69,645 results match your criteria Afferent Loop Syndrome


Microbiota modulation by eating patterns and diet composition: impact on food intake.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Dec 19;315(6):R1254-R1260. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia , Athens, Georgia.

There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota and its composition dynamics play a crucial role in regulating the host physiological functions and behavior. Diet composition is the primary modulator of bacterial richness and abundance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Macronutrient (fat, sugar, and protein) and fiber contents are especially important in determining microbiota composition and its effect on health outcomes and behavior. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The K 7 channel activator retigabine suppresses mouse urinary bladder afferent nerve activity without affecting detrusor smooth muscle K channel currents.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405.

Key Points Summary: K 7 channels are a family of voltage-dependent K channels expressed in many cell types, which open in response to membrane depolarization to regulate cell excitability. Drugs that target K 7 channels are used clinically to treat epilepsy. Interestingly, these drugs also cause urinary retention, but it was unclear how. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mammalian Taste Bud Cells Utilize Extragemmal 5-Hydroxy-L-Tryptophan to Biosynthesize the Neurotransmitter Serotonin.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 26;12:461. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute of Cellular and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that is found in mammalian taste buds and can regulate the output of intragemmal signaling networks onto afferent nerve fibers. However, it is unclear how 5-HT is produced, synthesized locally inside taste buds or absorbed from outside sources. In this study, we attempt to address this question by delineating the process of possible 5-HT biosynthesis within taste buds. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Translating peripheral bladder afferent mechanosensitivity to neuronal activation within the lumbosacral spinal cord of mice.

Pain 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Visceral Pain Research Group, Centre for Neuroscience, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, AUSTRALIA.

Primary afferent neurons transduce distension of the bladder wall into action potentials that are relayed into the spinal cord and brain, where autonomic reflexes necessary for maintaining continence are coordinated with pathways involved in sensation. However, the relationship between spinal circuits involved with physiological and nociceptive signalling from the bladder have only been partially characterised. We used ex-vivo bladder afferent recordings to characterise mechanosensitive afferent responses to graded distension (0-60mmHg) and retrograde tracing from the bladder wall to identify central axon projections within the dorsal horn of the lumbosacral spinal cord. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

A paracrine role for white thermogenic adipocytes in innervation: an evidence-based hypothesis.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):217-221

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy and also plays an important endocrine role in producing adipokines for communication with the peripheral and central nervous system. WAT consists of the major lipogenic unilocular adipocytes and the minor populations of beige and brite multilocular adipocytes. These multilocular adipocytes express thermogenic genes and have phenotypic similarity with thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Read More

View Article
February 2019

Stochastic resonance stimulation improves balance in children with cerebral palsy: a case control study.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Dec 10;15(1):115. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Delaware, 540 S. College Ave, Newark, DE, 19713, USA.

Background: Stochastic Resonance (SR) Stimulation has been used to enhance balance in populations with sensory deficits by improving the detection and transmission of afferent information. Despite the potential promise of SR in improving postural control, its use in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) is novel. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of electrical SR stimulation when applied in the ankle muscles and ligaments on postural stability in children with CP and their typically developing (TD) peers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Efficacy of Kinesio Taping and McConell Taping Techniques in the Management of Anterior Knee Pain.

J Sport Rehabil 2018 Dec 11:1-27. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

2 Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY.

Context:: Anterior knee pain also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a frequently encountered musculoskeletal disorder that worsens with activity. The multifactorial etiology of PFPS alters lower extremity mechanics, increasing patellofemoral joint stresses during weight-bearing tasks. Kinesio (KT) and McConnell (MC) tapings are often incorporated into the treatment, but their efficacy is still unclear. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Reflex response to airway occlusion in human inspiratory muscles when recruited for breathing and posture.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Neuroscience Research Australia and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Briefly occluding the airway during inspiration produces a short-latency reflex inhibition in human inspiratory muscles. This occlusion reflex seems specific to respiratory muscles; however, it is not known whether the reflex inhibition has a uniform effect across a motoneurone pool when a muscle is recruited concurrently for breathing and posture. In this study, participants were seated and breathed through a mouthpiece that occluded inspiratory airflow for 250 ms at a volume threshold of 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Distribution, projections and association with calbindin baskets of motor neurons, interneurons and sensory neurons in guinea-pig distal colon.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Medicine and Public Health & Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Australia.

Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Feasibility of pedicled vascularized inguinal lymph node transfer in a mouse model: A preliminary study.

Microsurgery 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Purpose: Vascularized lymph node transfer is becoming more common in the treatment of lymphedema, but suitable small animal models for research are lacking. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of pedicled vascularized inguinal lymph node transfer in mice.

Methods: Twenty-five mice were used in the study. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Persistence in postural dynamics is dependent on constraints of vision, postural orientation, and the temporal structure of support surface translations.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, BRB#210, Biomechanics Research Building, 6160 University Drive, Omaha, NE, 68182-0860, USA.

Activities of daily living require maintaining upright posture within a variety of environmental constraints. A healthy postural control system can adapt to different environmental constraints. Afferent sensory information is used to determine where the body is in relation to the gravitational vertical and efferent motor commands make corrections with the goal of keeping the center of mass within the base of support. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Localized disorganization of the cochlear inner hair cell synaptic region after noise exposure.

Biol Open 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

UCL Ear Institute, London, UK, WC1X 8EE.

The prevalence and importance of hearing damage caused by noise levels not previously thought to cause permanent hearing impairment has become apparent in recent years. The damage to, and loss of, afferent terminals of auditory nerve fibres at the cochlear inner hair cell has been well established, but the effects of noise exposure and terminal loss on the inner hair cell are less known. Using three-dimensional structural studies in mice we have examined the consequences of afferent terminal damage on inner hair cell morphology and intracellular structure. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Peripheral and central viewpoints of chronic pain, and translational implications.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

This overview covers advances in mechanisms of chronic pain and their consequent clinical opportunities. Our research field is fractured into two separate camps: "peripheralists" and "centralists". While the strong position of the first group is the contention that mechanisms of chronic pain can be understood within the limits of afferent inputs and spinal cord circuitry, the second group insists that the rest of the brain plays a critical role. Read More

View Article
November 2018

A Neural Circuit Mechanism for Encoding Aversive Stimuli in the Mesolimbic Dopamine System.

Neuron 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in mediating motivated behaviors, but the circuitry through which they signal positive and negative motivational stimuli is incompletely understood. Using in vivo fiber photometry, we simultaneously recorded activity in DA terminals in different nucleus accumbens (NAc) subnuclei during an aversive and reward conditioning task. We find that DA terminals in the ventral NAc medial shell (vNAcMed) are excited by unexpected aversive outcomes and to cues that predict them, whereas DA terminals in other NAc subregions are persistently depressed. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Looking toward predicting functional recovery in disorders of consciousness: can sensorimotor integration help us?

Brain Inj 2018 Dec 2:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

a Behavioral and Robotic Neurorehabilitation Laboratory , IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" , Messina , Italy.

Primary Objective: Only a few objective prognostic markers are available for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). We assessed whether the magnitude of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) might be a useful predictor of responsiveness recovery and functional outcome in patients with DoC.

Research Design: We enrolled 40 patients with prolonged Minimally Conscious State (MCS) and Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) in a longitudinal, observational study. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Quantitative study of the somatosensory sensitization underlying cross-modal plasticity.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208089. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Development Biology and Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Life Science, Sendai, Japan.

Loss of one sensory modality can cause other types to become more perceptive (cross-modal plasticity). To test the hypothesis that the loss of vision changes the perceptual threshold in the somatosensory system, we applied optogenetics to directly manipulate the afferent inputs involved in the whisker-barrel system using a transgenic rat (W-TChR2V4) that expresses channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in the large mechanoreceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and their peripheral nerve terminals. The licking behavior of W-TChR2V4 rat was conditioned to a blue LED light cue on the whisker area while the magnitude and duration of light pulses were varied. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Visual function in children with primary brain tumors.

Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the recent advances in understanding how primary brain tumors affect vision in children.

