19,669 results match your criteria Aerospace Medicine


Galanin and Adrenomedullin Plasma Responses During Artificial Gravity on a Human Short-Arm Centrifuge.

Front Physiol 2018 1;9:1956. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Gravitational Physiology and Medical Research Unit, Physiology Division, Otto Loewi Center for Research in Vascular Biology, Immunity, and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Galanin and adrenomedullin plasma responses to head-up tilt and lower body negative pressure have been studied previously. However, to what extent short-arm human centrifugation (SAHC) affects these responses is not known. In this study, we assessed how the application of variable gradients of accelerations ( ) via shifting of the rotation axis during centrifugation affects selected hormonal responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367687PMC
February 2019
1 Read

A Novel Bone Substitute with High Bioactivity, Strength, and Porosity for Repairing Large and Load-Bearing Bone Defects.

Adv Healthc Mater 2019 Feb 18:e1801298. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research Unit, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Achieving adequate healing in large or load-bearing bone defects is highly challenging even with surgical intervention. The clinical standard of repairing bone defects using autografts or allografts has many drawbacks. A bioactive ceramic scaffold, strontium-hardystonite-gahnite or "Sr-HT-Gahnite" (a multi-component, calcium silicate-based ceramic) is developed, which when 3D-printed combines high strength with outstanding bone regeneration ability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201801298DOI Listing
February 2019

Opportunities to bridge gaps between respiratory protection guidance and practice in US health care.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2019 Feb 18:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL),National Institute for Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH),Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.

Healthcare organizations are required to provide workers with respiratory protection (RP) to mitigate hazardous airborne inhalation exposures. This study sought to better identify gaps that exist between RP guidance and clinical practice to understand issues that would benefit from additional research or clarification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.361DOI Listing
February 2019

Rear Admiral (Astronaut) Alan Shepard: Ménière's disease and the race to the moon.

J Neurosurg 2019 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

6Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama.

On May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. piloted the Freedom 7 craft into a suborbital flight to become the first American man in space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.9.JNS182522DOI Listing
February 2019

Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Treating Joint Injury and Osteoarthritis.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratories, Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale particles secreted by almost all cell types to facilitate intercellular communication. Stem cell-derived EVs theoretically have the same biological functions as stem cells, but offer the advantages of small size, low immunogenicity, and removal of issues such as low cell survival and unpredictable long-term behaviour associated with direct cell transplantation. They have been an area of intense interest in regenerative medicine, due to the potential to harness their anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects to induce healing in a wide variety of tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9020261DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnostic value of eye movement and vestibular function tests in patients with posterior circulation infarction.

Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Feb 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

a Peking University Aerospace School of Clinical Medicine , Beijing , P.R. China.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of eye movements and vestibular function tests in PCI patients.

Methods: Thirty-eight PCI patients and 31 patients with unilateral vestibular neuritis (UVN) were enrolled and underwent eye movement tests and vestibular function tests (spontaneous nystagmus [SN], head-shaking nystagmus [HSN]).

Results: The rates of eye movement abnormality were 78. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00016489.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2018.1552367DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Electroceutical Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 14;9(1):2008. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.

Electroceutical wound dressings, especially those involving current flow with silver based electrodes, show promise for treating biofilm infections. However, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. We have developed an in vitro agar based model using a bioluminescent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to measure loss of activity and killing when direct current was applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37891-yDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Biological Contamination Prevention for Outer Solar System Moons of Astrobiological Interest: What Do We Need to Know?

