35,602 results match your criteria Aerospace Basel Switzerland[Journal]


Pharmacokinetics, safety, and bioequivalence of two empagliflozin formulations after single oral administration under fasting and fed conditions in healthy Chinese subjects: an open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-sequnce, 2-treatment, 2-period, crossover study.

Pharmacotherapy 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Aerospace Center Hospital, 15 Yuquan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100049, P.R. China.

Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and safety of empagliflozin, and bioequivalence of test formulation empagliflozin tablet compared with the brand-name drug Jardiance (reference formulation) after single oral administration under fasting and fed conditions in healthy Chinese subjects.

Methods: An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-sequence, 2-treatment, 2-period, crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese subjects, with 30 subjects under fasting condition and another 30 subjects under fed condition. Under each condition, subjects received a single oral administration of either the test or reference empagliflozin formulation, and then received a single oral dose of the other formulation after a 7-day washout period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2432DOI Listing

COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia: Actions Taken by the Malaysian Government.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; UPM Press, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Aerospace Malaysia Innovation Centre (944751-A), Prime Minister's Department, MIGHT Partnership Hub, Jalan Impact, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Aim And Background: COVID-19, a novel pneumonia disease originated from Wuhan, was confirmed by World Health Organization on 12th January 2020 before becoming an outbreak in all countries.

Outbreak Situation: A stringent screening process in all airports had been enforced after the first case outside China was reported in Thailand. Up to 14th April 2020, Malaysia reported two waves of COVID-19 cases, which the first wave was successfully ended in less than two months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.093DOI Listing

Shock wave impact on the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234138. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Shock waves are gaining interests in biological and medical applications. In this work, we investigated the mechanical characteristics of shock waves that affect cell viability. In vitro testing was conducted using the metastatic breast epithelial cell line MDA-MB-231. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234138PLOS

X-ray tomography for the advancement of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.

Authors:
A DU Plessis

J Microsc 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Research group 3DInnovation, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.

X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool to non-destructively inspect additively manufactured parts. Additive manufacturing of metals, especially laser powder bed fusion, is increasingly being adopted for serial production of critical components in aerospace, automotive and various other industries. The technology holds huge potential for more efficient material usage and light-weighting of components, among the many advantages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12930DOI Listing

Approaching the Practical Conductivity Limits of Aerosol Jet Printed Silver.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Previous efforts to directly write conductive metals have been narrowly focused on nanoparticle ink suspensions that require aggressive sintering (>200°C) and result in low-density, small-grained agglomerates with electrical conductivities <25% of bulk metal. Here, we demonstrate aerosol jet printing of a reactive ink solution and characterize high-density (93%) printed silver traces having near-bulk conductivity and grain sizes greater than the electron mean free path, while only requiring low temperature (80C) treatment. We have developed a predictive electronic transport model which correlates the microstructure to the measured conductivity and identifies a strategy to approach the practical conductivity limit for printed metals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06959DOI Listing

Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery Significantly Improves Carotid and Cardiac Function in Apparently Healthy People with Morbid Obesity.

Obes Surg 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK.

Purpose: Obesity clearly increases cardiovascular risk, often inducing high blood pressure (BP), impaired left ventricular (LV) function, and increased arterial stiffness. Intensive weight loss and bariatric surgery induce improvement in hypertension and diabetes for morbid obesity. Carotid artery haemodynamics is a powerful prognostic indicator for stroke and cognitive decline independent of BP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04686-yDOI Listing

The patterning of local variability during the acquisition of a novel whole-body continuous motor skill in young adults.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA.

There is increasing evidence that movement variability during motor skill acquisition plays a functional role. Specifically, initial variability might represent exploration of the possible motor space for solutions and error identification. Following practice, individuals might exploit a reduced amount of motor solutions to execute the task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05840-9DOI Listing

Vibration-induced boundary-layer destabilization achieves massive heat-transport enhancement.

Sci Adv 2020 May 22;6(21):eaaz8239. Epub 2020 May 22.

Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, and Department of Engineering Mechanics at School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Thermal turbulence is well known as a potent means to convey heat across space by a moving fluid. The existence of the boundary layers near the plates, however, bottlenecks its heat-exchange capability. Here, we conceptualize a mechanism of thermal vibrational turbulence that breaks through the boundary-layer limitation and achieves massive heat-transport enhancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz8239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244268PMC

KAGUYA observation of global emissions of indigenous carbon ions from the Moon.

Sci Adv 2020 May 6;6(19):eaba1050. Epub 2020 May 6.

Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Japan.

Carbon is a volatile element that has a considerable influence on the formation and evolution of planetary bodies, although it was previously believed to be depleted in the Moon. We present observations by the lunar orbiter KAGUYA of carbon ions emitted from the Moon. These emissions were distributed over almost the total lunar surface, but amounts were differed with respect to lunar geographical areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba1050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202878PMC

Leveraging elastic instabilities for amplified performance: Spine-inspired high-speed and high-force soft robots.

Sci Adv 2020 May 8;6(19):eaaz6912. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, 1947 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.

Soft machines typically exhibit slow locomotion speed and low manipulation strength because of intrinsic limitations of soft materials. Here, we present a generic design principle that harnesses mechanical instability for a variety of spine-inspired fast and strong soft machines. Unlike most current soft robots that are designed as inherently and unimodally stable, our design leverages tunable snap-through bistability to fully explore the ability of soft robots to rapidly store and release energy within tens of milliseconds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz6912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7209986PMC

Lightweight, tough, and sustainable cellulose nanofiber-derived bulk structural materials with low thermal expansion coefficient.

Sci Adv 2020 May 1;6(18):eaaz1114. Epub 2020 May 1.

Division of Nanomaterials and Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Hefei Science Center of CAS, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomimetic Materials & Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Sustainable structural materials with light weight, great thermal dimensional stability, and superb mechanical properties are vitally important for engineering application, but the intrinsic conflict among some material properties (e.g., strength and toughness) makes it challenging to realize these performance indexes at the same time under wide service conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz1114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195169PMC

Graphene reinforced carbon fibers.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 24;6(17):eaaz4191. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 122 Engineer's Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.

The superlative strength-to-weight ratio of carbon fibers (CFs) can substantially reduce vehicle weight and improve energy efficiency. However, most CFs are derived from costly polyacrylonitrile (PAN), which limits their widespread adoption in the automotive industry. Extensive efforts to produce CFs from low cost, alternative precursor materials have failed to yield a commercially viable product. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz4191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182419PMC

Apparatus and Method for Rapid Detection of Acoustic Anisotropy in Cartilage.

J Med Biol Eng 2020 Jun 18;40(3):419-427. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, all Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: Articular cartilage is known to be mechanically anisotropic. In this paper, the acoustic anisotropy of bovine articular cartilage and the effects of freeze-thaw cycling on acoustic anisotropy were investigated.

Methods: We developed apparatus and methods that use a magnetic L-shaped sample holder, which allowed minimal handling of a tissue, reduced the number of measurements compared to previous studies, and produced highly reproducible results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40846-020-00518-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268905PMC

MEASUREMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THE VITREOUS HUMOR.

J Porous Media 2020 ;23(2):195-206

Department of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453.

The hydraulic conductivity of the vitreous humor has been measured for the bovine eye. The experiment was carried out by placing it within upright cylindrical chamber, open at both ends, and letting its liquid content drain out of the bottom opening by gravity, through a 20m nylon mesh filter. Additional negative pressure was provided at the exit by a hanging drainage tube. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JPorMedia.2020028229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269170PMC
January 2020

This Month in Aerospace Medicine History.

Authors:

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Apr;91(4):383

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5611.2020DOI Listing

This Month in Aerospace Medicine History.