Recent Findings: Children with primary brain tumors may have vision loss due to involvement of their afferent visual pathways or from papilledema. These vision deficits may go unrecognized until later in life, years after treatment of the primary lesion. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Activity in nodose ganglia neurons after treatment with CP 55,940 and cholecystokinin.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13927

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Previous work has shown that cannabinoids increase feeding, while cholecystokinin (CCK) has an anorexigenic effect on food intake. Receptors for these hormones are located on cell bodies of vagal afferent nerves in the nodose ganglia. An interaction between CCK and endocannabinoid receptors has been suggested. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Developmental pattern and structural factors of dendritic survival in cerebellar granule cells in vivo.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 3;8(1):17561. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station Stop, C7000, Austin, Texas, USA.

Granule cells (GCs) in the cerebellar cortex are important for sparse encoding of afferent sensorimotor information. Modeling studies show that GCs can perform their function most effectively when they have four dendrites. Indeed, mature GCs have four short dendrites on average, each terminating in a claw-like ending that receives both excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

A dual-AAV approach restores fast exocytosis and partially rescues auditory function in deaf otoferlin knock-out mice.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Molecular Biology of Cochlear Neurotransmission Group, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, and Collaborative Research Center 889, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

Normal hearing and synaptic transmission at afferent auditory inner hair cell (IHC) synapses require otoferlin. Deafness DFNB9, caused by mutations in the gene encoding otoferlin, might be treated by transferring wild-type otoferlin cDNA into IHCs, which is difficult due to the large size of this transgene. In this study, we generated two adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), each containing half of the otoferlin cDNA Co-injecting these dual-AAV2/6 half-vectors into the cochleae of 6- to 7-day-old otoferlin knock-out () mice led to the expression of full-length otoferlin in up to 50% of IHCs. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

The neurophysiology of deforming spastic paresis: A revised taxonomy.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Service de rééducation neurolocomotrice, EA 7377 BIOTN, laboratoire analyse et restauration du mouvement, université Paris-Est Créteil, hôpitaux universitaires Henri-Mondor, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

This paper revisits the taxonomy of the neurophysiological consequences of a persistent impairment of motor command execution in the classic environment of sensorimotor restriction and muscle hypo-mobilization in short position. Around each joint, the syndrome involves 2 disorders, muscular and neurologic. The muscular disorder is promoted by muscle hypo-mobilization in short position in the context of paresis, in the hours and days after paresis onset: this genetically mediated, evolving myopathy, is called spastic myopathy. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Initial clinical experience with selective bladder denervation for refractory overactive bladder.

Neurourol Urodyn 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Aims: To report the initial clinical experience with selective bladder denervation (SBD) of the trigone in women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB).

Methods: Females with refractory OAB underwent SBD of the bladder sub-trigone region. Patients were treated using a 10-s voltage-controlled radiofrequency (RF) algorithm (RF10) at study onset. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Hypoesthesia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The relationship between proprioception and vibration perception deficits in individuals greater than one year post-surgery.

Knee 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: While surgical reconstruction restores mechanical stability following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, many experience early-onset osteoarthritis despite surgery. Neurophysiological changes are hypothesized to contribute to knee osteoarthritis progression. Proprioceptive deficits have been reported following ACL injury/reconstruction; however, vibration perception threshold (VPT) has been less studied. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Oleanolic acid promotes orofacial antinociception in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) through TRPV1 receptors.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 26;299:37-43. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Experimental Biology Centre, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of oleanolic acid using adult zebrafish models of orofacial pain. Acute nociception was induced by formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, menthol, acidified saline or glutamate (cutaneous modes) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In another set of experiments, animals were pre-treated with naloxone, L-NAME, methylene blue, ketamine, camphor, HC-030031, mefenamic acid, ruthenium red or amiloride to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Regional and Developmental Differences in Na Currents in Vestibular Primary Afferent Neurons.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 14;12:423. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

The vestibular system relays information about head position afferent nerve fibers to the brain in the form of action potentials. Voltage-gated Na channels in vestibular afferents drive the initiation and propagation of action potentials, but their expression during postnatal development and their contributions to firing in diverse mature afferent populations are unknown. Electrophysiological techniques were used to determine Na channel subunit types in vestibular calyx-bearing afferents at different stages of postnatal development. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Ablation of αδ-1 inhibits cell-surface trafficking of endogenous N-type calcium channels in the pain pathway in vivo.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, WC1E 6BT London, United Kingdom;

