Cape Town between March 2019 and January 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Teenage births and pregnancies in South Africa, 2017 - 2021 - a reflection of a troubled country: Analysis of public sector data.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 1;112(4):252-258. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Articles on teenage pregnancies have been proliferating in both the popular press and the medical media. We analysed data available in the public sector database, the District Health Information System, from 2017 to 2021. During this time, the number of births to young teenagers aged 10 - 14 years increased by 48. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Public health sector capacity and resilience building in Zimbabwe: An urgent priority as further waves of COVID-19 are imminent.

Authors:
G Murewanhema

S Afr Med J 2022 04 4;112(4):249-250. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Call for the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority to revisit regulations relating to single- use medical devices.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 1;112(4):13547. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Professor and Head, Division of Urology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mandrax use, sexual risk, and opportunities for pre-exposure prophylaxis among out-of-school adolescent girls and young women in Cape Town, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):341-346. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Substance Use, Gender, and Applied Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: In South Africa (SA), adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15 - 24 years account for nearly 25% of all new HIV infections in the country. The intersection of substance use and sexual risk continues to drive the HIV epidemic among AGYW. For example, methaqualone, also known as Mandrax, has sedative effects that may affect women's ability to negotiate condom use during sex, refuse sex without a condom, or consent to sex, thereby increasing their risk for HIV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human papillomavirus prevalence among unvaccinated young female college students in Botswana: A cross-sectional study.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):335-340. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Allied Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and a causative agent of cervical cancer. It is common in adolescent girls and young women, and the majority of infections are transient and asymptomatic. In Botswana, there are currently no data on the HPV prevalence against which the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines can be measured. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Where have we come from and where are we going? The paediatric HIV programme in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2004 to 2018: A retrospective analysis of programme trends.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 30;112(5):328-334. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Anova Health Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Community Paediatrics, School of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The paediatric HIV treatment programme in South Africa (SA) has grown since its inception in 2004. Despite this impressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, the proportion of children started on ART and retained in care remains unacceptably low, with only 47% of the 340 000 HIV-positive children in SA on ART in 2020. Johannesburg is one of the districts in SA with the largest number of children living with HIV who are not on ART, and is a priority district for paediatric case finding and retention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Echocardiographic features of infective endocarditis in South Africa: A prospective cohort study.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 30;112(5):321-327. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Historically, infective endocarditis (IE) in South Africa (SA) was associated with the viridans group of streptococci affecting patients with underlying rheumatic heart disease (RHD). A changing IE bacteriological profile raises the question of whether the profile of underlying valvular abnormality has changed.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of underlying structural valve abnormalities and their aetiologies associated with IE in SA, and describe the typical imaging findings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of the Minister of Health in the National Health Insurance Bill: Challenges and options for the Portfolio Committee on Health.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 30;112(5):317-320. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Senior Specialist Scientist, Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Honorary Research Associate, Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Principal Consultant, NMG Consultants and Actuaries, Cape Town, South Africa.

The Portfolio Committee on Health (PCH) is responsible for obtaining public input on the National Health Insurance Bill, reviewing the Bill based on these inputs, and presenting the final Bill to the National Assembly. More than 130 individuals, organisations and institutions requested to make oral presentations, which commenced on 18 May 2021. Drawing on Parliamentary Monitoring Group meeting summaries and the presentations and submissions made by 82 respondents between 18 May and 10 September 2021, we examine governance concerns, especially in relation to the role and powers of the Minister of Health, and respondents' proposals for addressing them, and outline the challenges and options for the PCH in responding to the proposals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The complexity of neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):313-316. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in Wuhan City, China, in 2019. Initially it was associated with the development of pulmonary disease, but research over the past 2 years has identified effects on multiple systems. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported in countries around the world, including new-onset psychosis in patients with no personal or family psychiatric history. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypertriglyceridaemia in adolescents may have serious complications.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):307-312. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Division of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Acute pancreatitis is an often-overlooked cause of acute abdominal pain in children and adolescents. Severe hypertriglyceridaemia is an important cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis. Monogenic causes of hypertriglyceridaemia, such as familial chylomicronaemia caused by lipoprotein lipase deficiency, are more frequently encountered in children and adolescents, but remain rare. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 in the South African Medical Journal.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):305-306. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Universidad Católica del Maule, Chile; Pontificia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prioritising preventive cancer services in Zimbabwe as the country struggles with unaffordable healthcare.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):13567. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A new forum to discuss health economics and genomics in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):13568. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Rare Diseases South Africa (RDSA) NPC, The Station, 63 Peter Place, Bryanston, Sandton, South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Renoprotection in hypertension and diabetes - management problems lie ahead.

Authors:
A M Meyers

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):13570. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Chairperson, National Kidney Foundation of South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prof. Atties Malan, the first neonatologist on the African continent: A tribute on his 90th birthday.

Authors:
V C Harrison

S Afr Med J 2022 04 29;112(5):13569. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

3 Hurley Road, Mowbray, Cape Town, South Africa.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RHAMNETIN IS A BETTER INHIBITOR OF SARS-COV-2 2'-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE THAN DOLUTEGRAVIR: A COMPUTATIONAL PREDICTION.

Afr J Infect Dis 2022 6;16(2):80-96. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Biology and Clinical Laboratory Science, Division of Arts and Sciences, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, PA 19014-1298, USA.

Background: The 2'-O-methyltransferase is responsible for the capping of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and consequently the evasion of the host's immune system. This study aims at identifying prospective natural inhibitors of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 2'O-methyltransferase (2'-OMT) through an in silico approach.

Materials And Methods: The target was docked against a library of natural compounds obtained from edible African plants using PyRx - virtual screening software. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE TO PRACTICE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO COVID-19 AMONG NURSES IN A SELECTED TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA.

Afr J Infect Dis 2022 6;16(2):55-62. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Nursing Science, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the Front line the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF