282 results match your criteria Advances in neurobiology[Journal]


Reality-Based Technologies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Recommendation for Food Intake Intervention.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:679-693

Department of Information, and Computing Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar.

Food selectivity by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is relatively high as compared to typical children and consequently puts them at risk of nutritional inadequacies. Thus, there is a need to educate children with ASD on food types and their benefits in a simple and interesting manner that will encourage food acceptance and enable a move toward healthy living. The use of technological intervention has proven to be an effective tool for educating children with ASD in maintaining attention and mastering new skills as compared to traditional methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_26DOI Listing
February 2020

Bioactive Metabolites from Marine Ascidians: Future Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:661-678

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that influences communication and behavior. Numerous researches propose that genes can act together with manipulations from the environment to affect development in ways that lead to ASD. The broad range of issues facing people with ASD means that there is no single proper drug and treatment for ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_25DOI Listing
February 2020

Regulation of Dietary Amino Acids and Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:647-660

Department of Biochemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Autism, or autism spectrum disorders (ASD), is one of the complex genetic diseases and its etiology is unknown for majority of the patients. It is characterized by deterioration in social interaction, communication, interests, imagination, and activities. As autism is a highly heterogeneous disorder, the symptoms can vary greatly in each affected individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_24DOI Listing
February 2020

Dietary Phytochemicals as Neurotherapeutics for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Plausible Mechanism and Evidence.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:615-646

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms ranging from lack of social interaction and communication deficits to rigid, repetitive, and stereotypic behavior. It has also been associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, aggression, epilepsy, deficit in sensory processing, as well as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Apart from several behavioral and cognitive complications arising as a result of central nervous system dysfunction, there are various physiological comorbidities such as immune system deregulation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gastrointestinal complications which can worsen existing behavioral complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_23DOI Listing
February 2020

Natural Products and Their Therapeutic Effect on Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:601-614

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India.

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is evident in early childhood and can persist throughout the entire life. The disease is basically characterized by hurdles in social interaction where the individuals demonstrate repetitive and stereotyped interests or patterns of behavior. A wide number of neuroanatomical studies with autistic patients revealed alterations in brain development which lead to diverse cellular and anatomical processes including atypical neurogenesis, neuronal migration, maturation, differentiation, and degeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_22DOI Listing
February 2020

Autism and Gut-Brain Axis: Role of Probiotics.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:587-600

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Characterized by a wide range of behavioural, social and language problems, autism is a complex developmental disability that affects an individual's capacity to communicate and interact with others. Although the real causes that lead to the development of autism are still unclear, the gastrointestinal tract has been found to play a major role in the development of autism. Alterations in macrobiotic compositions have been reported in autistic children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_21DOI Listing
February 2020

Protein Nutrition in Autism.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:573-586

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Autism is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is said to be a "developmental disorder" because symptoms generally appear in the first 2 years of life. The primary cause of autism is still not clear and therapy is currently restricted to controlling behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_20DOI Listing
February 2020

Dietary Approaches to the Management of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:547-571

Department of Psychology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

This chapter reviews the literature surrounding autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their relation to gastrointestinal (GI), behavioral, neurological, and immunological functioning. Individuals with ASD often have poor GI health, including bowel motility issues, autoimmune and/or other adverse responses to certain foods, and lack of necessary nutrient absorption. These issues may be caused or exacerbated by restrictive behavioral patterns (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_19DOI Listing
February 2020

Importance of Nutrition Intervention in Autistic Patients.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:535-545

Human Nutrition Department, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Along with the issues of inflated social and financial burden associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific treatment for this disorder has also not been developed. Having a thorough look at previous trials done to treat autism, we find that nutrition intervention had been used frequently as a complementary form of therapy. Indeed, an early diagnosis of nutrition deficiency and metabolic disorders done concomitantly with accurate therapeutic interventions can be a cornerstone for improving cognitive and behavioral aptitudes of people with autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_18DOI Listing
February 2020

Overview of Nutritional Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Authors:
Carla Vartanian

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:527-534

Royal Society of Medicine, General Practice with Primary Healthcare Section, London, UK.

The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the latest research pertinent to nutritional management in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the effectiveness of dietary interventions, nutritional approaches, and supplementation in ASD. To date, the best conventional treatments for autism have been based on a combination of pharmacotherapy, behavioral treatments, and nutritional/dietary therapy, leading many parents and caregivers to opt for specific dietary interventions in the hope of alleviating the symptoms of their children and helping them cope with this disorder. Thus, the role of a registered dietitian and a nutrition specialist is crucial in planning specific nutritional and dietary interventions tailored to individual needs, to make sure the child's nutritional needs for growth and development are being met. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_17DOI Listing
February 2020

Food Selection and Preferences of Omani Autistic Children.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:505-523

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. Children with ASD are known to have several feeding problems that are believed to affect their nutritional and health status.

Aim: The present study was designed to assess the food preferences in Omani children diagnosed with ASD compared with controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_16DOI Listing
February 2020

Food Color and Autism: A Meta-Analysis.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:481-504

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Autism has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 has identified 1 in 59 children (1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls) has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complex conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_15DOI Listing
February 2020

The Role of Gluten in Autism.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:469-479

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder of social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. Much remains unknown about their mechanisms of action and physiological effects. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in nutritional diets, which can be used as a form of therapeutic intervention for ASD with a recent increase in the research being carried out in this field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_14DOI Listing
February 2020

Seeds.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:421-467

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

A wide variety of plant species provide edible seeds. Seeds are the dominant source of human calories and protein. The most important and popular seed food sources are cereals, followed by legumes and nuts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_13DOI Listing
February 2020

Nuts.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:395-419

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Nuts are fruits composed of two parts: an inedible hard shell and an edible seed. Nuts are known as an energy-dense and nutrient-rich food source. In general, nuts are recognized as a good source of fat, fiber, and protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_12DOI Listing
February 2020

Grains.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:377-394

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

The grain group is small, hard, dry seeds, known to be more durable than other staple foods. They have been a part of the human diet for tens of thousands of years. The two foremost types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes or pulses, discussed in Chapter 13 "Seeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_11DOI Listing
February 2020

Fruits.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:279-376

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_10DOI Listing
February 2020

Vegetables.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:225-277

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Vegetables come in varied colors, forms, and tastes. Health specialists highly encourage inclusion of vegetables in one's diet due to their inherent nutritional worth. This chapter will cover selected vegetables from wide-ranging families like roots, stems, leafy greens, and cruciferous varieties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_9DOI Listing
February 2020

The Regulation of Reactive Neuroblastosis, Neuroplasticity, and Nutraceuticals for Effective Management of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:207-222

School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a cluster of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders that has been characterized mainly by social withdrawal, repetitive behavior, restricted interests, and deficits in language processing mainly in children. ASD has been known to severely impair behavioral patterns and cognitive functions including learning and memory due to defects in neuroplasticity. The biology of the ASD appears to be highly complex and heterogeneous, and thus, finding a therapeutic target for autism remains obscure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_8DOI Listing
February 2020

Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Autism.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:193-206

Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with poorly understood etiology that are defined exclusively on the basis of behavioral observations. This disorder has been linked to increased levels of oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity. Oxidative stress in autism has been studied at the membrane level and also by measuring products of lipid peroxidation, detoxifying agents (such as glutathione), and antioxidants involved in the defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_7DOI Listing
February 2020

Psychological Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:163-191

Qatar Rehabilitation Institute, Pediatric Rehabilitation, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairment in behavior, communication, and social interaction. Thus, accurate identification, regular behavioral and other nonmedical interventions would improve the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this condition.In this chapter, we investigate the importance of diagnosing and identifying comorbid psychiatric disorders that occur with ASD as these conditions can often complicate treatment, and failure to recognize them can result in deficits that can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_6DOI Listing
February 2020

Maternal Prenatal Exposures in Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Insight into the Epigenetics of Drugs and Diet as Key Environmental Influences.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:143-162

