823 results match your criteria Advances in virus research[Journal]


Eukaryotic Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) Viruses: Ubiquitous Viruses With Small Genomes and a Diverse Host Range.

Adv Virus Res 2019 5;103:71-133. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

While single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was once thought to be a relatively rare genomic architecture for viruses, modern metagenomics sequencing has revealed circular ssDNA viruses in most environments and in association with diverse hosts. In particular, circular ssDNA viruses encoding a homologous replication-associated protein (Rep) have been identified in the majority of eukaryotic supergroups, generating interest in the ecological effects and evolutionary history of circular Rep-encoding ssDNA viruses (CRESS DNA) viruses. This review surveys the explosion of sequence diversity and expansion of eukaryotic CRESS DNA taxonomic groups over the last decade, highlights similarities between the well-studied geminiviruses and circoviruses with newly identified groups known only through their genome sequences, discusses the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic CRESS DNA viruses, and speculates on future research horizons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Phage Lysis: Multiple Genes for Multiple Barriers.

Adv Virus Res 2019 28;103:33-70. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Center of Phage Technology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

The first steps in phage lysis involve a temporally controlled permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane followed by enzymatic degradation of the peptidoglycan. For Caudovirales of Gram-negative hosts, there are two different systems: the holin-endolysin and pinholin-SAR endolysin pathways. In the former, lysis is initiated when the holin forms micron-scale holes in the inner membrane, releasing active endolysin into the periplasm to degrade the peptidoglycan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.09.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Evolution of the Large Nucleocytoplasmic DNA Viruses of Eukaryotes and Convergent Origins of Viral Gigantism.

Adv Virus Res 2019 10;103:167-202. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

The Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order "Megavirales") comprise an expansive group of eukaryotic viruses that consists of the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Marseilleviridae, Pithoviridae, and Mimiviridae, as well as Pandoraviruses, Molliviruses, and Faustoviruses that so far remain unaccounted by the official virus taxonomy. All these viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from about 100 kilobases (kb) to more than 2.5 megabases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

The Complex Nature of Tupanviruses.

Adv Virus Res 2019 10;103:135-166. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

The discovery of giant viruses revealed a new level of complexity in the virosphere, raising important questions about the diversity, ecology, and evolution of these viruses. The family Mimiviridae was the first group of amoebal giant viruses to be discovered (by Bernard La Scola and Didier Raoult team), containing viruses with structural and genetic features that challenged many concepts of classic virology. The tupanviruses are among the newest members of this family and exhibit structural, biological, and genetic features never previously observed in other giant viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.09.001DOI Listing
November 2018

The Diverse Impacts of Phage Morons on Bacterial Fitness and Virulence.

Adv Virus Res 2019 3;103:1-31. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The viruses that infect bacteria, known as phages, are the most abundant biological entity on earth. They play critical roles in controlling bacterial populations through phage-mediated killing, as well as through formation of bacterial lysogens. In this form, the survival of the phage depends on the survival of the bacterial host in which it resides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.08.001DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Tobamoviruses as Models for the Study of Virus Evolution.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;102:89-117. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA, and E.T.S.I., Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The study of tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamovirus species has greatly contributed to the development of all areas of virology, including virus evolution. Research with tobamoviruses has been pioneer, or particularly significant, in all major areas of research in this field, including: the characterization of the genetic diversity of virus populations, the mechanisms and rates of generation of genetic diversity, the analysis of the genetic structure of virus populations and of the factors that shape it, the adaptation of viruses to hosts and the evolution of host range, and the evolution of virus taxa and of virus-host interactions. Many of these continue to be hot topics in evolutionary biology, or have been identified recently as such, including (i) host-range evolution, (ii) predicting the overcoming of resistance in crops, (iii) trade-offs between virus life-history traits in virus evolution, and (iv) the codivergence of viruses and hosts at different taxonomical and spatial scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.006DOI Listing
December 2018

Molecular Modeling for Better Understanding of Cucumovirus Pathology.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;102:59-88. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

MTA ATK, Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a small RNA virus capable of infecting a wide variety of plant species. The high economic losses due to the CMV infection made this virus a relevant subject of scientific studies, which were further facilitated by the small size of the viral genome. Hence, CMV also became a model organism to investigate the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Development of Model Systems for Plant Rhabdovirus Research.

Adv Virus Res 2018 30;102:23-57. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

This chapter reviews the discoveries and initial characterizations (1930-1990) of three plant rhabdoviruses, sonchus yellow net virus, potato yellow dwarf virus, and lettuce necrotic yellows virus, that have become model systems for research on this group of enveloped negative-strand RNA plant viruses. We have used our personal perspectives to review the early historical studies of these viruses, the important technologies and tools, such as density gradient centrifugation, that were developed during the research, and to highlight the eminent scientists involved in these discoveries. Early studies on sites of virus replication, virion structure, physicochemical composition, and the use of protoplasts and vector insect cell culture for virus research are discussed, and differences between the nuclear and cytoplasmic lifestyles of plant rhabdoviruses are contrasted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.008DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Integration of Omics Approaches toward Understanding Whitefly Transmission of Viruses.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;102:199-223. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Viruses transmitted by whiteflies are predominantly classified as having either persistent circulative or semipersistent transmission, and the majority of studies have addressed transmission of viruses in the genera Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) and Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae), respectively. Early studies on vector transmission primarily addressed individual aspects of transmission; however, with the breadth of new technology now available, an increasingly greater number of studies involve coordinated research that is beginning to assemble a more complete picture of how whiteflies and viruses have coevolved to facilitate transmission. In particular the integration of gene expression and metabolomic studies into broader research topics is providing knowledge of changes within the whitefly vector in response to the presence of viruses that would have been impossible to identify previously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.005DOI Listing
December 2018
24 Reads

Viral Manipulation of Plant Stress Responses and Host Interactions With Insects.

Adv Virus Res 2018 25;102:177-197. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Do the alterations in plant defensive signaling and metabolism that occur in susceptible hosts following virus infection serve any purpose beyond directly aiding viruses to replicate and spread? Or indeed, are these modifications to host phenotype purely incidental consequences of virus infection? A growing body of data, in particular from studies of viruses vectored by whiteflies and aphids, indicates that viruses influence the efficiency of their own transmission by insect vectors and facilitate mutualistic relationships between viruses and their insect vectors. Furthermore, it appears that viruses may be able to increase the opportunity for transmission in the long term by providing reward to the host plants that they infect. This may be conditional, for example, by aiding host survival under conditions of drought or cold or, more surprisingly, by helping plants attract beneficial insects such as pollinators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.004DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

TMV Particles: The Journey From Fundamental Studies to Bionanotechnology Applications.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;102:149-176. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Molecular Biology and Plant Virology, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomolecular Systems, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Ever since its initial characterization in the 19th century, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has played a prominent role in the development of modern virology and molecular biology. In particular, research on the three-dimensional structure of the virus particles and the mechanism by which these assemble from their constituent protein and RNA components has made TMV a paradigm for our current view of the morphogenesis of self-assembling structures, including viral particles. More recently, this knowledge has been applied to the development of novel reagents and structures for applications in biomedicine and bionanotechnology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.003DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Dichorhaviruses in their Host Plants and Mite Vectors.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;102:119-148. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Departmento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

A group of related bacilliform, nuclear viruses with a bisegmented negative-sense RNA genome that are transmitted by Brevipalpus mites likely in a circulative-propagative manner were recently classified in the new genus Dichorhavirus, family Rhabdoviridae. These viruses cause localized lesions on leaves, stems, and fruits of economically significant horticultural and ornamental plant species. Among its members, orchid fleck virus, citrus leprosis virus N, and coffee ringspot virus are most prominent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.06.001DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Preface.

Adv Virus Res 2018 ;101:xiii-xiv

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3527(18)30032-0DOI Listing
January 2018

Water-Mediated Transmission of Plant, Animal, and Human Viruses.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;101:85-128. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Viruses represent the most abundant and diverse of the biological entities in environmental waters, including the seas and probably also freshwater systems. They are important players in ecological networks in waters and influence global biochemical cycling and community composition dynamics. Among the many diverse viruses from terrestrial environments found in environmental waters, some are plant, animal, and/or human pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.004DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

From Spatial Metagenomics to Molecular Characterization of Plant Viruses: A Geminivirus Case Study.

Adv Virus Res 2018 7;101:55-83. Epub 2018 May 7.

CIRAD, UMR BGPI, Montpellier, France; BGPI, Univ. Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

The number of plant viruses that are known likely remains only a vanishingly small fraction of all extant plant virus species. Consequently, the distribution and population dynamics of plant viruses within even the best-studied ecosystems have only ever been studied for small groups of virus species. Even for the best studied of these groups very little is known about virus diversity at spatial scales ranging from an individual host, through individual local host populations to global host populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.003DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Viruses in Polar Lake and Soil Ecosystems.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;101:39-54. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.002DOI Listing
November 2018

Ecological Complexity in Plant Virus Host Range Evolution.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;101:293-339. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA, and E.T.S.I. Agrícola, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Campus de Montegancedo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The host range of a plant virus is the number of species in which it can reproduce. Most studies of plant virus host range evolution have focused on the genetics of host-pathogen interactions. However, the distribution and abundance of plant viruses and their hosts do not always overlap, and these spatial and temporal discontinuities in plant virus-host interactions can result in various ecological processes that shape host range evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Emerging Viruses in Bees: From Molecules to Ecology.

Adv Virus Res 2018 7;101:251-291. Epub 2018 May 7.

School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, United Kingdom.

Emerging infectious diseases arise as a result of novel interactions between populations of hosts and pathogens, and can threaten the health and wellbeing of the entire spectrum of biodiversity. Bees and their viruses are a case in point. However, detailed knowledge of the ecological factors and evolutionary forces that drive disease emergence in bees and other host-pathogen communities is surprisingly lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.008DOI Listing
November 2018

Evolutionary Determinants of Host and Vector Manipulation by Plant Viruses.

Adv Virus Res 2018 7;101:189-250. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States.

Plant viruses possess adaptations for facilitating acquisition, retention, and inoculation by vectors. Until recently, it was hypothesized that these adaptations are limited to virus proteins that enable virions to bind to vector mouthparts or invade their internal tissues. However, increasing evidence suggests that viruses can also manipulate host plant phenotypes and vector behaviors in ways that enhance their own transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.007DOI Listing
November 2018

Plant and Insect Viruses in Managed and Natural Environments: Novel and Neglected Transmission Pathways.

Authors:
Roger A C Jones

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;101:149-187. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Institute of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia; Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, South Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address:

The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus' ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.006DOI Listing
November 2018
4.571 Impact Factor

Evaluating the Importance of Environmental Persistence for Ranavirus Transmission and Epidemiology.

Adv Virus Res 2018 26;101:129-148. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

Viruses persist outside their hosts in a variety of forms, from naked virions to virus protected in sloughed tissues or carcasses, and for a range of times, all of which affect the likelihood and importance of transmission from the environment. This review synthesizes the literature on environmental persistence of viruses in the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), which are large double-stranded DNA viruses of ectothermic, often aquatic or semiaquatic vertebrates. Ranaviruses have been associated with mass mortality events in natural and captive settings around the world, and with population and community-wide declines in Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.005DOI Listing
November 2018

Viruses in Marine Ecosystems: From Open Waters to Coral Reefs.

Authors:
Karen D Weynberg

Adv Virus Res 2018 7;101:1-38. Epub 2018 May 7.

School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Viruses infect all kingdoms of marine life from bacteria to whales. Viruses in the world's oceans play important roles in the mortality of phytoplankton, and as drivers of evolution and biogeochemical cycling. They shape host population abundance and distribution and can lead to the termination of algal blooms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.001DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Preface to Volume 100: History and Looking Forward.

Adv Virus Res 2018;100:xv-xxiv

Pennsylvania State University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3527(18)30021-6DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Viruses of Plant-Interacting Fungi.

Adv Virus Res 2018 21;100:99-116. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Institute of Plant Science and Resources (IPSR), Okayama University, Kurashiki, Japan. Electronic address:

Plant-associated fungi are infected by viruses at the incidence rates from a few % to over 90%. Multiple viruses often coinfect fungal hosts, and occasionally alter their phenotypes, but most of the infections are asymptomatic. Phenotypic alterations are grouped into two types: harmful or beneficial to the host fungi. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00653527173002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Morbillivirus Pathogenesis and Virus-Host Interactions.

Adv Virus Res 2018 1;100:75-98. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany. Electronic address:

Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects seen in different hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

Adv Virus Res 2018 21;100:41-74. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases (CEEZAD), College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States. Electronic address:

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

How Does Vaccinia Virus Interfere With Interferon?

Adv Virus Res 2018 16;100:355-378. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Interferons (IFNs) are secreted glycoproteins that are produced by cells in response to virus infection and other stimuli and induce an antiviral state in cells bearing IFN receptors. In this way, IFNs restrict virus replication and spread before an adaptive immune response is developed. Viruses are very sensitive to the effects of IFNs and consequently have evolved many strategies to interfere with interferon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.003DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Intracellular Antiviral Immunity.

Adv Virus Res 2018 16;100:309-354. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Innate immunity is traditionally thought of as the first line of defense against pathogens that enter the body. It is typically characterized as a rather weak defense mechanism, designed to restrict pathogen replication until the adaptive immune response generates a tailored response and eliminates the infectious agent. However, intensive research in recent years has resulted in better understanding of innate immunity as well as the discovery of many effector proteins, revealing its numerous powerful mechanisms to defend the host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Changing Role of Wild Birds in the Epidemiology of Avian Influenza A Viruses.

Adv Virus Res 2018 21;100:279-307. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Waterbirds are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (LPAIV), from which occasional spillover to poultry occurs. When circulating among poultry, LPAIV may become highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIV). In recent years, the epidemiology of HPAIV viruses has changed drastically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.007DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Antiviral Immune Response and the Route of Infection in Drosophila melanogaster.

Adv Virus Res 2018 21;100:247-278. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Institut Pasteur, Viruses and RNA Interference Unit, CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche 3569, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has made an important contribution to our understanding of the function and regulation of innate immunity in insects. Indeed, insects can discriminate between different types of pathogens and mount specific and effective responses. Strikingly, the same pathogen can trigger a different immune response in the same organism, depending solely on the route of infection by which the pathogen is delivered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.006DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

An Orchestra of Reovirus Receptors: Still Searching for the Conductor.

Adv Virus Res 2018 13;100:223-246. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Viruses are constantly engaged in a molecular arms race with the host, where efficient and tactical use of cellular receptors benefits critical steps in infection. Receptor use dictates initiation, establishment, and spread of viral infection to new tissues and hosts. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are pervasive pathogens that use multiple receptors to overcome protective host barriers to disseminate from sites of initial infection and cause disease in young mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.005DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

The Role of Immune Responses in HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission.

Adv Virus Res 2018 16;100:19-40. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States; Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States.

HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Filoviruses: Ecology, Molecular Biology, and Evolution.

Adv Virus Res 2018 1;100:189-221. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, United States. Electronic address:

The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses.

Adv Virus Res 2018 16;100:163-188. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The four endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children. While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics. For two of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four viruses may have existed with bats and rodents. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00653527183000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.001DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

So What Have Plant Viruses Ever Done for Virology and Molecular Biology?

Adv Virus Res 2018 1;100:145-162. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The discovery of a new class of pathogen, viruses, in the late 19th century, ushered in a period of study of the biochemical and structural properties of these entities in which plant viruses played a prominent role. This was, in large part, due to the relative ease with which sufficient quantities of material could be produced for such analyses. As analytical techniques became increasingly sensitive, similar studies could be performed on the viruses from other organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Protein Localization and Interaction Studies in Plants: Toward Defining Complete Proteomes by Visualization.

Authors:
Michael M Goodin

Adv Virus Res 2018 2;100:117-144. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States. Electronic address:

Protein interaction and localization studies in plants are a fundamental component of achieving mechanistic understanding of virus:plant interactions at the systems level. Many such studies are conducted using transient expression assays in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, the most widely used experimental plant host in virology, examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. This chapter provides a workflow for protein interaction and localization experiments, with particular attention to the many control and supporting assays that may also need to be performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.004DOI Listing
December 2018

The Species Problem in Virology.

Adv Virus Res 2018 2;100:1-18. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

School of Biotechnology, CNRS, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:

Virus classification deals with conceptual species classes that have viruses as their members. A virus species cannot be described but can only be defined by listing certain species-defining properties of its member. However, it is not possible to define a virus species by using a single species-defining property. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.10.008DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Assessing the Diversity of Rodent-Borne Viruses: Exploring of High-Throughput Sequencing and Classical Amplification/Sequencing Approaches.

Adv Virus Res 2017 28;99:61-108. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel-Insel Riems, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.002DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Schmallenberg Virus: A Novel Virus of Veterinary Importance.

Adv Virus Res 2017 ;99:39-60

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

In late 2011, unspecific clinical symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and decreased milk production were observed in dairy cattle in the Dutch/German border region. After exclusion of classical endemic and emerging viruses by targeted diagnostic systems, blood samples from acutely diseased cows were subjected to metagenomics analysis. An insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup was identified as the causative agent and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.001DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

Software Dedicated to Virus Sequence Analysis "Bioinformatics Goes Viral".

Adv Virus Res 2017 28;99:233-257. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

RNA Bioinformatics and High Throughput Analysis, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany; European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), Jena, Germany; FLI Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Computer-assisted technologies of the genomic structure, biological function, and evolution of viruses remain a largely neglected area of research. The attention of bioinformaticians to this challenging field is currently unsatisfying in respect to its medical and biological importance. The power of new genome sequencing technologies, associated with new tools to handle "big data", provides unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental questions in virology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.004DOI Listing
May 2018
15 Reads

The Recently Discovered Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus: Insights Into Its Genetic Heterogeneity and Spatial Distribution in Europe and the Population Genetics of Its Primary Host.

Adv Virus Res 2017 9;99:199-232. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

In 2010, a novel lyssavirus named Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same bat species and all found in moribund or dead bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n=4) and France (n=1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.004DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Loeffler 4.0: Diagnostic Metagenomics.

Adv Virus Res 2017 21;99:17-37. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

A new world of possibilities for "virus discovery" was opened up with high-throughput sequencing becoming available in the last decade. While scientifically metagenomic analysis was established before the start of the era of high-throughput sequencing, the availability of the first second-generation sequencers was the kick-off for diagnosticians to use sequencing for the detection of novel pathogens. Today, diagnostic metagenomics is becoming the standard procedure for the detection and genetic characterization of new viruses or novel virus variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.001DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

Bluetongue Virus: From BTV-1 to BTV-27.

Adv Virus Res 2017 22;99:161-197. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

UMR1161 Virologie, ANSES, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of genus Orbivirus within family Reoviridae. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its ruminant hosts by the bite of Culicoides spp. midges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.003DOI Listing
May 2018
17 Reads

New Leaves in the Growing Tree of Pestiviruses.

Adv Virus Res 2017 9;99:139-160. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Pestiviruses are a group of viruses of veterinary importance infecting livestock animals like pigs, cattle, and sheep, and also wildlife animals like wild boar and different deer species. While for decades only four classical species (Classical swine fever virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, Border disease virus), and a few so-called atypical pestiviruses were known (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.003DOI Listing
May 2018
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The Expanding Field of Mammalian Astroviruses: Opportunities and Challenges in Clinical Virology.

Adv Virus Res 2017 22;99:109-137. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Astroviruses are best known as being one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and were first described in this context in 1975. In its first years, astrovirus research was mainly restricted to electron microscopy and serology studies. The ability to culture some of these viruses in vitro allowed a first consequent step forward, especially at the molecular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.002DOI Listing

The First "Virus Hunters".

Adv Virus Res 2017 9;99:1-16. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

The history of virology is a history of conceptual and technological inventions and breakthroughs. The development of filters made of porcelain or kieselgur by the end of the 19th century which withheld bacteria allowed the identification of infectious agents smaller than bacteria and noncultivable on the media known at that time and used to grow bacteria. Even finer-grain filters resulted in the observation that the ultravisible novel infectious agents are in fact of particulate nature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.005DOI Listing

The Envelope Proteins of the Bunyavirales.

Adv Virus Res 2017 8;98:83-118. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Institut Pasteur, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Paris Cedex 15, France; CNRS UMR 3569 Virologie, Paris Cedex 15, France. Electronic address:

The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.002DOI Listing
November 2017
23 Reads

Metabolomics: Strategies to Define the Role of Metabolism in Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.

Adv Virus Res 2017 31;98:57-81. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.001DOI Listing
November 2017

Insect-Specific Viruses: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments.

Adv Virus Res 2017 17;98:119-146. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States; Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States; University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.10.001DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

Zoonotic Potential of Emerging Paramyxoviruses: Knowns and Unknowns.

Adv Virus Res 2017 2;98:1-55. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894875PMC
November 2017
8 Reads