840 results match your criteria Advances in immunology[Journal]


Cis- and trans-factors affecting AID targeting and mutagenic outcomes in antibody diversification.

Adv Immunol 2019 11;141:51-103. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Antigen receptor diversification is a hallmark of adaptive immunity which allows specificity of the receptor to particular antigen. B cell receptor (BCR) or its secreted form, antibody, is diversified through antigen-independent and antigen-dependent mechanisms. During B cell development in bone marrow, BCR is diversified via V(D)J recombination mediated by RAG endonuclease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Transcription factories in Igκ allelic choice and diversity.

Adv Immunol 2019 19;141:33-49. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Section of Rheumatology and Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

The vertebrate immune system is tasked with the challenge of responding to any pathogen the organism might encounter, and retaining memory of that pathogen in case of future infection. Recognition and memory of pathogens are encoded within the adaptive immune system and production of T and B lymphocytes with diverse antigen receptor repertoires. In B lymphocytes, diversity is generated by sequential recombination between Variable (V), Diversity (D) and Joining (J) gene segments in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (Igh) and subsequent V-J recombination in immunoglobulin light chain genes (Igκ followed by Igλ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Signaling control of antibody isotype switching.

Adv Immunol 2019 11;141:105-164. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States. Electronic address:

Class switch recombination (CSR) generates isotype-switched antibodies with distinct effector functions essential for mediating effective humoral immunity. CSR is catalyzed by activation-induced deaminase (AID) that initiates DNA lesions in the evolutionarily conserved switch (S) regions at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. AID-initiated DNA lesions are subsequently converted into DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) in the S regions of Igh locus, repaired by non-homologous end-joining to effect CSR in mammalian B lymphocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Multilayer regulation of CD4 T cell subset differentiation in the era of single cell genomics.

Adv Immunol 2019 3;141:1-31. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

CD4 T cells are major immune cell types that mediate effector responses appropriate for diverse incoming threats. These cells have been categorized into different subsets based on how they are induced, expression of specific master transcription factors, and the resulting effector cell phenotypes as defined by expression of signature cytokines. However, recent studies assessing the expression of gene modules in single CD4 T cells, rather than expression of one or a few signature genes, have provided a more complex picture in which the canonical model does not fit as cleanly as proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019

The Fly Way of Antiviral Resistance and Disease Tolerance.

Adv Immunol 2018 18;140:59-93. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Like humans, insects face the threat of viral infection. Despite having repercussions on human health and disease, knowledge gaps exist for how insects cope with viral pathogens. Drosophila melanogaster serves as an ideal insect model due to its genetic tractability. Read More

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September 2018
19 Reads

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily in T Cell Priming and Effector Function.

Adv Immunol 2018 17;140:21-57. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Immunology Training Program, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and their ligands mediate lymphoid tissue development and homeostasis in addition to key aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses. T cells of the adaptive immune system express a number of TNFRSF members that are used to receive signals at different instructive stages and produce several tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members as effector molecules. There is also one example of a TNFRSF member serving as a ligand for negative regulatory checkpoint receptors. Read More

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September 2018
16 Reads

New Insights Into the Biology of CD8 Regulatory T Cells.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;140:1-20. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Regulatory T cells are central mediators of immune regulation and play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the steady state and under pathophysiological conditions. Disruption of CD8 Treg-dependent recognition of Qa-1-restricted self-antigens can result in dysregulated immune responses, tissue damage, autoimmune disease and cancer. Recent progress in studies on regulatory T cells of the CD8 lineage has provided new biological insight into this specialized regulatory T cell subpopulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.09.001DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

RAG Chromatin Scanning During V(D)J Recombination and Chromatin Loop Extrusion are Related Processes.

Adv Immunol 2018 27;139:93-135. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

An effective adaptive immune system depends on the ability of developing B and T cells to generate diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor repertoires, respectively. Such diversity is achieved through a programmed somatic recombination process whereby germline V, D, and J segments of antigen receptor loci are assembled to form the variable region V(D)J exons of Ig and TCRs. Studies of this process, termed V(D)J recombination, have provided key insights into our understanding of a variety of general gene regulatory and DNA repair processes over the last several decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.07.001DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

The First B-Cell Tolerance Checkpoint in Mice and Humans: Control by AID.

Adv Immunol 2018 7;139:51-92. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States; Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States. Electronic address:

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression in the germinal center response drives the immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and V(D)J hypermutation necessary for efficacious, high-affinity antibody responses. That AID is expressed in developing lymphocytes is less well known, but represents an evolutionarily conserved pattern of lymphocyte development that is represented in all vertebrate species. Here we review the role of early, developmentally regulated AID expression in mice and humans and its role in establishing the first B-cell tolerance checkpoint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.04.001DOI Listing

The Microglial Response to Neurodegenerative Disease.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;139:1-50. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Microglia are a subset of tissue macrophages that constitute the major immune cell type of the central nervous system. These cells have long been known to change their morphology and functions in response to various neurological insults. Recently, a plethora of unbiased transcriptomics studies have revealed that across a broad spectrum of neurodegeneration-like disease models, microglia adopt a similar activation signature and perform similar functions. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Molecular Classification of Primary Immunodeficiencies of T Lymphocytes.

Adv Immunol 2018 29;138:99-193. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Molecular Development of the Immune System Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Clinical Genomics Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Proper regulation of the immune system is required for protection against pathogens and preventing autoimmune disorders. Inborn errors of the immune system due to inherited or de novo germline mutations can lead to the loss of protective immunity, aberrant immune homeostasis, and the development of autoimmune disease, or combinations of these. Forward genetic screens involving clinical material from patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) can vary in severity from life-threatening disease affecting multiple cell types and organs to relatively mild disease with susceptibility to a limited range of pathogens or mild autoimmune conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.02.003DOI Listing
March 2018
1 Read

Chemokines: Critical Regulators of Memory T Cell Development, Maintenance, and Function.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:71-98. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Divison of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Memory T cells are central to orchestrating antigen-specific recall responses in vivo. Compared to naïve T cells, memory T cells respond more quickly to cognate peptide:MHC with a shorter lag time for entering the cell cycle and exerting effector functions. However, it is now well established that this enhanced responsiveness is not the only mechanism whereby memory T cells are better equipped than naïve T cells to rapidly and robustly induce inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191293PMC
March 2018
1 Read

Unexpected Roles for Intracellular Complement in the Regulation of Th1 Responses.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:35-70. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States; Division of Transplant Immunology and Mucosal Biology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Institute for Systemic Inflammation Research, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

The complement system is generally recognized as an evolutionarily ancient and critical part of innate immunity required for the removal of pathogens that have breached the protective host barriers. It was originally defined as a liver-derived serum surveillance system that induces the opsonization and killing of invading microbes and amplifies the general inflammatory reactions. However, studies spanning the last four decades have established complement also as a vital bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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Molecular Aspects of Allergens and Allergy.

Adv Immunol 2018 26;138:195-256. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Institute of Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy is the most common immune disorder. More than 30% of the population suffer from symptoms of allergy which are often severe, disabling, and life threatening such as asthma and anaphylaxis. Population-based birth cohort studies show that up to 60% of the world population exhibit IgE sensitization to allergens, of which most are protein antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2018.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392175PMC
April 2018
18 Reads

Eosinophil Development, Disease Involvement, and Therapeutic Suppression.

Adv Immunol 2018 22;138:1-34. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Human eosinophils have characteristic morphologic features, including a bilobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules filled with cytotoxic and immunoregulatory proteins that are packaged in a specific manner. Eosinophil production in the bone marrow is exquisitely regulated by timely expression of a repertoire of transcription factors that work together via collaborative and hierarchical interactions to direct eosinophil development. In addition, proper granule formation, which occurs in a spatially organized manner, is an intrinsic checkpoint that must be passed for proper eosinophil production to occur. Read More

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Caveolin-1: The Unnoticed Player in TCR and BCR Signaling.

Adv Immunol 2018 13;137:83-133. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Institute for Biology III, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Centre for Biological Signalling Studies BIOSS, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.002DOI Listing
February 2018

The Fate Choice Between Effector and Memory T Cell Lineages: Asymmetry, Signal Integration, and Feedback to Create Bistability.

