867 results match your criteria Advances in immunology[Journal]


Unraveling the mysteries of plasma cells.

Adv Immunol 2020 27;146:57-107. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Division of Molecular Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Nikolaus-Fiebiger Center, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Antibody-secreting plasma cells are the central pillars of humoral immunity. They are generated in a fundamental cellular restructuring process from naive B cells upon contact with antigen. This outstanding process is guided and controlled by a complex transcriptional network accompanied by a fascinating morphological metamorphosis, governed by the combined action of Blimp-1, Xbp-1 and IRF-4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2020.01.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Friend or foe? Lactobacillus in the context of autoimmune disease.

Adv Immunol 2020 19;146:29-56. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Over the last decade, the interplay between the gut microbiota, the consortium of intestinal microbes that colonizes intestinal mucosal barriers, and its host immune system has been increasingly better understood. Disruption of the delicate balance between beneficial and pathogenic commensals, known as dysbiosis, contributes to a variety of chronic immunologic and metabolic diseases. Complicating this paradigm are bacterial strains that can operate paradoxically both as instigators and attenuators of inflammatory responses, depending on host background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2020.02.002DOI Listing

Homeostatic and pathogenic roles of PI3Kδ in the human immune system.

Adv Immunol 2020 19;146:109-137. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical University, Hannover, Germany.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) mediates signaling transduction downstream of diverse immune receptors, including the T cell receptor (TCR), the B cell receptor (BCR), costimulatory molecules and cytokine receptors. Our understanding of the role of PI3Kδ in the immune system comes primarily from mice, and especially from the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kδ in mouse models of human disease as well as the consequences of genetic manipulation, resulting in hyperactivation or loss of PI3Kδ function. In case of humans, in vitro studies with PI3Kδ-specific inhibitors, the consequences of treatment of hematologic malignancies with the PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor idelalisib and primary immunodeficiency disorders due to germline variants hyper- or underactivating PI3Kδ provide most of our knowledge on the role of PI3Kδ in immunity and immune regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2020.02.001DOI Listing

Transcriptional regulation of natural killer cell development and maturation.

Adv Immunol 2020 26;146:1-28. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology and Committee on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that respond rapidly to intracellular pathogens or cancer/stressed cells by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines and by killing target cells through direct cytolysis. NK cells are distinct from B and T lymphocytes in that they become activated through a series of broadly expressed germ line encoded activating and inhibitory receptors or through the actions of inflammatory cytokines. They are the founding member of the innate lymphoid cell family, which mirror the functions of T lymphocytes, with NK cells being the innate counterpart to CD8 T lymphocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2020.01.001DOI Listing
February 2020

Fine-tuning of antiviral innate immunity by ubiquitination.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:95-128. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province & Department of Immunology, the School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

The innate immune system represents the first defense line of the host following viral infection. The infection triggers the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from the viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the host cell. The interaction between viral PAMPs and PRRs evokes a sophisticated signal transduction system and eventually promotes the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.004DOI Listing

The strategies of targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome to treat inflammatory diseases.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:55-93. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Division of Life Science and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; CAS Centre for Excellence in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex, the assembly of which can be initiated in response to various exogenous or endogenous danger signals. Excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human inflammatory diseases, suggesting that the NLRP3 inflammasome is a potential target for the treatment of these diseases. However, clinical drugs targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome are still not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.003DOI Listing

Tissue-resident NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:37-53. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, The CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Institute of Immunology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate effectors for their defense against pathogens and tumors without the need of prior sensitization. Along with the growing understanding of basic NK cell biology, it has been widely accepted that NK cells are a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family. Apart from the conventional NK cell (cNK) subset that circulates throughout the body, some non-lymphoid tissues contain tissue-resident NK (trNK) cell subsets, and the composition of NK cell subsets varies greatly with different locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.002DOI Listing

Metalloimmunology: The metal ion-controlled immunity.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:187-241. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Metals are essential components in all forms of life required for the function of nearly half of all enzymes and are critically involved in virtually all fundamental biological processes. Especially, the transition metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) are crucial micronutrients known to play vital roles in metabolism as well due to their unique redox properties. Metals carry out three major functions within metalloproteins: to provide structural support, to serve as enzymatic cofactors, and to mediate electron transportation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.007DOI Listing

Regulation of MHC class I-independent NK cell education by SLAM family receptors.