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a rapidly growing global pandemic that affects an estimated 1 in 59-68 children. It is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental etiologies. Due to the rapid increase in the incidence of ASD, environmental causes for ASD are gaining attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_5DOI Listing
February 2020

Neuropsychopathology of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Complex Interplay of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Factors.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:97-141

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous consortium of pervasive development disorders (PDD) which ranges from atypical autism, autism, and Asperger syndrome affecting brain in the developmental stage. This debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder results in both core as well as associated symptoms. Core symptoms observed in autistic patients are lack of social interaction, pervasive, stereotyped, and restricted behavior while the associated symptoms include irritability, anxiety, aggression, and several comorbid disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_4DOI Listing
February 2020

Genomics of Autism.

Authors:
Khalid A Fakhro

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:83-96

Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting >1% of all children, characterized by impaired social interactions, repetitive behavior and a widely variable spectrum of comorbidities. These comorbidities may include developmental delay, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac disorders, immune and autoimmune dysregulation, neurological manifestations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_3DOI Listing
February 2020

New Horizons for Molecular Genetics Diagnostic and Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:43-81

Diagnostic Genetics Division (DGD), Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (DLMP), Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, heterogeneous, and complex pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder (PND) characterized by distinctive abnormalities of human cognitive functions, social interaction, and speech development.Nowadays, several genetic changes including chromosome abnormalities, genetic variations, transcriptional epigenetics, and noncoding RNA have been identified in ASD. However, the association between these genetic modifications and ASDs has not been confirmed yet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_2DOI Listing
February 2020

Overview and Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;24:3-42

Research and Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder generally manifesting in the first few years of life and tending to persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is characterized by deficits in communication and social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. It is a disorder with multifactorial etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_1DOI Listing
February 2020

Development of a Model to Test Whether Glycogenolysis Can Support Astrocytic Energy Demands of Na, K-ATPase and Glutamate-Glutamine Cycling, Sparing an Equivalent Amount of Glucose for Neurons.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:385-433

Department of Neurology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Recent studies of glycogen in brain have suggested a much more important role in brain energy metabolism and function than previously recognized, including findings of much higher than previously recognized concentrations, consumption at substantial rates compared with utilization of blood-borne glucose, and involvement in ion pumping and in neurotransmission and memory. However, it remains unclear how glycogenolysis is coupled to neuronal activity and provides support for neuronal as well as astroglial function. At present, quantitative aspects of glycogenolysis in brain functions are very difficult to assess due to its metabolic lability, heterogeneous distributions within and among cells, and extreme sensitivity to physiological stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_14DOI Listing
December 2019

Dysregulation of Glycogen Metabolism with Concomitant Spatial Memory Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: Potential Beneficial Effects of Chronic Exercise.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:363-383

Sport Neuroscience Division, Advanced Research Initiative for Human High Performance (ARIHHP), Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Cognitive dysfunction is one of the comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, but hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, a component of cognitive function, shows particular decline in type 2 diabetes, suggesting an increased risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive function is related to dysregulated glucose metabolism, which is the typical cause of type 2 diabetes; however, hippocampal glycogen and its metabolite lactate are also crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory function. Type 2 diabetes induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory dysfunction can be improved by chronic exercise and this improvement may possibly mediate through an adaptation of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_13DOI Listing
December 2019

Role of Brain Glycogen During Ischemia, Aging and Cell-to-Cell Interactions.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:347-361

Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The astrocyte-neuron lactate transfer shuttle (ANLS) is one of the important metabolic systems that provides a physiological infrastructure for glia-neuronal interactions where specialized architectural organization supports the function. Perivascular astrocyte end-feet take up glucose via glucose transporter 1 to actively regulate glycogen stores, such that high ambient glucose upregulates glycogen and low levels of glucose deplete glycogen stores. A rapid breakdown of glycogen into lactate during increased neuronal activity or low glucose conditions becomes essential for maintaining axon function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_12DOI Listing
December 2019

Endurance and Brain Glycogen: A Clue Toward Understanding Central Fatigue.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:331-346

Sport Neuroscience Division, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Advanced Research Initiative for Human High Performance (ARIHHP), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes produces lactate as a neuronal energy source transported by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions, such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although exercise activates brain neurons, the role of astrocytic glycogen in the brain during exercise remains unknown. Since muscle glycogen fuels active muscles during exercise, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the brain during exercise to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_11DOI Listing
December 2019

Glycogen in Astrocytes and Neurons: Physiological and Pathological Aspects.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:311-329

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain.

Brain glycogen is stored mainly in astrocytes, although neurons also have an active glycogen metabolism. Glycogen has gained relevance as a key player in brain function. In this regard, genetically modified animals have allowed researchers to unravel new roles of this polysaccharide in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_10DOI Listing
December 2019

State-Dependent Changes in Brain Glycogen Metabolism.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:269-309

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

A fundamental understanding of glycogen structure, concentration, polydispersity and turnover is critical to qualify the role of glycogen in the brain. These molecular and metabolic features are under the control of neuronal activity through the interdependent action of neuromodulatory tone, ionic homeostasis and availability of metabolic substrates, all variables that concur to define the state of the system. In this chapter, we briefly describe how glycogen responds to selected behavioral, nutritional, environmental, hormonal, developmental and pathological conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_9DOI Listing
December 2019

Glycogenolysis in Cerebral Cortex During Sensory Stimulation, Acute Hypoglycemia, and Exercise: Impact on Astrocytic Energetics, Aerobic Glycolysis, and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:209-267

Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Most glycogen in cerebral cortex is located in astrocytes, and the importance of glycogenolysis for critical functions, including neurotransmission and memory consolidation, is strongly supported by many studies. However, specific mechanisms through which glycogen sustains essential functions remain to be established by rigorous, quantitative studies. Cerebral cortical glycogen concentrations are in the range of 10-12 μmol/g in carefully-handled animals, and the calculated rate of glycogenolysis (CMR) during sensory stimulation is approximately 60% that of glucose utilization (CMR) by all cells, with lower rates during acute hypoglycemia and exercise to exhaustion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_8DOI Listing
December 2019

Metabolism of Glycogen in Brain White Matter.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:187-207

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Brain glycogen is a specialized energy buffer, rather than a conventional reserve. In the rodent optic nerve, a central white matter tract, it is located in astrocytes, where it is converted to lactate, which is then shuttled intercellularly from the astrocyte to the axon. This basic pathway was elucidated from non-physiological experiments in which the nerve was deprived of exogenous glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_7DOI Listing
December 2019

Technical and Comparative Aspects of Brain Glycogen Metabolism.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:169-185

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System, San Francisco, CA, USA.

It has been known for over 50 years that brain has significant glycogen stores, but the physiological function of this energy reserve remains uncertain. This uncertainty stems in part from several technical challenges inherent in the study of brain glycogen metabolism, and may also stem from some conceptual limitations. Factors presenting technical challenges include low glycogen content in brain, non-homogenous labeling of glycogen by radiotracers, rapid glycogenolysis during postmortem tissue handling, and effects of the stress response on brain glycogen turnover. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_6DOI Listing
December 2019

Regional Distribution of Glycogen in the Mouse Brain Visualized by Immunohistochemistry.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:147-168

RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

Considering that the brain constantly consumes a substantial amount of energy, the nature of its energy reserve is an important issue. Although the brain is rich in lipid content encompassing membranes, myelin sheath, and astrocytic lipid droplets, it is devoid of adipose tissue which serves as an energy reserve. Notably, glycogen represents the major energy store in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_5DOI Listing
December 2019

The Structure and the Regulation of Glycogen Phosphorylases in Brain.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:125-145

Unité BFA, CNRS UMR 8251, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Glycogen constitutes the main store of glucose in animal cells. Being present at much lower concentrations in the brain than in liver and muscles, brain glycogen has long been considered as an emergency source of glucose, mobilized under stress conditions (including hypoglyceamia). Nevertheless, over the past decade, multiple studies have shed a new light on the roles of brain glycogen, being notably an energy supply critical for high-cognitive processes such as learning and memory consolidation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_4DOI Listing
December 2019