Adv Immunol 2018 1;137:43-82. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

CD8 T cells clear primary infections with intracellular pathogens and provide long-term immunity against reinfection. Two different types of CD8 T cells are responsible for these functions: short-lived effector T cells and memory T cells. The cellular relationship between these two types of CD8 T cells has been subject to much investigation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776173006
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February 2018
7 Reads

The Unusual Genetics and Biochemistry of Bovine Immunoglobulins.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;137:135-164. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Antibodies are the key circulating molecules that have evolved to fight infection by the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Typical antibodies of most species contain six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), where the third CDR of the heavy chain (CDR H3) has the greatest diversity and often makes the most significant contact with antigen. Generally, the process of V(D)J recombination produces a vast repertoire of antibodies; multiple V, D, and J gene segments recombine with additional junctional diversity at the V-D and D-J joints, and additional combinatorial possibilities occur through heavy- and light-chain pairing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935254PMC
February 2018
5 Reads

Single-Cell Resolution of T Cell Immune Responses.

Adv Immunol 2018 9;137:1-41. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Single antigen-specific B or T lymphocytes are the smallest functional units, into which an adaptive immune response can be dissected. Today, novel high-throughput technologies are providing researches with increasingly complex information on the diverse phenotypic signatures of individual lymphocytes. With a focus on T cells, we summarize here, how computational approaches are becoming increasingly important to identify the relevant developmental boundaries and connections between these high-dimensional lymphocyte states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.12.001DOI Listing
January 2018

Preface.

Authors:
Arun K Shukla

Adv Immunol 2017 ;136:xi-xii

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(17)30060-3DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

P2Y Receptors in Immune Response and Inflammation.

Adv Immunol 2017 10;136:85-121. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Metabotropic pyrimidine and purine nucleotide receptors (P2Y receptors) are expressed in virtually all cells with implications in very diverse biological functions, including the well-established platelet aggregation (P2Y12), but also immune regulation and inflammation. The classical P2Y receptors bind nucleotides and are encoded by eight genes with limited sequence homology, while phylogenetically related receptors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.006DOI Listing
May 2018
6 Reads

Roles of NHERF Family of PDZ-Binding Proteins in Regulating GPCR Functions.

Adv Immunol 2017 11;136:353-385. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Multicellular organisms are equipped with an array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate cell-cell signaling allowing them to adapt to environmental cues and ultimately survive. This is mechanistically possible through complex intracellular GPCR machinery that encompasses a vast network of proteins. Within this network, there is a group called scaffolding proteins that facilitate proper localization of signaling proteins for a quick and robust GPCR response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.008DOI Listing

Emerging Roles of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins in the Immune System.

Authors:
Kirk M Druey

Adv Immunol 2017 29;136:315-351. Epub 2017 May 29.

Molecular Signal Transduction Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a large, evolutionarily conserved group of intracellular proteins expressed in every cell type and tissue throughout the body including the immune system. Through their signature GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity on heterotrimeric G proteins and interactions with signaling complexes and membrane constituents (e.g. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

G Protein-Coupled Kinin Receptors and Immunity Against Pathogens.

Adv Immunol 2017 23;136:29-84. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Brazil.

For decades, immunologists have considered the complement system as a paradigm of a proteolytic cascade that, acting cooperatively with the immune system, enhances host defense against infectious organisms. In recent years, advances made in thrombosis research disclosed a functional link between activated neutrophils, monocytes, and platelet-driven thrombogenesis. Forging a physical barrier, the fibrin scaffolds generated by synergism between the extrinsic and intrinsic (contact) pathways of coagulation entrap microbes within microvessels, limiting the systemic spread of infection while enhancing the clearance of pathogens by activated leukocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.007DOI Listing
May 2018
23 Reads

Canonical and Noncanonical Signaling Roles of β-Arrestins in Inflammation and Immunity.

Adv Immunol 2017 17;136:279-313. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States. Electronic address:

β-Arrestins are a highly conserved family of cytosolic adaptor proteins that contribute to many immune functions by orchestrating the desensitization and internalization of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) via well-studied canonical interactions. In cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, β-arrestins also subserve a parallel but less understood role in which they propagate, rather than terminate, intracellular signal transduction cascades. Because β-arrestins are promiscuous in their binding, they are capable of interacting with several different GPCRs and downstream effectors; in doing so, they vastly expand the repertoire of cellular responses evoked by agonist binding and the scope of responses that may contribute to inflammation during infectious and sterile insults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.004DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in the Inflammatory Response and Signaling.

Adv Immunol 2017 10;136:227-277. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are serine/threonine kinases that regulate a large and diverse class of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Through GRK phosphorylation and β-arrestin recruitment, GPCRs are desensitized and their signal terminated. Recent work on these kinases has expanded their role from canonical GPCR regulation to include noncanonical regulation of non-GPCR and nonreceptor substrates through phosphorylation as well as via scaffolding functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5730335PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

GPCR Signaling in C. elegans and Its Implications in Immune Response.

Adv Immunol 2017 23;136:203-226. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Electronic address:

The ability to sense environmental cues is central to the survival of living organisms. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are, by far, the most diverse class of sensory receptors and play an important role in surveillance. As Caenorhabditis elegans lives in soil and feeds on bacteria, it must have strategies to differentiate between nutritious vs pathogenic bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.002DOI Listing
May 2018
10 Reads

Adhesion GPCRs in Regulating Immune Responses and Inflammation.

Adv Immunol 2017 13;136:163-201. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

The adhesion family comprises one of the five major clades of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Unlike conventional GPCRs, adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs) have extended ectodomains with various protein folds that facilitate protein-protein interactions and, hence, putative cellular adhesive functions. Juxtaposed to the seven-pass transmembrane domain is a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing domain that enables autoproteolytic cleavage of the receptor, resulting in a bipartite structure of many aGPCRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.005DOI Listing

Emerging Roles for MAS-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor-X2 in Host Defense Peptide, Opioid, and Neuropeptide-Mediated Inflammatory Reactions.

Authors:
Hydar Ali

Adv Immunol 2017 24;136:123-162. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident immune cells that contribute to host defense but are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In humans, MCs are divided into two subtypes based on the protease content of their secretory granules. Thus, human lung MCs contain only tryptase and are known as MC, whereas skin MCs contain both tryptase and chymase and are known as MC. Read More

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May 2018
28 Reads

β2-Adrenoceptor Function in Asthma.

Adv Immunol 2017 27;136:1-28. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

β2-adrenoceptor agonists, often used in combination with corticosteroids, have been extensively used for the treatment of asthma. However, concerns have been raised regarding their adverse effects and safety including poor asthma control, life-threatening exacerbations, exacerbations that often require hospitalization, and asthma-related deaths. The question as to whether these adverse effects relate to the loss of their bronchoprotective action remains an interesting possibility. Read More

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May 2018
7 Reads

A Mechanistic Understanding of Pyroptosis: The Fiery Death Triggered by Invasive Infection.

Adv Immunol 2017 24;135:81-117. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Immune cells and skin and mucosal epithelial cells recognize invasive microbes and other signs of danger to sound alarms that recruit responder cells and initiate an immediate "innate" immune response. An especially powerful alarm is triggered by cytosolic sensors of invasive infection that assemble into multimolecular complexes, called inflammasomes, that activate the inflammatory caspases, leading to maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis, an inflammatory death of the infected cell. Work in the past year has defined the molecular basis of pyroptosis. Read More

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November 2017
90 Reads

Complement System in Neural Synapse Elimination in Development and Disease.

Adv Immunol 2017 31;135:53-79. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Recent discoveries implicate the classical complement cascade in normal brain development and in disease. Complement proteins C1q, C3, and C4 participate in synapse elimination, tagging inappropriate synaptic connections between neurons for removal by phagocytic microglia that exist in a special, highly phagocytic state during the synaptic pruning period. Several neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to be caused by an imbalance in synaptic pruning, and recent studies suggest that dysregulation of complement could promote this synaptic pruning imbalance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.06.004DOI Listing
November 2017
38 Reads

Chemokine-Driven CD4 T Cell Homing: New Concepts and Recent Advances.

Adv Immunol 2017 28;135:119-181. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

The Chemokine Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

CD4 T cells are critical regulators of the adaptive immune system and have diverse roles in regulating responses to the broad array of microbes encountered. Appropriate execution of their effector function requires precise and coordinated migration of these cells to specific lymphoid niches and peripheral sites. This migration is largely controlled by dynamic expression of chemokine receptors and the discrete functions of distinct subsets of CD4 T cells can often be determined from their expression of specific chemokine receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.03.001DOI Listing
November 2017
7 Reads

Chromosome 17q21 Genes ORMDL3 and GSDMB in Asthma and Immune Diseases.

Adv Immunol 2017 19;135:1-52. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

University of California, San Diego, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Chromosome 17q21 contains a cluster of genes including ORMDL3 and GSDMB, which have been highly linked to asthma in genome-wide association studies. ORMDL3 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and regulates downstream pathways including sphingolipids, metalloproteases, remodeling genes, and chemokines. ORMDL3 inhibits serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for sphingolipid biosynthesis. Read More

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November 2017
20 Reads

Tissue-Specific Diversity and Functions of Conventional Dendritic Cells.

Adv Immunol 2017 27;134:89-135. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, Biomedical Center, Klinikum der Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Dendritic cells (DCs) are versatile controllers of immunity, which sense infection or tissue damage and, accordingly, initiate innate and adaptive effector responses. In recent years, it has become evident that DCs exist as an independent hematopoietic lineage comprising several developmentally distinct and functionally specialized subsets that are strategically located in all organs to defend the organism against invading pathogens. Here, we review the diversity of DC subtypes found across tissues and discuss our current understanding of the tissue-specific functions of these cell types. Read More

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April 2017
2 Reads

A Chemoattractant-Guided Walk Through Lymphopoiesis: From Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Mature B Lymphocytes.

Adv Immunol 2017 18;134:47-88. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784265PMC
April 2017
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Humanized Immunoglobulin Mice: Models for HIV Vaccine Testing and Studying the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Problem.

Authors:
Laurent Verkoczy

Adv Immunol 2017 ;134:235-352

Duke University Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States. Electronic address:

A vaccine that can effectively prevent HIV-1 transmission remains paramount to ending the HIV pandemic, but to do so, will likely need to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses. A major technical hurdle toward achieving this goal has been a shortage of animal models with the ability to systematically pinpoint roadblocks to bnAb induction and to rank vaccine strategies based on their ability to stimulate bnAb development. Over the past 6 years, immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in (KI) technology has been leveraged to express bnAbs in mice, an approach that has enabled elucidation of various B-cell tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production and evaluation of strategies to circumvent such processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5914178PMC
April 2017
5 Reads

Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by TGFβ.

Adv Immunol 2017 10;134:137-233. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; Manchester Immunology Group, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.001DOI Listing
April 2017
5 Reads

γδ T Cells and B Cells.

Adv Immunol 2017 14;134:1-45. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, United States; University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

γδ T cells constitute the third arm of a tripartite adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates, besides αβ T cells and B cells. Like the other two lymphocyte-types, they express diverse antigen receptors, capable of specific ligand recognition. Functionally, γδ T cells represent a system of differentiated subsets, sometimes engaged in cross-regulation, which ultimately determines their effect on other components of the immune system, including B cells and antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.002DOI Listing
April 2017
27 Reads

Emerging Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Related Functions of NLRC5.

Adv Immunol 2017 3;133:89-119. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Recent evidence demonstrates a key role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRC5 (NLR family, CARD domain containing protein 5) in the transcriptional regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and related genes. Detailed information on NLRC5 target genes in various cell types and conditions is emerging. Thanks to its analogy to CIITA (class II major MHC transactivator), a NLR family member known for over 20 years to be the master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription, also the molecular mechanisms underlying NLRC5 function are being rapidly unraveled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.11.003DOI Listing

Molecular Mechanisms of Somatic Hypermutation and Class Switch Recombination.

Adv Immunol 2017 22;133:37-87. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montreal, QC, Canada; Mcgill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

In order to promote an efficient humoral immune response, germinal center B cells modify both the antigen recognition and effector domains by programmed genetic alterations of their antibody genes. To do so, B cells use the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), which transforms deoxycytidine into deoxyuridine at the immunoglobulin genes, triggering mutagenic DNA repair. Data accumulated during the past decade have significantly advanced our understanding of how AID activity is regulated and preferentially targeted to the immunoglobulin genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.11.002DOI Listing

About Training and Memory: NK-Cell Adaptation to Viral Infections.

Adv Immunol 2017 30;133:171-207. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Deutsches Rheuma Forschungszentrum, a Leibniz Institute, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Viral infections continuously challenge and shape our immune system. Due to their fine antigen recognition ability, adaptive lymphocytes protect against pathogen reencounter by generating specific immunological memory. Innate cells such as macrophages also adapt to pathogen challenge and mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.10.001DOI Listing
August 2017
7 Reads

Nucleic Acid Immunity.

Authors:
G Hartmann

Adv Immunol 2017 15;133:121-169. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776163005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.11.001DOI Listing

Macrophages and Mitochondria: A Critical Interplay Between Metabolism, Signaling, and the Functional Activity.

Adv Immunol 2017 4;133:1-36. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Macrophage Biology Group, School of Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in a broad range of cellular functions and they are key regulators of innate immune responses and inflammation. Mitochondria are highly dynamic endosymbiotic organelles that play key roles in cellular metabolism and apoptosis. Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondria are involved in the interplay between metabolism and innate immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.12.001DOI Listing

The Roles of the Secreted Phospholipase A Gene Family in Immunology.

Adv Immunol 2016 11;132:91-134. Epub 2016 Jun 11.

Lipid Metabolism Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Within the phospholipase A (PLA) family that hydrolyzes phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, secreted PLA (sPLA) enzymes comprise the largest group containing 11 isoforms in mammals. Individual sPLAs exhibit unique tissue or cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Although PLA enzymes, particularly cytosolic PLA (cPLAα), have long been implicated in inflammation by driving arachidonic acid metabolism, the precise biological roles of sPLAs have remained a mystery over the last few decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.05.001DOI Listing
August 2017
2 Reads

B-Lymphopoiesis in Fetal Liver, Guided by Chemokines.

Adv Immunol 2016 5;132:71-89. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Research Group on "Lymphocyte Development," Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Early in embryonic development of mice, from day 12.5 after conception, myeloid-lymphoid bipotent progenitors, expressing receptors both for IL7 and CSF-1, migrate from embryonic blood into developing fetal liver. These progenitors also express multiple chemokine receptors, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.07.002DOI Listing
August 2017
4 Reads

Endogenous Retroelements and the Host Innate Immune Sensors.

Authors:
X Mu S Ahmad S Hur

Adv Immunol 2016 23;132:47-69. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

The ability to distinguish between self and nonself is the fundamental basis of the immune system in all organisms. The conceptual distinction between self and nonself, however, breaks down when it comes to endogenous retroviruses and other retroelements. While some retroelements retain the virus-like features including the capacity to replicate and reinvade the host genome, most have become inactive through mutations or host epigenetic silencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5135014PMC
August 2017
1 Read

Pleiotropic Roles of Type 1 Interferons in Antiviral Immune Responses.

Authors:
J R Teijaro

Adv Immunol 2016 20;132:135-158. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Since Isaac's and Lindenmann's seminal experiments over 50 years ago demonstrating a soluble factor generated from heat killed virus-stimulated chicken embryos could inhibit live influenza virus replication, the term interferon has been synonymous with inhibition of virus replication. While the antiviral properties of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) are undeniable, recent studies have reported expanding and somewhat unexpected roles of IFN-I signaling during both acute and persistent viral infections. IFN-I signaling can promote morbidity and mortality through induction of aberrant inflammatory responses and recruitment of inflammatory innate immune cell populations during acute respiratory viral infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.08.001DOI Listing

Context- and Tissue-Specific Regulation of Immunity and Tolerance by Regulatory T Cells.

Adv Immunol 2016 12;132:1-46. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Institute for Immunology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The immune system has evolved to defend the organism against an almost infinite number of pathogens in a locally confined and antigen-specific manner while at the same time preserving tolerance to harmless antigens and self. Regulatory T (Treg) cells essentially contribute to an immunoregulatory network preventing excessive immune responses and immunopathology. There is emerging evidence that Treg cells not only operate in secondary lymphoid tissue but also regulate immune responses directly at the site of inflammation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652776163003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.08.002DOI Listing
August 2017
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Advances in PET Detection of the Antitumor T Cell Response.

Adv Immunol 2016 5;131:187-231. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful noninvasive imaging technique able to measure distinct biological processes in vivo by administration of a radiolabeled probe. Whole-body measurements track the probe accumulation providing a means to measure biological changes such as metabolism, cell location, or tumor burden. PET can also be applied to both preclinical and clinical studies providing three-dimensional information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ai.2016.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880626PMC