Adv Immunol 2020 13;145:159-185. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

School of Medicine and Institute for Immunology, Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Seven members of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors (SFRs) are ubiquitously expressed on hematopoietic cells and they play critical roles in immune cell differentiation and activation. The engagement of these receptors transmits intracellular signaling mainly by recruiting SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and its related adaptors, EWS-FLI1-activated transcript-2 (EAT-2) and EAT-2-related transducer (ERT). The critical roles of SFRs and SAP-family adaptors are highlighted by the discovery that SAP is mutated in human X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP1) disease in which the contact between T and B cells in germinal center and cytotoxic lymphocytes (NK cells and CD8 T cells) function are severely compromised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.006DOI Listing

Metabolic regulation of innate immunity.

Adv Immunol 2020 5;145:129-157. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Immune responses are often accompanied by radical changes of cellular metabolism of immune cells. On the other hand, an ever increasing number of metabolic pathways and products have been found to possess immune regulatory functions. The field of immunometabolism that investigates the interplay between metabolism and immunity has developed rapidly during the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.005DOI Listing

Deciphering the pathways to antiviral innate immunity and inflammation.

Adv Immunol 2020 3;145:1-36. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Research Institute, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

The antiviral innate immune and inflammatory responses are critical for host defense against viral infection. How these antiviral responses are initiated and regulated has been intensively investigated. Viral nucleic acids are sensed by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger various signaling pathways by utilizing distinct adaptor proteins, kinases and regulatory proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.11.001DOI Listing

Non-canonical Hippo signaling regulates immune responses.

Authors:
Lanfen Chen

Adv Immunol 2019 20;144:87-119. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.. Electronic address:

The Hippo signaling pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in controlling organ size and maintaining tissue homeostasis in multiple organisms ranging from Drosophila to mammals. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that Hippo signaling is also essential for maintaining the immune system homeostasis. Unlike the canonical Mst-Lats-Yap signal pathway, which controls tissue growth during development and regeneration, most studies regarding Hippo signaling in immune regulation is focusing in Mst1/2, the core kinases of Hippo signaling, cross-talking with other signaling pathways in various immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.07.001DOI Listing

Ionic protein-lipid interactions at the plasma membrane regulate the structure and function of immunoreceptors.

Adv Immunol 2019 18;144:65-85. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Science Research Center, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China; Fountain-Valley Institute for Life Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Adaptive lymphocytes express a panel of immunoreceptors on the cell surface. Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes, but they have functional roles beyond forming lipid bilayers. In particular, acidic phospholipids forming microdomains in the plasma membrane can ionically interact with proteins via polybasic sequences, which can have functional consequences for the protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.007DOI Listing

B cell mechanosensing: A mechanistic overview.

Adv Immunol 2019 ;144:23-63

Center for life sciences, MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Institute for Immunology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

B cells are essential to the adaptive immune system for providing the humoral immunity against cohorts of pathogens. The presentation of antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR) leads to the initiation of B cell activation, which is a process sensitive to the stiffness features of the substrates presenting the antigens. Mechanosensing of the B cells, potentiated through BCR signaling and the adhesion molecules, efficiently regulates B cell activation, proliferation and subsequent antibody responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.003DOI Listing

Understanding tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by single cell RNA sequencing.

Adv Immunol 2019 12;144:217-245. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Genomics, Peking-Tsinghua Centre for Life Sciences, Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center (BIOPIC), School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade provides great hope for curing cancers. However, the patient responses are not even. Precise understanding of tumor immunity is necessary to improving the current cancer immunotherapies and to developing new treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.004DOI Listing

Autoimmune diseases in China.

Adv Immunol 2019 18;144:173-216. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Rheumatism Mechanism and Immune Diagnosis (BZ0135), Beijing, China.

Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systematic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome, are a group of diseases characterized by the activation of immune cells and excessive production of autoantibodies. Although the pathogenesis of these diseases is still not completely understood, studies have shown that multiple factors including genetics, environment and immune responses play important roles in the development and progression of the diseases. In China, there are great achievements in the mechanisms of autoimmune diseases during the last decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.09.002DOI Listing

T cell immune response within B-cell follicles.

Adv Immunol 2019 16;144:155-171. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Institute of Immunology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

B-cell follicle represents a functionally dynamic microstructure within second lymphoid tissues, predominantly consisting of B cells, follicular T cells and DCs. Through intimate interactions with cognate B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh) initiate and facilitate germinal center (GC) reactions by providing signals required for producing high-affinity antibodies, as well as for the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. Concomitantly, germinal center reaction needs to be fine controlled to avoid autoimmunity or B-cell malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.008DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms of T helper 17 cell differentiation: Emerging roles for transcription cofactors.

Adv Immunol 2019 18;144:121-153. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

T helper 17 (Th17) cells, characterized by secretion of IL-17 and IL-17F, are a specialized CD4 effector T cell lineage that not only facilitates host defense against pathogen infection and maintenance of mucosal barrier, but also potently induces tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Since its discovery in 2005, the developmental program of Th17 cells has been characterized, which involves a number of key cytokines, transcription factors and multiple layers of epigenetic modifications. However, how these mechanisms integrate into the complex regulatory network in Th17 cells has not been well defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.09.003DOI Listing

Thymocyte selection: From signaling to epigenetic regulation.

Adv Immunol 2019 15;144:1-22. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Institute of Immunology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Zhejiang University-University of Edinburgh Institute, Zhejiang University, Haining, China; Department of Dermatology and Rheumatology in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

During thymocyte development at the double positive stage, thymocytes are subjected to a TCR quality check process termed "thymocyte selection." TCRs with proper binding capabilities to MHC molecules (with self-peptide) are able to transduce cell survival signals and allow the continuing of development to single positive T cells. It has been known that TCRs in DP cells can transduce signals with higher efficiency than peripheral mature T cells, even though they share most of the signaling components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.005DOI Listing

Models of dendritic cell development correlate ontogeny with function.

Adv Immunol 2019 16;143:99-119. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Rapid advances have been made to uncover the mechanisms that regulate dendritic cell (DC) development, and in turn, how models of development can be employed to define dendritic cell function. Models of DC development have been used to define the unique functions of DC subsets during immune responses to distinct pathogens. More recently, models of DC function have expanded to include their homeostatic and inflammatory physiology, modes of communication with various innate and adaptive immune lineages, and specialized functions across different lymphoid organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.09.001DOI Listing

Origin and function of synovial macrophage subsets during inflammatory joint disease.

Adv Immunol 2019 13;143:75-98. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Internal Medicine 3-Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.; Nikolaus Fiebiger Center of Molecular Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

Mononuclear phagocytes, including monocytes and macrophages, are a central component of the host's innate immune system designated to protect against invading pathogens. However, these cells do not only interact with various parts of the innate and adaptive immune system, but also fulfill indispensable duties during the control of tissue homeostasis and organ function. Moreover, macrophages are crucially involved in tissue remodeling and repair in response to damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.006DOI Listing

Antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope high mannose patch.

Adv Immunol 2019 11;143:11-73. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States; Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States; Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States. Electronic address:

Neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus subtype 1 (HIV-1) bind to its envelope glycoprotein (Env). Half of the molecular mass of Env is carbohydrate making it one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins known in nature. HIV-1 Env glycans are derived from the host and present a formidable challenge for host anti-glycan antibody induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.002DOI Listing
May 2020
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Neuronal regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation.

Adv Immunol 2019 16;143:1-9. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY, United States; Friedman Center for Nutrition and Inflammation, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Diverse infectious, inflammatory, and environmental stimuli induce type 2 inflammation in the body. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are potent producers of type 2 cytokines and play important roles in promoting type 2 inflammation. In addition to alarmins and other cytokines which are known to regulate ILC2 responses, emerging studies identified the regulation of ILC2s by the nervous system through neurotransmitter and neuropeptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.08.001DOI Listing

Airway mycosis in allergic airway disease.

Adv Immunol 2019 29;142:85-140. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Biology of Inflammation Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Michael E. DeBakey VA Center for Translational Research on Inflammatory Diseases, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

The allergic airway diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and many others, comprise a heterogeneous collection of inflammatory disorders affecting the upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma that represent the most common chronic diseases of humanity. In addition to their shared tissue tropism, the allergic airway diseases are characterized by a distinct pattern of inflammation involving the accumulation of eosinophils, type 2 macrophages, innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), IgE-secreting B cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in airway tissues, and the prominent production of type 2 cytokines including interleukin (IL-) 33, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and many others. These factors and related inflammatory molecules induce characteristic remodeling and other changes of the airways that include goblet cell metaplasia, enhanced mucus secretion, smooth muscle hypertrophy, tissue swelling and polyp formation that account for the major clinical manifestations of nasal obstruction, headache, hyposmia, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, wheezing, and, in the most severe cases of lower airway disease, death due to respiratory failure or disseminated, systemic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.05.002DOI Listing
April 2020
13 Reads

Roles of cysteinyl leukotrienes and their receptors in immune cell-related functions.

Adv Immunol 2019 14;142:65-84. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), leukotriene C, (LTC), LTD, and LTE, are lipid mediators of inflammation. LTC is the only intracellularly synthesized cys-LT through the 5-lipoxygenase and LTC synthase pathway and after transport is metabolized to LTD and LTE by specific extracellular peptidases. Each cys-LT has a preferred functional receptor in vivo; LTD to the type 1 cys-LT receptor (CysLTR), LTC to CysLTR, and LTE to CysLTR (OXGR1 or GPR99). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2020
4 Reads

Deconstructing the sex bias in allergy and autoimmunity: From sex hormones and beyond.

Adv Immunol 2019 3;142:35-64. Epub 2019 May 3.

Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan (CPTP), Université de Toulouse, INSERM, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Men and women differ in their susceptibility to develop autoimmunity and allergy but also in their capacity to cope with infections. Mechanisms responsible for this sexual dimorphism are still poorly documented and probably multifactorial. This review discusses the recent development in our understanding of the cell-intrinsic actions of biological factors linked to sex, sex hormones and sex chromosome complement, on immune cells, which may account for the sex differences in the enhanced susceptibility of women to develop immunological disorders, such as allergic asthma or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2020
2 Reads

The airway epithelium in asthma.

Adv Immunol 2019 1;142:1-34. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Lung Biology Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Asthma is a genetically and phenotypically complex disease that has a major impact on global health. Signs and symptoms of asthma are caused by the obstruction of airflow through the airways. The epithelium that lines the airways plays a major role in maintaining airway patency and in host defense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.05.001DOI Listing
April 2020
15 Reads

Cis- and trans-factors affecting AID targeting and mutagenic outcomes in antibody diversification.

Adv Immunol 2019 11;141:51-103. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Antigen receptor diversification is a hallmark of adaptive immunity which allows specificity of the receptor to particular antigen. B cell receptor (BCR) or its secreted form, antibody, is diversified through antigen-independent and antigen-dependent mechanisms. During B cell development in bone marrow, BCR is diversified via V(D)J recombination mediated by RAG endonuclease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2020
3 Reads

Transcription factories in Igκ allelic choice and diversity.

Adv Immunol 2019 19;141:33-49. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Section of Rheumatology and Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

The vertebrate immune system is tasked with the challenge of responding to any pathogen the organism might encounter, and retaining memory of that pathogen in case of future infection. Recognition and memory of pathogens are encoded within the adaptive immune system and production of T and B lymphocytes with diverse antigen receptor repertoires. In B lymphocytes, diversity is generated by sequential recombination between Variable (V), Diversity (D) and Joining (J) gene segments in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (Igh) and subsequent V-J recombination in immunoglobulin light chain genes (Igκ followed by Igλ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699622PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

Signaling control of antibody isotype switching.

Adv Immunol 2019 11;141:105-164. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States. Electronic address:

Class switch recombination (CSR) generates isotype-switched antibodies with distinct effector functions essential for mediating effective humoral immunity. CSR is catalyzed by activation-induced deaminase (AID) that initiates DNA lesions in the evolutionarily conserved switch (S) regions at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. AID-initiated DNA lesions are subsequently converted into DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) in the S regions of Igh locus, repaired by non-homologous end-joining to effect CSR in mammalian B lymphocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2020
3 Reads

Multilayer regulation of CD4 T cell subset differentiation in the era of single cell genomics.

Adv Immunol 2019 3;141:1-31. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

CD4 T cells are major immune cell types that mediate effector responses appropriate for diverse incoming threats. These cells have been categorized into different subsets based on how they are induced, expression of specific master transcription factors, and the resulting effector cell phenotypes as defined by expression of signature cytokines. However, recent studies assessing the expression of gene modules in single CD4 T cells, rather than expression of one or a few signature genes, have provided a more complex picture in which the canonical model does not fit as cleanly as proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.12.001DOI Listing
March 2020
2 Reads

The Fly Way of Antiviral Resistance and Disease Tolerance.

Adv Immunol 2018 18;140:59-93. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Like humans, insects face the threat of viral infection. Despite having repercussions on human health and disease, knowledge gaps exist for how insects cope with viral pathogens. Drosophila melanogaster serves as an ideal insect model due to its genetic tractability. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698369PMC
September 2019
33 Reads

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily in T Cell Priming and Effector Function.

Adv Immunol 2018 17;140:21-57. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Immunology Training Program, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and their ligands mediate lymphoid tissue development and homeostasis in addition to key aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses. T cells of the adaptive immune system express a number of TNFRSF members that are used to receive signals at different instructive stages and produce several tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members as effector molecules. There is also one example of a TNFRSF member serving as a ligand for negative regulatory checkpoint receptors. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776183002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.08.001DOI Listing
September 2019
30 Reads

New Insights Into the Biology of CD8 Regulatory T Cells.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;140:1-20. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Regulatory T cells are central mediators of immune regulation and play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the steady state and under pathophysiological conditions. Disruption of CD8 Treg-dependent recognition of Qa-1-restricted self-antigens can result in dysregulated immune responses, tissue damage, autoimmune disease and cancer. Recent progress in studies on regulatory T cells of the CD8 lineage has provided new biological insight into this specialized regulatory T cell subpopulation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.09.001DOI Listing
September 2019
30 Reads

RAG Chromatin Scanning During V(D)J Recombination and Chromatin Loop Extrusion are Related Processes.

Adv Immunol 2018 27;139:93-135. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

An effective adaptive immune system depends on the ability of developing B and T cells to generate diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor repertoires, respectively. Such diversity is achieved through a programmed somatic recombination process whereby germline V, D, and J segments of antigen receptor loci are assembled to form the variable region V(D)J exons of Ig and TCRs. Studies of this process, termed V(D)J recombination, have provided key insights into our understanding of a variety of general gene regulatory and DNA repair processes over the last several decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.07.001DOI Listing
September 2019
4 Reads

The First B-Cell Tolerance Checkpoint in Mice and Humans: Control by AID.

Adv Immunol 2018 7;139:51-92. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States; Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States. Electronic address:

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression in the germinal center response drives the immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and V(D)J hypermutation necessary for efficacious, high-affinity antibody responses. That AID is expressed in developing lymphocytes is less well known, but represents an evolutionarily conserved pattern of lymphocyte development that is represented in all vertebrate species. Here we review the role of early, developmentally regulated AID expression in mice and humans and its role in establishing the first B-cell tolerance checkpoint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.04.001DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

The Microglial Response to Neurodegenerative Disease.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;139:1-50. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Microglia are a subset of tissue macrophages that constitute the major immune cell type of the central nervous system. These cells have long been known to change their morphology and functions in response to various neurological insults. Recently, a plethora of unbiased transcriptomics studies have revealed that across a broad spectrum of neurodegeneration-like disease models, microglia adopt a similar activation signature and perform similar functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.04.002DOI Listing
September 2019
6 Reads

Molecular Classification of Primary Immunodeficiencies of T Lymphocytes.

Adv Immunol 2018 29;138:99-193. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Molecular Development of the Immune System Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Clinical Genomics Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Proper regulation of the immune system is required for protection against pathogens and preventing autoimmune disorders. Inborn errors of the immune system due to inherited or de novo germline mutations can lead to the loss of protective immunity, aberrant immune homeostasis, and the development of autoimmune disease, or combinations of these. Forward genetic screens involving clinical material from patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) can vary in severity from life-threatening disease affecting multiple cell types and organs to relatively mild disease with susceptibility to a limited range of pathogens or mild autoimmune conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.02.003DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Chemokines: Critical Regulators of Memory T Cell Development, Maintenance, and Function.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:71-98. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Divison of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Memory T cells are central to orchestrating antigen-specific recall responses in vivo. Compared to naïve T cells, memory T cells respond more quickly to cognate peptide:MHC with a shorter lag time for entering the cell cycle and exerting effector functions. However, it is now well established that this enhanced responsiveness is not the only mechanism whereby memory T cells are better equipped than naïve T cells to rapidly and robustly induce inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191293PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

Unexpected Roles for Intracellular Complement in the Regulation of Th1 Responses.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:35-70. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States; Division of Transplant Immunology and Mucosal Biology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Institute for Systemic Inflammation Research, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

The complement system is generally recognized as an evolutionarily ancient and critical part of innate immunity required for the removal of pathogens that have breached the protective host barriers. It was originally defined as a liver-derived serum surveillance system that induces the opsonization and killing of invading microbes and amplifies the general inflammatory reactions. However, studies spanning the last four decades have established complement also as a vital bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.02.001DOI Listing
September 2019
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Molecular Aspects of Allergens and Allergy.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:195-256. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Institute of Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy is the most common immune disorder. More than 30% of the population suffer from symptoms of allergy which are often severe, disabling, and life threatening such as asthma and anaphylaxis. Population-based birth cohort studies show that up to 60% of the world population exhibit IgE sensitization to allergens, of which most are protein antigens. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776183001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.03.002DOI Listing
September 2019
47 Reads

Eosinophil Development, Disease Involvement, and Therapeutic Suppression.

Adv Immunol 2018 22;138:1-34. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Human eosinophils have characteristic morphologic features, including a bilobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules filled with cytotoxic and immunoregulatory proteins that are packaged in a specific manner. Eosinophil production in the bone marrow is exquisitely regulated by timely expression of a repertoire of transcription factors that work together via collaborative and hierarchical interactions to direct eosinophil development. In addition, proper granule formation, which occurs in a spatially organized manner, is an intrinsic checkpoint that must be passed for proper eosinophil production to occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.03.001DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Caveolin-1: The Unnoticed Player in TCR and BCR Signaling.

Adv Immunol 2018 13;137:83-133. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Institute for Biology III, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Centre for Biological Signalling Studies BIOSS, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.002DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

The Fate Choice Between Effector and Memory T Cell Lineages: Asymmetry, Signal Integration, and Feedback to Create Bistability.

Adv Immunol 2018 1;137:43-82. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

CD8 T cells clear primary infections with intracellular pathogens and provide long-term immunity against reinfection. Two different types of CD8 T cells are responsible for these functions: short-lived effector T cells and memory T cells. The cellular relationship between these two types of CD8 T cells has been subject to much investigation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776173006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.003DOI Listing
September 2019
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The Unusual Genetics and Biochemistry of Bovine Immunoglobulins.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;137:135-164. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Antibodies are the key circulating molecules that have evolved to fight infection by the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Typical antibodies of most species contain six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), where the third CDR of the heavy chain (CDR H3) has the greatest diversity and often makes the most significant contact with antigen. Generally, the process of V(D)J recombination produces a vast repertoire of antibodies; multiple V, D, and J gene segments recombine with additional junctional diversity at the V-D and D-J joints, and additional combinatorial possibilities occur through heavy- and light-chain pairing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935254PMC
September 2019
30 Reads

Single-Cell Resolution of T Cell Immune Responses.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;137:1-41. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Single antigen-specific B or T lymphocytes are the smallest functional units, into which an adaptive immune response can be dissected. Today, novel high-throughput technologies are providing researches with increasingly complex information on the diverse phenotypic signatures of individual lymphocytes. With a focus on T cells, we summarize here, how computational approaches are becoming increasingly important to identify the relevant developmental boundaries and connections between these high-dimensional lymphocyte states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.001DOI Listing
September 2019
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Preface.

Authors:
Arun K Shukla

Adv Immunol 2017 ;136:xi-xii

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(17)30060-3DOI Listing
June 2018
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P2Y Receptors in Immune Response and Inflammation.

Adv Immunol 2017 10;136:85-121. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Metabotropic pyrimidine and purine nucleotide receptors (P2Y receptors) are expressed in virtually all cells with implications in very diverse biological functions, including the well-established platelet aggregation (P2Y12), but also immune regulation and inflammation. The classical P2Y receptors bind nucleotides and are encoded by eight genes with limited sequence homology, while phylogenetically related receptors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.006DOI Listing
May 2018
10 Reads

Roles of NHERF Family of PDZ-Binding Proteins in Regulating GPCR Functions.

Adv Immunol 2017 11;136:353-385. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Multicellular organisms are equipped with an array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate cell-cell signaling allowing them to adapt to environmental cues and ultimately survive. This is mechanistically possible through complex intracellular GPCR machinery that encompasses a vast network of proteins. Within this network, there is a group called scaffolding proteins that facilitate proper localization of signaling proteins for a quick and robust GPCR response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.008DOI Listing
May 2018
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Emerging Roles of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins in the Immune System.

Authors:
Kirk M Druey

Adv Immunol 2017 29;136:315-351. Epub 2017 May 29.

Molecular Signal Transduction Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a large, evolutionarily conserved group of intracellular proteins expressed in every cell type and tissue throughout the body including the immune system. Through their signature GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity on heterotrimeric G proteins and interactions with signaling complexes and membrane constituents (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.001DOI Listing
May 2018
15 Reads