Astrobiology 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

15 Eurospace, Paris, France.

To ensure that scientific investments in space exploration are not compromised by terrestrial contamination of celestial bodies, special care needs to be taken to preserve planetary conditions for future astrobiological exploration. Significant effort has been made and is being taken to address planetary protection in the context of inner Solar System exploration. In particular for missions to Mars, detailed internationally accepted guidelines have been established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2018.1996DOI Listing
February 2019

miR-181c-5p mediates simulated microgravity-induced impaired osteoblast proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrested in the G phase.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Impaired osteoblast proliferation plays fundamental roles in microgravity-induced bone loss, and cell cycle imbalance may result in abnormal osteoblast proliferation. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on the cell cycle in osteoblasts or what mechanisms may underlie such an effect remains to be fully elucidated. Herein, we confirmed that simulated microgravity inhibits osteoblast proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14220DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Application of 3-D Microfluidic Models for Studying Mass Transport Properties of the Tumor Interstitial Matrix.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 23;7. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The physical remodeling associated with cancer progression results in barriers to mass transport in the tumor interstitial space. This hindrance ultimately affects the distribution of macromolecules that govern cell fate and potency of cancer therapies. Therefore, knowing how specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular components regulate transport in the tumor interstitium could lead to matrix normalizing strategies that improve patient outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364047PMC
January 2019

Applications of Light-Sheet Microscopy in Microdevices.

Front Neuroanat 2019 25;13. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Bioengineering and Aerospace Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has been present in cell biology laboratories for quite some time, mainly as custom-made systems, with imaging applications ranging from single cells (in the micrometer scale) to small organisms (in the millimeter scale). Such microscopes distinguish themselves for having very low phototoxicity levels and high spatial and temporal resolution, properties that make them ideal for a large range of applications. These include the study of cellular dynamics, in particular cellular motion which is essential to processes such as tumor metastasis and tissue development. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnana.2019.00001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362405PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

CRISP2 is a regulator of multiple aspects of sperm function and male fertility.

Endocrinology 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Australia.

The Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISPs) are a group of proteins which show a pronounced expression biased to the male reproductive tract. While sperm encounter CRISPs at virtually all phases of sperm development and maturation, CRISP2 is the sole CRISP produced during spermatogenesis, wherein it is incorporated into the developing sperm head and tail. Within this study we test the necessity for CRISP2 in male fertility using Crisp2 loss-of-function mouse models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-01076DOI Listing
February 2019
4.503 Impact Factor

Hopping in hypogravity-A rationale for a plyometric exercise countermeasure in planetary exploration missions.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(2):e0211263. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.

Moon and Mars are considered to be future targets for human space explorations. The gravity level on the Moon and Mars amount to 16% and 38%, respectively, of Earth's gravity. Mechanical loading during the anticipated habitual activities in these hypogravity environments will most likely not be sufficient to maintain physiological integrity of astronauts unless additional exercise countermeasures are performed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211263PLOS
February 2019
1 Read

Prostaglandin E2 inhibits pro-fibrotic function of human pulmonary fibroblasts by disrupting Ca2+-signaling.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Medicine, McMaster University, Canada.

We have shown that calcium (Ca) oscillations in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs) contribute to pro-fibrotic effects of TGFβ and that disruption of these oscillations blunts features of pulmonary fibrosis. Prostaglandin E (PGE) exerts anti-fibrotic effects in the lung but the mechanisms for this action are not well defined. We thus sought to explore interactions between PGE and the pro-fibrotic agent transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in pulmonary fibroblasts (PFs) isolated from patients with or without idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajplung.00403.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00403.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and NLRP3 inflammasome: Crosstalk in cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

When endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is disrupted, known as ER stress (ERS), the ER generates an adaptive signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response to maintain the homeostasis of this organelle. However, if homeostasis is not restored, the ER initiates death signaling pathways, which contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. The activation of inflammatory mechanisms is also emerging as a crucial component of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28275DOI Listing
February 2019

Erratum to rhinovirus is associated with severe adult community-acquired pneumonia in China.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Dec;10(12):E861

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.21037/jtd.2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.11.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344775PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Mosses in Low Earth Orbit: Implications for the Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars.

Astrobiology 2019 Feb;19(2):221-232

1 Biodiversity Research/Systematic Botany, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

As a part of the European Space Agency mission "EXPOSE-R2" on the International Space Station (ISS), the BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) experiment investigates the habitability of Mars and the limits of life. In preparation for the mission, experimental verification tests and scientific verification tests simulating different combinations of abiotic space- and Mars-like conditions were performed to analyze the resistance of a range of model organisms. The simulated abiotic space- and Mars-stressors were extreme temperatures, vacuum, and Mars-like surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in different atmospheres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2018.1889DOI Listing
February 2019

Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS.

Astrobiology 2019 Feb;19(2):145-157

23 Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.

BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports-among others-the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2018.1897DOI Listing
February 2019

Similar relative decline in aerobic and anaerobic power with age in endurance and power master athletes of both sexes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

Lower physical activity levels in old age are thought to contribute to the age-related decline in peak aerobic and anaerobic power. Master athletes maintain high levels of physical activity with advancing age and endurance or power training may influence the extent to which these physical functions decline with advancing age. To investigate, 37-90-year-old power (n=20, 45% female) and endurance (n=19, 58% female) master athletes were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13404DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dried Biofilms of Desert Strains of Chroococcidiopsis Survived Prolonged Exposure to Space and Mars-like Conditions in Low Earth Orbit.

Astrobiology 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

3 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany.

Dried biofilms and dried multilayered planktonic counterparts obtained from three desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis were exposed to low Earth conditions by using the EXPOSE-R2 facility outside the International Space Station. During the space mission, samples in Tray 1 (space vacuum and solar radiation, from λ ≈ 110 nm) and Tray 2 (Mars-like UV flux, λ > 200 nm and Mars-like atmosphere) received total UV (200-400 nm) fluences of about 4.58 × 10 kJ/m and 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2018.1900DOI Listing
February 2019

Calcium Isotopes in Human Urine as a Diagnostic Tool for Bone Loss: Additional Evidence for Time Delays in Bone Response to Experimental Bed Rest.

Front Physiol 2019 25;10:12. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Abteilung Klimageochemie, Mainz, Germany.

The calcium (Ca) isotopic composition in urine during bed rest has been demonstrated to be systematically light, indicating a negative bone mineral balance (i.e., bone loss). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355708PMC
January 2019

Anti-BAFF-R antibody VAY-736 demonstrates promising preclinical activity in CLL and enhances effectiveness of ibrutinib.

Blood Adv 2019 Feb;3(3):447-460

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center.

The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) ibrutinib has transformed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) therapy but requires continuous administration. These factors have spurred interest in combination treatments. Unlike with chemotherapy, CD20-directed antibody therapy has not improved the outcome of BTKi treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018025684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373734PMC
February 2019

Multiscale mechanisms of tendon fatigue damage progression and severity are strain and cycle dependent.

J Biomech 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Tendinopathies are common chronic injuries that occur when damage accumulation caused by sub-rupture fatigue loading outpaces repair. Studies have linked fatigue loading with various mechanical, structural, and biological changes associated with pathology. However, the multiscale progression of damage accumulation with respect to area, severity and the distinct contributions of strain level and number of cycles has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.01.026DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Transcriptome, proteome and draft genome of Euglena gracilis.

BMC Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK.

Background: Photosynthetic euglenids are major contributors to fresh water ecosystems. Euglena gracilis in particular has noted metabolic flexibility, reflected by an ability to thrive in a range of harsh environments. E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-019-0626-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366073PMC
February 2019

Somatosensory system integrity explains differences in treatment response after stroke.

Neurology 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

From the Departments of Anatomy and Neurobiology (M.L.I., D.J.R., S.C.C.), Biomedical Engineering (J.R.R., D.J.R.), Neurology (V.C. , S.C.C.), Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (D.J.R.), and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (D.J.R. , S.C.C.), University of California at Irvine; and Department of Mechanical Engineering (E.T.W.), University of Idaho, Moscow.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that, in the context of robotic therapy designed to enhance proprioceptive feedback via a Hebbian model, integrity of both somatosensory and motor systems would be important in understanding interparticipant differences in treatment-related motor gains.

Methods: In 30 patients with chronic stroke, behavioral performance, neural injury, and neural function were quantified for somatosensory and motor systems. Patients then received a 3-week robot-based therapy targeting finger movements with enhanced proprioceptive feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007041DOI Listing
February 2019

Development of a prediction model for 1-year poor prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

J Investig Med 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, Aerospace Center Hospital, Peking University Aerospace School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing, China.

The goals of this study were to develop a new prediction model to predict 1-year poor prognosis (death or modified Rankin scale score of ≥3) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to compare the performance of the new prediction model with other prediction scales. Baseline data of 772 patients with AIS were collected, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for 1-year poor prognosis in patients with AIS. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) value of the new prediction model and the THRIVE, iScore and ASTRAL scores was compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2018-000883DOI Listing
February 2019

Occlusion time analysis in military pilots affected by bruxism.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 5;9(1):1408. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Dental School, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Military pilots are characterized by peculiar job conditions related to intense accelerative stresses. For this, they frequently report work-related neck and back pain and are affected by bruxism. The aim of this case-control study is to analyze the occlusion time (OT) in a sample of military pilots affected by bruxism, compared with healthy non-pilot subjects. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-38166-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38166-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363799PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Bidirectional association between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.

Respirology 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background And Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis are both granulomatous diseases with potential interassociations. However, much uncertainty remains; thus, the present study aimed to clarify the association between these diseases.

Methods: We established two cohorts in this retrospective longitudinal cohort study using data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13482DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Can anatomical assessment of hypopharyngolarynx in awake patients predict obstructive sleep apnea?

Laryngoscope 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Nancy, Hospitals of Brabois, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To assess the relationships between laryngeal and hypopharyngeal morphology and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in awake patients.

Study Design: Prospective study.

Methods: Awake flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy and sleep studies were performed in 80 patients for snoring or OSAHS suspicion. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lary.27851
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27851DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Scientific insights into Physarum-based modelling: Comment on "Does being multi-headed make you better at solving problems? A survey of Physarum-based models and computations" by C. Gao et al.

Phys Life Rev 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 999077, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2019.01.014DOI Listing
January 2019

Premedication With Gabapentin Significantly Reduces the Risk of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Patients With Neuropathy.

Mayo Clin Proc 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ. Electronic address:

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and a cause of considerable physical and psychosocial morbidity. No known treatment effectively prevents the development of PHN in patients with VZV reactivation. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of premedication with gabapentin for reducing the risk of PHN in patients with diabetic and nondiabetic neuropathy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00256196183088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

A coupled framework of in situ and in silico analysis reveals the role of lateral force transmission in force production in volumetric muscle loss injuries.

J Biomech 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Volumetric muscle loss injuries (VML) are challenging to treat because of the variability in wound location. Regenerative medicine offers promising alternative treatments, but there is little understanding of the correlation between magnitude of VML injuries and corresponding functional deficits that must be addressed. There is a need for a tool that can elucidate the relationship between VML injury and force loss, as well as the impact on specific mechanisms responsible for force production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.01.025DOI Listing
January 2019

Investigation of Stethoscope Technology for En Route Care.

Air Med J 2019 Jan - Feb;38(1):30-35. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 711th Human Performance Wing, US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Aeromedical Research Department, En Route Care Research Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433.

Objective: Occupational challenges in air transport domains make auscultation with traditional stethoscopes difficult. This study aimed to investigate two commercial off-the-shelf stethoscopes for use in high noise military patient transport environments. The stethoscopes were assessed by Aeromedical Evacuation providers in a simulated C-130 trainer on live standardized mock patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amj.2018.09.004DOI Listing
October 2018

A flyover style microfluidic chip for highly purified magnetic cell separation.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Mar 30;129:175-181. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Personalized Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China.

White blood cells (WBCs) isolated from peripheral blood have been verified as important biomarkers for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cancer. However, it's still under challenge to acquire high-purity WBCs, even by taking advantage of current microfluidic technology. Considering the universality of clinical magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) method, new developments on microfluidic chip in combination of magnetic cells separation technologies may provide a fascinating approach for high-purity WBCs sorting and widely clinical application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2018.12.058DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Role of PHOX2B-derived astrocytes in chemosensory control of breathing and sleep homeostasis.

J Physiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Ohio, USA.

Key Points: The embryonic PHOX2B-progenitor domain generates neuronal and glial cells which together are involved in chemosensory control of breathing and sleep homeostasis. Ablating PHOX2B-derived astrocytes significantly contributes to secondary hypoxic respiratory depression as well as abnormalities in sleep homeostasis. PHOX2B-derived astrocyte ablation results in axonal pathologies in the retrotrapezoid nucleus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP277082DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

An image-based kinematic model of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints and its application to gait analysis in children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

J Biomech 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and INSIGNEO Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

In vivo estimates of tibiotalar and the subtalar joint kinematics can unveil unique information about gait biomechanics, especially in the presence of musculoskeletal disorders affecting the foot and ankle complex. Previous literature investigated the ankle kinematics on ex vivo data sets, but little has been reported for natural walking, and even less for pathological and juvenile populations. This paper proposes an MRI-based morphological fitting methodology for the personalised definition of the tibiotalar and the subtalar joint axes during gait, and investigated its application to characterise the ankle kinematics in twenty patients affected by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.12.041DOI Listing
January 2019
2.751 Impact Factor

Optimal diameter reduction ratio of acinar airways in human lungs.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(1):e0204191. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

In the airway network of a human lung, the airway diameter gradually decreases through multiple branching. The diameter reduction ratio of the conducting airways that transport gases without gas exchange is 0.79, but this reduction ratio changes to 0. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204191PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354962PMC
January 2019

Gap Analysis to Identify Clinical Education Needs of Aeromedical Evacuation Clinicians.

Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2019 Mar/Apr;38(2):83-89

Marla J. De Jong, PhD, RN, CCNS, Colonel (Ret), FAAN, is Chair of the Division of Acute and Chronic Care and a professor at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Susan F. Dukes, PhD, RN, CCNS, Colonel, is commandant/assistant dean for student affairs at the Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD. Tiffany Losekamp, MSN, RN, CNE, CHSE, is assistant professor of Practice and coordinator of the Simulation Learning Center at Wittenberg University in Springfield, OH.

Background: The Air Force has unique challenges in ensuring clinical proficiency for en route care clinicians. These challenges pertain to existing care environments, training opportunities, and the spectrum of training needed to care for patients with polytrauma and complicated medical conditions while being transported between medical treatment facilities.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical education needs of students entering the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Flight Nurse (FN) or Aeromedical Evacuation Technician (AET) course and Air Force FNs and AETs assigned to active duty aeromedical evacuation units. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCC.0000000000000349DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Alginate/chitosan hydrogel containing olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells for sciatic nerve tissue engineering.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Applied Biophotonics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve damage still remain a significant clinical problem. In this study, alginate/chitosan (alg/chit) hydrogel was used for the transplantation of olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. The OE-MSCs were isolated from olfactory mucosa biopsies and evaluated by different cell surface markers and differentiation capacity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28183DOI Listing
January 2019

Control theory in biology and medicine : Introduction to the special issue.

Biol Cybern 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

From September-December 2017, the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at Ohio State University hosted a series of workshops on control theory in biology and medicine, including workshops on control and modulation of neuronal and motor systems, control of cellular and molecular systems, control of disease / personalized medicine across heterogeneous populations, and sensorimotor control of animals and robots. This special issue presents tutorials and research articles by several of the participants in the MBI workshops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00422-018-00791-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of tricuspid annular size reduction on right ventricular function, geometry and strain.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Objectives: Restrictive tricuspid annuloplasty is a clinically accepted approach to treat functional tricuspid regurgitation. We set out to investigate the effect of varying degrees of tricuspid annular reduction on the right ventricular (RV) function, geometry and strain.

Methods: Eight, healthy sheep (45 ± 4 kg) had 6 sonomicrometry crystals implanted around the tricuspid annulus and 20 onto the epicardium of the right ventricle defining 3 free wall regions: basal, mid and lower. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezy484DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Effect of interactive cognitive-motor training on eye-hand coordination and cognitive function in older adults.

BMC Geriatr 2019 Jan 28;19(1):27. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, No.250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei, 110, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Poor eye-hand coordination is associated with the symptoms of the early stage of cognitive decline. However, previous research on the eye-hand coordination of older adults without cognitive impairment is scant. Therefore, this study examined the effects of interactive cognitive-motor training on the visual-motor integration, visual perception, and motor coordination sub-abilities of the eye-hand coordination and cognitive function in older adults. Read More

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https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1029-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350349PMC
January 2019
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Physical and Mental Health of US Air Force Military Training Instructors.

Mil Med 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Military Training Consult Service, 737th Training Group, 1618 Truemper Street, JBSA-Lackland, TX.

Introduction: Many epidemiologic studies have been performed in military recruit populations, but little is known about the health of those who conduct the training. This study aims to characterize the physical and mental health of a military trainer cohort.

Materials And Methods: All US Air Force military training instructors (MTIs) who served between 1 October 2011 and 30 September 2016 were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/milmed/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy418DOI Listing
January 2019
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Effects of positive acceleration (+Gz stress) on liver enzymes, energy metabolism, and liver histology in rats.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;25(3):346-355

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Air Force Medical Center, PLA, Beijing 100142, China.

Background: Exposure to high sustained +Gz (head-to-foot inertial load) is known to have harmful effects on pilots' body in flight. Although clinical data have shown that liver dysfunction occurs in pilots, the precise cause has not been well defined.

Aim: To investigate rat liver function changes in response to repeated +Gz exposure. Read More

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https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v25/i3/346.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i3.346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343093PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Enamel remineralization and repair results of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpaste on deciduous teeth: an effective option to fluoride toothpaste.

J Nanobiotechnology 2019 Jan 25;17(1):17. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 287a, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Dental caries is a recognized worldwide public health problem. Despite being one of the most effective strategies against dental caries, the excessive use of fluorine may result in a potential risk of developing dental fluorosis especially in children under age of six. The purpose of this work is to analyze a fluorine-free toothpaste containing Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite to assess enamel re-mineralizing and repairing properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-019-0454-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346538PMC
January 2019

A prospective study of salvational intervention with ICS/LABA for reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation under severe air pollution (SIRCAP) in Beijing: protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Jan 25;19(1):22. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) not only accelerates the progression of disease, but also causes hospital administration and death events. Epidemiologic studies have shown air pollution is a high risk factor of AECOPD. Read More

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https://bmcpulmmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12890
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0771-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347780PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Protective effects of hypercapnic acidosis on Ischemia-reperfusion-induced retinal injury.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0211185. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with numerous retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, acute glaucoma, and other vascular retinopathies. Hypercapnic acidosis (HCA) has a protective effect on lung, myocardial, and central nervous system ischemic injury models. However, no study has evaluated its protective effects in an experimental retinal I/R injury model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211185PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347245PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Ostium Ratio and Neck Ratio Could Predict the Outcome of Sidewall Intracranial Aneurysms Treated with Flow Diverters.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Feb 24;40(2):288-294. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

From the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (N.P., R.J.D., H.M.)

Background And Purpose: Incompletely occluded flow diverter treated aneurysms remain at risk of rupture and thromboembolic complications. Our aim was to identify the potential for incomplete occlusion of intracranial aneurysms treated by flow diverters. We investigated whether aneurysm ostium size in relation to parent artery size affects angiographic outcomes of flow diverter-treated sidewall aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375759PMC
February 2019

Tensiomyography detects early hallmarks of bed-rest-induced atrophy before changes in muscle architecture.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom.

In young and older people skeletal muscle mass is reduced after as little as seven days of disuse. The declines in muscle mass after such short periods are of high clinical relevance, particularly in older people who show higher atrophy rate, and a slower, or even a complete lack of muscle mass recovery after disuse. Ten men (24. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00880.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00880.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Highlighting the uniqueness in dielectrophoretic enrichment of circulating tumor cells.

Electrophoresis 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Biomedical Institute for Global Health Research & Technology (BIGHEART), National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play an essential role in the metastasis of tumors, and thus can serve as a valuable prognostic factor for malignant diseases. As a result, the ability to isolate and characterize CTCs is essential. This review underlines the potential of dielectrophoresis for CTCs enrichment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201800446DOI Listing
January 2019