Structure and Regulation of Glycogen Synthase in the Brain.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:83-123

Indiana University School of Medicine-Muncie, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Brain glycogen synthesis is a regulated, multi-step process that begins with glucose transport across the blood brain barrier and culminates with the actions of glycogen synthase and the glycogen branching enzyme to elongate glucose chains and introduce branch points in a growing glycogen molecule. This review focuses on the synthesis of glycogen in the brain, with an emphasis on glycogen synthase, but draws on salient studies in mammalian muscle and liver as well as baker's yeast, with the goal of providing a more comprehensive view of glycogen synthesis and highlighting potential areas for further study in the brain. In addition, deficiencies in the glycogen biosynthetic enzymes which lead to glycogen storage diseases in humans are discussed, highlighting effects on the brain and discussing findings in genetically modified animal models that recapitulate these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_3DOI Listing
December 2019

Brain Glycogen Structure and Its Associated Proteins: Past, Present and Future.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:17-81

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Epilepsy and Brain Metabolism Center, Lafora Epilepsy Cure Initiative, and Center for Structural Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

This chapter reviews the history of glycogen-related research and discusses in detail the structure, regulation, chemical properties and subcellular distribution of glycogen and its associated proteins, with particular focus on these aspects in brain tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239500PMC
December 2019

Major Advances in Brain Glycogen Research: Understanding of the Roles of Glycogen Have Evolved from Emergency Fuel Reserve to Dynamic, Regulated Participant in Diverse Brain Functions.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;23:1-16

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Brain glycogen is extremely difficult to study because it is very labile to physiological status and postmortem autolysis, and glycogen degradative enzymes are rapidly activated by metabolites and signaling molecules. Glycogen is predominantly located within astrocytes in adult brain, and abnormal glycogen metabolism in neurons has lethal consequences. Diverse distribution of glycogen among subcellular compartments suggests local regulation and different functional roles, and recent studies have revealed critically important roles for glycogen in normal brain function and Lafora disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_1DOI Listing
December 2019

Closed-Loop Systems and In Vitro Neuronal Cultures: Overview and Applications.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:351-387

Rehab Technologies IIT-INAIL Lab, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.

One of the main limitations preventing the realization of a successful dialogue between the brain and a putative enabling device is the intricacy of brain signals. In this perspective, closed-loop in vitro systems can be used to investigate the interactions between a network of neurons and an external system, such as an interacting environment or an artificial device. In this chapter, we provide an overview of closed-loop in vitro systems, which have been developed for investigating potential neuroprosthetic applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_15DOI Listing
August 2019
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Long-Term Activity Dynamics of Single Neurons and Networks.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:331-350

Tactile Perception and Learning Lab, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

The firing rate of neuronal spiking in vitro and in vivo significantly varies over extended timescales, characterized by long-memory processes and complex statistics, and appears in spontaneous as well as evoked activity upon repeated stimulus presentation. These variations in response features and their statistics, in face of repeated instances of a given physical input, are ubiquitous in all levels of brain-behavior organization. They are expressed in single neuron and network response variability but even appear in variations of subjective percepts or psychophysical choices and have been described as stemming from history-dependent, stochastic, or rate-determined processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_14DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

Advances in Human Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Cell Culturing and Analysis.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:299-329

NeuroGroup, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

This chapter provides an overview of the current stage of human in vitro functional neuronal cultures, their biological application areas, and modalities to analyze their behavior. During the last 10 years, this research area has changed from being practically non-existent to one that is facing high expectations. Here, we present a case study as a comprehensive short history of this process based on extensive studies conducted at NeuroGroup (University of Tampere) and Computational Biophysics and Imaging Group (Tampere University of Technology), ranging from the differentiation and culturing of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks to their electrophysiological analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_13DOI Listing
August 2019
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Application of Microelectrode Array Approaches to Neurotoxicity Testing and Screening.