The auxiliary αδ calcium channel subunits play key roles in voltage-gated calcium channel function. Independent of this, αδ-1 has also been suggested to be important for synaptogenesis. Using an epitope-tagged knockin mouse strategy, we examined the effect of αδ-1 on Ca2. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Robotic interfaces for cognitive psychology and embodiment research: A research roadmap.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2018 Nov 28:e1486. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Cognitive Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Advanced human-machine interfaces render robotic devices applicable to study and enhance human cognition. This turns robots into formidable neuroscientific tools to study processes such as the adaptation between a human operator and the operated robotic device and how this adaptation modulates human embodiment and embodied cognition. We analyze bidirectional human-machine interface (bHMI) technologies for transparent information transfer between a human and a robot via efferent and afferent channels. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Alteration of Metabosensitive Afferent Response With Aging: Exercised versus Non-exercised Rats.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 12;10:367. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Equipe Plasticité des Systèmes Nerveux et Musculaire, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Marseille, France.

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the activity of metabosensitive afferent fibers (thin muscle afferents from group III and IV) and to determine if physical activity performed at old age may influence the afferent discharge. Afferents from and muscles were recorded on non-exercised rats aged of 3, 6, 12, and 20 months and on animals aged of 12 and 20 months performing a daily incremental treadmill exercise protocol during the last 8 weeks preceding the recordings. Metabosensitive afferent fibers were activated with potassium chloride (KCl) and lactic acid (LA) injections into the blood stream or by muscle electrically-induced fatigue (EIF). Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Innervation of the Nose and Nasal Region of the Rat: Implications for Initiating the Mammalian Diving Response.

Front Neuroanat 2018 13;12:85. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Physiology, College Graduate Studies, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, United States.

Most terrestrial animals demonstrate an autonomic reflex that facilitates survival during prolonged submersion under water. This diving response is characterized by bradycardia, apnea and selective increases in peripheral vascular resistance. Stimulation of the nose and nasal passages is thought to be primarily responsible for providing the sensory afferent signals initiating this protective reflex. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Balance, gait, and falls in spinal cord injury.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;159:367-384

Rehabilitation Center Affoltern am Albis, University Children's Hospital Zurich - Eleonore Foundation, Affoltern am Albis, Switzerland.

This chapter covers balance, gait, and falls in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) from a clinical perspective. First, the consequences of an SCI on functioning are explained, including etiology, clinical presentation, classification, and epidemiologic data. Then, the specific aspects of balance disorders, gait disorders, and falls are discussed with respect to motor complete (cSCI) and incomplete (iSCI) SCI. Read More

View Article
January 2018
4 Reads

Time course of interlimb strength transfer after unilateral handgrip training.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Nov 6;125(5):1594-1608. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Rehabilitation Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Victoria , Victoria, British Columbia , Canada.

"Cross-education" is the increase in strength or functional performance of an untrained limb after unilateral training. A major limitation for clinical translation from unilateral injury includes knowledge on the minimum time for the emergence of crossed effects. Therefore, the primary purpose was to characterize the time course of bilateral strength changes during both "traditional" ( n = 11) and "daily" ( n = 8) unilateral handgrip training in neurologically intact participants. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

TRPV1 neurons regulate β-cell function in a sex-dependent manner.

Mol Metab 2018 Dec 5;18:60-67. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; The Child Health Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

There is emerging evidence to support an important role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) sensory innervation in glucose homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the glucoregulatory action of these afferent neurons is sex-biased and whether it is pancreatic β-cell-mediated.

Objective: We investigated in male and female mice whether denervation of whole-body or pancreas-projecting TRPV1 sensory neurons regulates adult functional β-cell mass and alters systemic glucose homeostasis. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Sex-specific long-term blood pressure regulation: Modeling and analysis.

Comput Biol Med 2018 Nov 10;104:139-148. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Departments of Mathematics, Biomedical Engineering, and Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Applied Mathematics and School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Hypertension is a global health challenge: it affects one billion people worldwide and is estimated to account for >60% of all cases or types of cardiovascular disease. In part because sex differences in blood pressure regulation mechanisms are not sufficiently well understood, fewer hypertensive women achieve blood pressure control compared to men, even though compliance and treatment rates are generally higher in women. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify which factors contribute to the sexual dimorphism in response to anti-hypertensive therapies targeting the renin angiotensin system (RAS). Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Interactions between gut permeability and brain structure and function in health and irritable bowel syndrome.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University/US, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden; Department of Gastroenterology, Linköping University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Changes in brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Different mechanisms of sensitization of visceral afferent pathways may contribute to the chronic visceral pain reports and associated brain changes that characterize IBS. They include increased gut permeability and gut associated immune system activation, and an imbalance in descending pain inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Secretion of a gastrointestinal hormone, cholecystokinin, by hop-derived bitter components activates sympathetic nerves in brown adipose tissue.

J Nutr Biochem 2018 Oct 30;64:80-87. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Medical and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Department of Molecular and Cellular Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, CREST, Tokyo, Japan.

Matured hop bitter acids (MHBA) are oxidation products from bitter components in hops, which are used widely as food materials to add flavor and bitterness in beer production. Our previous study has shown that MHBA induces thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via sympathetic nerves in rodents and reduces body fat in healthy adults. However, it is unclear how MHBA affects the sympathetic nervous system. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Radial glia fibers translate Fgf8 morphogenetic signals to generate a thalamic nuclear complex protomap in the mantle layer.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Instituto de Neurociencias UMH-CSIC, Alicante, Spain.

Thalamic neurons are distributed between different nuclear groups of the thalamic multinuclear complex; they develop topologically ordered specific projections that convey information on voluntary motor programs and sensory modalities to functional areas in the cerebral cortex. Since thalamic neurons present a homogeneous morphology, their functional specificity is derived from their afferent and efferent connectivity. Adequate development of thalamic afferent and efferent connections depends on guide signals that bind receptors in nuclear neuropils and axonal growth cones, respectively. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Touch targeting C-tactile afferent fibers has a unique physiological pattern: A combined electrodermal and facial electromyography study.

Biol Psychol 2018 Nov 20;140:55-63. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Behavioral Sciences in Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Caress-like touch is thought to rely on C-tactile (CT) fiber signaling. Here, the arousing and emotional effects of CT-optimal touch were assessed via participants' skin conductance level (SCL), facial electromyography (EMG) responses and subjective ratings of pleasantness and intensity. Temporal facial EMG analysis was based on the conduction velocity of CT-fibers. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Heterogeneity and Diversity of Striatal GABAergic Interneurons: Update 2018.

Front Neuroanat 2018 8;12:91. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Center For Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, United States.

Our original review, "Heterogeneity and Diversity of Striatal GABAergic Interneurons," to which this is an invited update, was published in December, 2010 in Frontiers is Neuroanatomy. In that article, we reviewed several decades' worth of anatomical and electrophysiological data on striatal parvalbumin (PV)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and calretinin(CR)-expressing GABAergic interneurons from many laboratories including our own. In addition, we reported on a recently discovered novel tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing GABAergic interneuron class first revealed in transgenic TH EGFP reporter mouse line. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Optic nerve disc veins inflammation (papillophlebitis) - case report.

Folia Med Cracov 2018 ;58(2):67-76

Voivodship Ophthalmic Hospital "Na Wzgórzach", os. Na Wzgórzach 17B, 31-723 Kraków, Poland.

Papillophlebitis is an uncommon disease in clinical practice. We would like to present a case of a 29-year-old patient with atypical orbital pain and flashings, presenting relative afferent pupillary defect and already typical of the disease entity: ophthalmoscopic picture of the fundus and big blind spot in perimetry. We present a complex and interdisciplinary diagnostic process that excludes general diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coagulation disorders and neurological causes. Read More

View Article
January 2018
9 Reads

EUS-IR-Guided Revision of Whipple Anatomy for Concomitant Afferent and Efferent Limb Obstruction.

Am J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Radiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Transcranial magnetic stimulation predicts cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 21;89(12):1237-1242. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Unit, Department of Behavioral and Clinical Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy

Objective: To determine the ability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in detecting synaptic impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predicting cognitive decline since the early phases of the disease.

Methods: We used TMS-based parameters to evaluate long-term potentiation (LTP)-like cortical plasticity and cholinergic activity as measured by short afferent inhibition (SAI) in 60 newly diagnosed patients with AD and 30 healthy age-matched subjects (HS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess TMS ability in discriminating patients with AD from HS. Read More

View Article
December 2018
5 Reads

ADAMTS13 protects mice against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing inflammation and improving endothelial function.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious condition without efficient therapeutic options. Recent studies have indicated that recombinant human a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs 13 (rhADAMTS13) provides protection against inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that ADAMTS13 might protect against AKI by reducing inflammation. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Sympathetic overactivity in dialysis patients-Underappreciated and clinically consequential.

Semin Dial 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain frustratingly common in dialysis patients. A dearth of established evidence-based treatment calls for alternative therapeutic avenues to be embraced. Sympathetic hyperactivity, predominantly due to afferent nerve signaling from the diseased native kidneys, has been established to be prognostic in the dialysis population for over 15 years. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Mice Overexpressing Human SOD1: Functional Changes in Central and Vagal Efferent Components.

Neurosci Bull 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Neuroscience and Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816, USA.

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) (such as the superoxide radical) are commonly associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Though superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) overexpression may protect against ROS damage to the autonomic nervous system, superoxide radical reduction may change normal physiological functions. Previously, we demonstrated that human SOD1 (hSOD1) overexpression does not change baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia but rather increases aortic depressor nerve activity in response to arterial pressure changes in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mice. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Short-term inhibition of spinal reflexes in multiple lower limb muscles after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of ankle plantar flexors.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan.

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lower limbs elicits muscle contractions through the activation of efferent fibers and concomitant recruitment of afferent fibers, which can modulate excitability of the central nervous system. However, neural mechanisms of NMES and how unilateral stimulation of the soleus affects spinal reflexes in multiple lower limb muscles bilaterally remains unknown. Twelve able-bodied participants were recruited, and spinal reflex excitability changes were tested after four interventions, each applied for 60 s, on the right plantar flexors: (1) motor-level NMES; (2) sensory-level NMES; (3) voluntary contraction; (4) rest. Read More

View Article
November 2018
7 Reads

Cell-Type-Specific Afferent Innervation of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell.

Front Neuroanat 2018 16;12:84. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is clearly implicated in reward processing and drug addiction, as well as in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders; nevertheless, the circuit mechanisms underlying the diverse functions of the NAc remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the whole-brain and monosynaptic inputs to two main projection cell types - D1 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) and D2 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D2R-MSNs) - within the NAc core and NAc shell by rabies-mediated trans-synaptic tracing. We discovered that D1R-MSNs and D2R-MSNs in both NAc subregions receive similar inputs from diverse sources. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Axonal Stimulations With a Higher Frequency Generate More Randomness in Neuronal Firing Rather Than Increase Firing Rates in Rat Hippocampus.

Front Neurosci 2018 24;12:783. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, United States.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used for treating many brain disorders. Clinical applications of DBS commonly require high-frequency stimulations (HFS, ∼100 Hz) of electrical pulses to obtain therapeutic efficacy. It is not clear whether the electrical energy of HFS functions other than generating firing of action potentials in neuronal elements. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Physiological Profile of Neuropeptide Y-Expressing Neurons in Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis in Mice: State of High Excitability.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 5;12:393. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institute of Physiology I, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Both, the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system are involved in shaping fear and defensive responses that adapt the organism to potentially life-threatening conditions. NPY is expressed in the BNST but NPY-expressing neurons in this critical hub in the stress response network have not been addressed before. Therefore, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute slices of anterior BNST from -hrGFP transgenic mice to identify and characterize NPY-expressing neurons. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Projections to the Cholecystokinin Neurons of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

Front Neurosci 2018 5;12:807. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker driving the circadian rhythms of physiological behaviors. The SCN consists of distinct neurons expressing neuropeptides, including arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and so on. AVP, VIP, and GRP neurons receive light stimulation from the retina to synchronize endogenous circadian clocks with the solar day, whereas CCK neurons are not directly innervated by retinal ganglion cells and may be involved in the non-photic regulation of the circadian clock. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Molecular basis of peripheral innocuous cold sensitivity.

Authors:
David D McKemy

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;156:57-67

Section of Neurobiology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Of somatosensory modalities cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30°C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biologic effects was unknown. Read More

View Article
January 2018
1 Read