Authors:

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Apr;91(4):382

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5612.2020DOI Listing

Aeromedical Transport - A Niche for Aerospace Medicine.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Apr;91(4):311-312

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.914PresPageDOI Listing

Application of endoscopic sinus surgery in hemostasis for epistaxis.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2020 Mar-Apr;34(2):655-657

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Aerospace Center Hospital, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23812/19-341-L-58DOI Listing

Te Nanoneedles Induced Entanglement and Thermoelectric Improvement of SnSe.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jun 1;13(11). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Chalcogenide-based materials have attracted widespread interest in high-performance thermoelectric research fields. A strategy for the application of two types of chalcogenide for improved thermoelectric performance is described herein. Tin selenide (SnSe) is used as a base material, and Te nanoneedles are crystallized in the SnSe, resulting in the generation of a composite structure of SnSe with Te nanoneedles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112523DOI Listing

Association between Anemia and Auditory Threshold Shifts in the US Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 1;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 11490, Taiwan.

Existing evidence indicates that both iron deficiency anemia and sickle cell anemia have been previously associated with hearing loss. However, human data investigating the association between anemia and auditory threshold shifts at different frequencies in the adolescent, adult and elderly population are extremely limited to date. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used the dataset from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 to explore differences in low- or high-frequency hearing thresholds and hearing loss prevalence between participants with and without anemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113916DOI Listing

Torus bifurcations of large-scale swarms having range dependent communication delay.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):051106

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6792, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

Dynamical emergent patterns of swarms are now fairly well established in nature and include flocking and rotational states. Recently, there has been great interest in engineering and physics to create artificial self-propelled agents that communicate over a network and operate with simple rules, with the goal of creating emergent self-organizing swarm patterns. In this paper, we show that when communicating networks have range dependent delays, rotational states, which are typically periodic, undergo a bifurcation and create swarm dynamics on a torus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0006540DOI Listing

Risk Factors and Survival Analysis of Spinal Cord Stimulator Explantation.

Neuromodulation 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Objective: The treatment failure rate for spinal cord stimulators (SCS) remains unacceptably high, with reports of removal in up to 30% of patients. The purpose of this study is to perform survival and multivariate regression analyses of patients who have undergone SCS explantation in order to identify patient characteristics that may predict treatment failure.

Materials And Methods: We identified 253 patients who underwent SCS placement using current procedural terminology codes in a private health insurance data base spanning 2003-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.13173DOI Listing

Generation of highly porous silver nanowire networks by plasma treatment and their direct application as supercapacitor electrodes.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group, Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia.

Exposure to plasma can significantly increase the surface area of silver species and their resistance to oxidation. While some work investigating plasma-treated silver has been done, limited morphologies and applications have been explored. We hereby explore this effect on silver nanowires (AgNWs) through medium-vacuum air plasma exposure time ranging between 30 s to 60 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02798gDOI Listing

A simple approach to prepare self-assembled, nacre-inspired clay/polymer nanocomposites.

Authors:
P Xu T Erdem E Eiser

Soft Matter 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK.

Inspired by the relationship between the well-ordered architecture of aragonite crystals and biopolymers found in natural nacre, we present a facile strategy to construct large-scale organic/inorganic nacre-mimetics with hierarchical structure via a water-evaporation driven self-assembly process. We connect LAPONITE®-nanoclay platelets with each other using carboxymethyl cellulose, a cellulose derivative, thus creating thin, flexible films with a local brick-and-mortar architecture. The dried films show a pronounced resistance against tensile forces allowing for stronger thin films than nacre. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm01585jDOI Listing

Investigation into features of fracture toughness of a transparent E-glass fiber reinforced polyester composites at extreme temperatures.

Heliyon 2020 May 26;6(5):e03986. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, 65201, USA.

In recent years, several investigators have made efforts to satisfy industrial and transportation demands with respect to high mechanical properties. Moreover, the transparent composites are needed for automotive and aircraft applications. Thus, developing more efficient and advanced transparent composite techniques has recently got more attention but seldom studied in harsh conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256466PMC

soil moisture and temperature network in genhe watershed and saihanba area in China.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 19;31:105693. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Beijing Normal University and Aerospace Information Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

The dataset presented in this article is related to the work "Evaluation and Analysis of SMAP, AMSR2, and MEaSUREs Freeze/Thaw Products in China [1]". Soil moisture and temperature are important variables of land-atmosphere energy exchange, monitoring vegetation growth, predicting drought disasters and climate and hydrological modelling [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. This work provides detailed information on soil moisture and temperature data network established in the Genhe watershed and Saihanba area in China, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256458PMC

Assessment of clinical and paraclinical departments of military hospitals based on the Pabon Lasso Model.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 31;9:59. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Today, it is important to use different indices to measure the performance of hospitals. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the performance indicators of military hospitals and measurement of performance by using the Pabon Lasso model.

Methods: This was an applied and descriptive-analytical study that was conducted among five military hospitals affiliated to the Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran by using data from 2017 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_455_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255583PMC

Effect of Ni, W and Mo on the microstructure, phases and high-temperature sliding wear performance of CoCr matrix alloys.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2020 27;21(1):229-241. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, PR China.

CoCrNi, CoCrW and CoCrMo alloys were fabricated by powder metallurgy technology. The effect of nickel, tungsten and molybdenum, as alloying elements, on the microstructure, phase, mechanical and high-temperature tribological properties of CoCr matrix alloys were systematically studied. The wear and friction behaviors were investigated from room temperature (23 °C) to 1000 °C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2020.1752113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241466PMC

High impact polytriazole resins for advanced composites.

Des Monomers Polym 2020 5;23(1):50-58. Epub 2020 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Polymeric Materials and Related Technology of the Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Three azido-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (ATPEGs) were synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) and characterized. The extended polytriazole (EPTA) resins were prepared from the macromonomers, azide and alkyne monomers. Toughening effect of PEGs on polytriazole resins was analyzed by means of mechanical, thermal and electronic microscope characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15685551.2020.1761584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241543PMC

Distance travelled by military recruits during basic training is a significant risk factor for lower limb overuse injury.

BMJ Mil Health 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Introduction: Military initial training results in a high incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome). This study aimed to determine whether the distance travelled by recruits, both on and off duty, was a risk factor for overuse injury.

Methods: 14 male airborne infantry recruits from three training platoons carried global positioning system receivers throughout the first 19 weeks of basic military training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001445DOI Listing

Experimental study of airfoil-rotor interaction noise by wavelet beamforming.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 May;147(5):3248

Peking University, 100871 Beijing, China.

A wavelet-based beamforming method is performed in this investigation to analyze moving acoustic sources in the time-frequency domain, which is of scientific significance and practical importance. The particular problem considered here is the interaction noise from an airfoil and the downstream rotor in the presence of a moving flow, which could find realistic applications in next-generation underwater and aviation systems. A realistic experimental setup is prepared with a rotating blade and the airfoil in an anechoic wind tunnel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001209DOI Listing

Detecting changes in distortion product otoacoustic emission maps using statistical parametric mapping and random field theory.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 May;147(5):3444

Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth College Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.

Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) maps collect DPOAE emissions over a broad range of frequencies and ratios. One application of DPOAE mapping could be monitoring changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) in space, where non-invasive measures of ICP are an area of interest. Data were collected in two experiments to statistically assess changes in DPOAE maps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001235DOI Listing

A novel gripper for multiaxial mechanical testing of microtubes at elevated temperatures.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 May;91(5):055007

Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27965, USA.

The success of a microtube hydroforming (μTHF) process heavily depends on the material properties of microtubes, which can reveal the material response under multiaxial stress and influence the formability of hydroformed products. However, these material properties are not well understood because of the limited availability of material testing apparatus that would permit control of axial force and internal pressure simultaneously to mimic realistic μTHF loading. The main purpose of this study is to develop a set of grippers that can transfer required testing loads under fully coupled combinations of axial force and internal pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0007150DOI Listing

Non-contact, non-destructive mapping of thermal diffusivity and surface acoustic wave speed using transient grating spectroscopy.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 May;91(5):054902

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kingdom.

We present new developments of the laser-induced transient grating spectroscopy (TGS) technique that enable the measurement of large area 2D maps of thermal diffusivity and surface acoustic wave speed. Additional capabilities include targeted measurements and the ability to accommodate samples with increased surface roughness. These new capabilities are demonstrated by recording large TGS maps of deuterium implanted tungsten, linear friction welded aerospace alloys, and high entropy alloys with a range of grain sizes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0003742DOI Listing

Frequency-domain hot-wire sensor and 3D model for thermal conductivity measurements of reactive and corrosive materials at high temperatures.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 May;91(5):054904

Materials Science and Engineering Program, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA.

High temperature solids and liquids are becoming increasingly important in next-generation energy and manufacturing systems that seek higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Accurate measurements of thermal conductivity at high temperatures are required for the modeling and design of these systems, but commonly employed time-domain measurements can have errors from convection, corrosion, and ambient temperature fluctuations. Here, we describe the development of a frequency-domain hot-wire technique capable of accurately measuring the thermal conductivity of solid and molten compounds from room temperature up to 800 °C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5138915DOI Listing

Moving Object Detection under a Moving Camera via Background Orientation Reconstruction.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 30;20(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

Moving object detection under a moving camera is a challenging question, especially in a complex background. This paper proposes a background orientation field reconstruction method based on Poisson fusion for detecting moving objects under a moving camera. As enlightening by the optical flow orientation of a background is not dependent on the scene depth, this paper reconstructs the background orientation through Poisson fusion based on the modified gradient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113103DOI Listing

Airfoil Selection Procedure, Wind Tunnel Experimentation and Implementation of 6DOF Modeling on a Flying Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 May 30;11(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

Airfoil selection procedure, wind tunnel testing and an implementation of 6-DOF model on flying wing micro aerial vehicle (FWMAV) has been proposed in this research. The selection procedure of airfoil has been developed by considering parameters related to aerodynamic efficiency and flight stability. Airfoil aerodynamic parameters have been calculated using a potential flow solver for ten candidate airfoils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11060553DOI Listing

Evaluating mobile monitoring of on-road emission factors by comparing concurrent PEMS measurements.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 17;736:139507. Epub 2020 May 17.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing 100084, PR China.

Many countries have adopted portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) testing in their latest regulations to measure real-world vehicular emissions. However, its fleetwide implementation is severely limited by the high equipment costs and lengthy setup procedures, posing a need to develop more cost-effective, efficient emission measurement methods, such as mobile chasing tests. We conducted conjoint PEMS-chasing experiments for twelve heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDTs) to evaluate the accuracy of mobile measurement results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139507DOI Listing

Hard events, stiff valves, stiff arteries and stiff ventricles: the complex interactions of degenerative aortic valve stenosis.

Int J Cardiol 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Dr. Esquerdo, 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain.; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Dr. Esquerdo 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain; CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III. C/ Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ramón y Cajal, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.043DOI Listing

Curved Carbon Skeleton in Oriented External Electric Fields: Modulated Curvature, Directional Bowl Inversion, and Face-Selective Cycloadditions of Corannulene.

Org Lett 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, P. R. China.

We introduced the oriented-external-electric-field-induced modification of bowl-shaped corannulene using density functional theory calculations. The results show that the electric field is capable of significantly modulating the polarization and electrostatic characteristics of the concave and convex surfaces of buckybowls. The structure-energy-reactivity relation can be precisely controlled, leading to a variety of unconventional properties for practical applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01595DOI Listing

Selected Applications of the Theory of Connections: A Technique for Analytical Constraint Embedding.

Mathematics (Basel) 2019 Jun 12;7(6):537. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

In this paper, we consider several new applications of the recently introduced mathematical framework of the Theory of Connections (ToC). This framework transforms constrained problems into unconstrained problems by introducing constraint-free variables. Using this transformation, various ordinary differential equations (ODEs), partial differential equations (PDEs) and variational problems can be formulated where the constraints are always satisfied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/math7060537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263466PMC

Effects of Glucose Deprivation on ATP and Proteoglycan Production of Intervertebral Disc Cells under Hypoxia.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 1;10(1):8899. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

As the most common cause of low back pain, the cascade of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is initiated by the disappearance of notochordal cells and progressive loss of proteoglycan (PG). Limited nutrient supply in the avascular disc environment restricts the production of ATP which is an essential energy source for cell survival and function such as PG biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to examine ATP level and PG production of porcine IVD cells under prolonged exposure to hypoxia with physiological glucose concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65691-wDOI Listing

Effects of early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution on brain development in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 May 27;10(1):166. Epub 2020 May 27.

Molecular Biosciences, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA, USA.

Epidemiological studies link traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to increased risk for various neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs); however, there are limited preclinical data demonstrating a causal relationship between TRAP and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Moreover, much of the preclinical literature reports effects of concentrated ambient particles or diesel exhaust that do not recapitulate the complexity of real-world TRAP exposures. To assess the developmental neurotoxicity of more realistic TRAP exposures, we exposed male and female rats during gestation and early postnatal development to TRAP drawn directly from a traffic tunnel in Northern California and delivered to animals in real-time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0845-3DOI Listing

IgA Nephropathy Benefits from Compound K Treatment by Inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3 Inflammasome and Enhancing Autophagy and SIRT1.

J Immunol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan;

IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerular disorder, has a relatively poor prognosis yet lacks a pathogenesis-based treatment. Compound K (CK) is a major absorbable intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginsenosides, which are bioactive components of ginseng. The present study revealed promising therapeutic effects of CK in two complementary IgAN models: a passively induced one developed by repeated injections of IgA immune complexes and a spontaneously occurring model of spontaneous grouped ddY mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900284DOI Listing

Cavitation clusters in lipid systems - Ring-up, bubble population, and bifurcated streamer lifetime.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 May 11:105168. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-8700, USA.

The processing of oils is vital to their ultimate use within the food industry. Control over the physical properties of such materials could be achieved through the application of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU). However, the exact mechanism, centred upon acoustic cavitation, is currently unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105168DOI Listing

A prediction model of thrust force for drilling of bidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix composites.

Sci Prog 2020 Apr-Jun;103(2):36850420925228

Key Laboratory of High Performance Manufacturing for Aero Engine, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix composites have been widely used for the manufacturing of thermostructural parts for several industries such as the aerospace and automotive. Drilling is an extremely common method used in the machining of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix composites before assembly. However, their non-homogeneous, anisotropic, and brittle nature make difficult to guarantee the hole quality in drilling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0036850420925228DOI Listing

Phosphate Porous Coatings Enriched with Selected Elements via PEO Treatment on Titanium and Its Alloys: A Review.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 28;13(11). Epub 2020 May 28.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Racławicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin, Poland.

This paper shows that the subject of porous coatings fabrication by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO), known also as Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO), is still current, inter alia because metals and alloys, which can be treated by the PEO method, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum and their alloys, are increasingly available for sale. On the international market, apart from scientific works/activity developed at universities, scientific research on the PEO coatings is also underway in companies such as Keronite (Great Britain), Magoxid-Coat (Germany), Mofratech (France), Machaon (Russia), as well as CeraFuse, Tagnite, Microplasmic (USA). In addition, it should be noted that the development of the space industry and implantology will force the production of trouble-free micro- and macro-machines with very high durability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112468DOI Listing

Microstructure and texture variations in high temperature titanium alloy Ti65 sheets with different rolling modes and heat treatments.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 28;13(11). Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Ti65 alloy (Ti-5.8Al-4.0Sn-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112466DOI Listing

The Multivariate Theory of Connections.

Mathematics (Basel) 2019 Mar 22;7(3):296. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

This paper extends the univariate Theory of Connections, introduced in (Mortari, 2017), to the multivariate case on rectangular domains with detailed attention to the bivariate case. In particular, it generalizes the bivariate Coons surface, introduced by (Coons, 1984), by providing analytical expressions, called , representing possible surfaces with assigned boundary constraints in terms of functions and arbitrary-order derivatives. In two dimensions, these expressions, which contain a freely chosen function, (, ), satisfy all constraints no matter what the (, ) is. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/math7030296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259476PMC

Remote sensing assessment and spatiotemporal variations analysis of ecological carrying capacity in the Aral Sea Basin.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 21;735:139562. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, 210098 Nanjing, China.

The severe shrinkage of Aral Sea and water resources coordination issues in upstream and downstream regions lead to the serious ecological crisis in the Aral Sea Basin (ASB). Comprehensive ecological carrying capacity (ECC) assessment is of great significance for the ecological restoration and sustainable development. Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Experts Mark, this paper established the index evaluation system according to the specific ecological situation of the ASB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139562DOI Listing