Authors:
Timothy J Shafer

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:275-297

Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Neurotoxicity can be defined by the ability of a drug or chemical to alter the physiology, biochemistry, or structure of the nervous system in a manner that may negatively impact the health or function of the individual. Electrophysiological approaches have been utilized to study the mechanisms underlying neurotoxic actions of drugs and chemicals for over 50 years, and in more recent decades, high-throughput patch-clamp approaches have been utilized by the pharmaceutical industry for drug development. The use of microelectrode array recordings to study neural network electrophysiology is a relatively newer approach, with commercially available systems becoming available only in the early 2000s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_12DOI Listing
August 2019
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Active High-Density Electrode Arrays: Technology and Applications in Neuronal Cell Cultures.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:253-273

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Italy.

Active high-density electrode arrays realized with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology provide electrophysiological recordings from several thousands of closely spaced microelectrodes. This has drastically advanced the spatiotemporal recording resolution of conventional multielectrode arrays (MEAs). Thus, today's electrophysiology in neuronal cultures can exploit label-free electrical readouts from a large number of single neurons within the same network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_11DOI Listing
August 2019
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Open-Source Tools for Processing and Analysis of In Vitro Extracellular Neuronal Signals.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:233-250

NeuroChip Lab, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The recent years have seen unprecedented growth in the manufacturing of neurotechnological tools. The latest technological advancements presented the neuroscientific community with neuronal probes containing thousands of recording sites. These next-generation probes are capable of simultaneously recording neuronal signals from a large number of channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_10DOI Listing
August 2019
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Reconstruction of Functional Connectivity from Multielectrode Recordings and Calcium Imaging.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:207-231

Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, System Engineering (DIBRIS), University of Genova, Genoa, Italy.

In the last two decades, increasing research efforts in neuroscience have been focused on determining both structural and functional connectivity of brain circuits, with the main goal of relating the wiring diagram of neuronal systems to their emerging properties, from the microscale to the macroscale. While combining multisite parallel recordings with structural circuits' reconstruction in vivo is still very challenging, the reductionist in vitro approach based on neuronal cultures offers lower technical difficulties and is much more stable under control conditions. In this chapter, we present different approaches to infer the connectivity of cultured neuronal networks using multielectrode array or calcium imaging recordings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_9DOI Listing
August 2019
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Burst Detection Methods.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:185-206

Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

'Bursting', defined as periods of high-frequency firing of a neuron separated by periods of quiescence, has been observed in various neuronal systems, both in vitro and in vivo. It has been associated with a range of neuronal processes, including efficient information transfer and the formation of functional networks during development, and has been shown to be sensitive to genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Accurate detection of periods of bursting activity is thus an important aspect of characterising both spontaneous and evoked neuronal network activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_8DOI Listing
August 2019
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Scaling Spike Detection and Sorting for Next-Generation Electrophysiology.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:171-184

Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Reliable spike detection and sorting, the process of assigning each detected spike to its originating neuron, are essential steps in the analysis of extracellular electrical recordings from neurons. The volume and complexity of the data from recently developed large-scale, high-density microelectrode arrays and probes, which allow recording from thousands of channels simultaneously, substantially complicate this task conceptually and computationally. This chapter provides a summary and discussion of recently developed methods to tackle these challenges and discusses the important aspect of algorithm validation, and assessment of detection and sorting quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_7DOI Listing
August 2019
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From MEAs to MOAs: The Next Generation of Bioelectronic Interfaces for Neuronal Cultures.

Adv Neurobiol 2019 ;22:155-167

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Since their introduction in the early 1970s, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been dominating the electrophysiology market thanks to their reliability, extreme robustness, and usability. Over the past 40 years, silicon technology has also played a role in the advancement of the field, and CMOS-based in vitro and in vivo systems are now able to achieve unprecedented spatial resolutions, giving the possibility to unveil hidden behavior of cellular aggregates down to the subcellular level. However, both the MEAs and silicon-based electronic devices present unavoidable problems such as their expensiveness, the usual rigidity of the employed materials, and the need of an (usually bulky) external reference electrode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11135-9_6DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads