253,010 results match your criteria Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice[Journal]


Biophotonics methods for functional monitoring of complications of diabetes mellitus.

J Biophotonics 2020 Jul 12:e202000203. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

The prevalence of diabetes omplications is a significant public health problem with a considerable economic cost. Thus, the timely diagnosis of complications and prevention of their development will contribute to increasing the length and quality of patient life, and reducing the economic costs of their treatment. This article aims to review the current state-of-the-art biophotonics technologies used to identify the complications of diabetes mellitus and assess the quality of their treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000203DOI Listing

Cancer-associated mutations in normal human endometrium: Surprise or expected?

Cancer Sci 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane University, Faculty of Medicine, 89-1, Enya-Cho, Izumo, Shimane, 693-8501, Japan.

The human endometrium is an essential component in human reproduction that has the unique characteristic of undergoing cyclic regeneration during each menstrual cycle. Vigorous regeneration after shedding may be sustained by stem/progenitor cells, for which molecular markers have not been fully identified. Although clonality analysis using X chromosome inactivation patterns has shown that normal human endometrial glands are composed of a monoclonal cell population, whether clonal expansion is derived from stem/progenitor cells remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14571DOI Listing

The Molecular Etiology of Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

University of Exeter, Medical School, Exeter University, Exeter, UK.

Alzheimer's disease is a growing global healthcare epidemic. Owing to advances in technology, genome-scale studies of various layers of molecular information have been undertaken in recent years and robust variation in key loci have now been published and reproduced by others. This mini-symposium highlights four key areas of current research in the field of molecular biology in Alzheimer's disease, including articles focussed on large-scale genomic profiling, epigenetic research, integrative multi-omic approaches and how these can be appropriately modelled to address reverse causality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12879DOI Listing

High Mass Resolution, Spatial Metabolite Mapping Enhances the Current Plant Gene and Pathway Discovery Toolbox.

New Phytol 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 761001, Israel.

Understanding when and where metabolites accumulate provides important cues to the gene function. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) enables in situ temporal and spatial measurement of a large assortment of metabolites, providing mapping information regarding their cellular distribution. To describe the current state and technical advances of using MSI in plant sciences, we employed MSI to demonstrate its significant contribution to the study of plant specialized metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16809DOI Listing

Epigenome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease; Achievements and challenges.

Brain Pathol 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNs), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Alzheimer's disease represents a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with a complex pathophysiology, affecting millions of people worldwide. Recent epigenome-wide association studies suggest a key role for epigenetic mechanisms in its development and course. Despite the fact that current evidence on the role of epigenetic dysregulation in aging and Alzheimer's disease is convincing, the pioneering field of neuroepigenetics is still facing many challenges that need to be addressed to fundamentally increase our understanding about the underlying mechanisms of this neurodegenerative disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12880DOI Listing

Applying gene-editing technology to elucidate the functional consequence of genetic and epigenetic variation in Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

University of Exeter, Medical School, Exeter University, Exeter, UK.

Recent studies have highlighted a potential role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Application of the CRISPR-Cas genome editing platform has enabled investigation of the functional impact that Alzheimer's disease associated gene mutations have on gene expression. Moreover, recent advances in the technology have led to the generation of CRISPR-Cas based tools that allow for high-throughput interrogation of different risk variants to elucidate the interplay between genomic regulatory features, epigenetic modifications and chromatin structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12881DOI Listing

Inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms in free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates and chromerids.

J Phycol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131, Ancona, Italy.

Photosynthetic dinoflagellates are ecologically and biogeochemically important in marine and freshwater environments. However surprisingly little is known of how this group acquires inorganic carbon or how these diverse processes evolved. Consequently, how CO availability ultimately influences the success of dinoflagellates over space and time remains poorly resolved compared to other microalgal groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13050DOI Listing

Advances in environmental biotechnology and engineering 2018.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

SEMILLA-INAGEA, Calle Babieca no. 2, 07198 Son Ferriol , Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09377-wDOI Listing

Emerging pharmacological therapies for ARDS: COVID-19 and beyond.

Intensive Care Med 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Lung Biology Group, Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI) at CÚRAM Centre for Research in Medical Devices, Biomedical Sciences Building, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

ARDS, first described in 1967, is the commonest form of acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS, insights into the biologic mechanisms of lung injury and repair, and advances in supportive care, particularly ventilatory management, there remains no effective pharmacological therapy for this syndrome. Hospital mortality at 40% remains unacceptably high underlining the need to continue to develop and test therapies for this devastating clinical condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06141-zDOI Listing

Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 31 Cases in Poland.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Dermatology, Paediatric Dermatology and Oncology Clinic, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Introduction: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer that typically arises in sun-exposed areas of the skin, especially in the elderly. Significant advances have recently been made regarding skin cancers, but data on cases of MCC are rather limited as these patients are frequently grouped together with other non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Here, we performed an analysis of the clinical profile of patients with MCC in Poland to identify major factors influencing the prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13555-020-00424-5DOI Listing

Ileal bile acid transporter inhibition as an anticholestatic therapeutic target in biliary atresia and other cholestatic disorders.

Hepatol Int 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Medical Affairs, Albireo Pharma, Inc, 10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, MA, 02109, USA.

Biliary atresia is a rare cholestatic liver disease that presents in infants and rapidly advances to death in the absence of intervention. As a result of blockage or destruction of the biliary tract, bile acids accumulate and drive inflammation, fibrosis, and disease progression. The standard of care, Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE), is typically performed shortly after diagnosis (currently at ~ 2 months of age) and aims to restore bile flow and relieve cholestasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10070-wDOI Listing

Low-molecular-weight ligands in plants: role in metal homeostasis and hyperaccumulation.

Photosynth Res 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, IPPRAS, Botanicheskaya st., 35, Moscow, Russian Federation, 127276.

Mineral nutrition is one of the key factors determining plant productivity. In plants, metal homeostasis is achieved through the functioning of a complex system governing metal uptake, translocation, distribution, and sequestration, leading to the maintenance of a regulated delivery of micronutrients to metal-requiring processes as well as detoxification of excess or non-essential metals. Low-molecular-weight ligands, such as nicotianamine, histidine, phytochelatins, phytosiderophores, and organic acids, play an important role in metal transport and detoxification in plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-020-00768-1DOI Listing

Digital health data-driven approaches to understand human behavior.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

Advances in digital technologies and data analytics have created unparalleled opportunities to assess and modify health behavior and thus accelerate the ability of science to understand and contribute to improved health behavior and health outcomes. Digital health data capture the richness and granularity of individuals' behavior, the confluence of factors that impact behavior in the moment, and the within-individual evolution of behavior over time. These data may contribute to discovery science by revealing digital markers of health/risk behavior as well as translational science by informing personalized and timely models of intervention delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0761-5DOI Listing

Advances in G protein-coupled receptor high-throughput screening.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2020 Jul 9;64:210-217. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, United States; School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, United States. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) detect compounds on the cell surface and are the starting point of a number of medically relevant signaling cascades. Indeed, over 30% of FDA approved drugs target GPCRs, making them a primary target for drug discovery. Computational and experimental high-throughput screening (HTS) approaches of clinically relevant GPCRs are a first-line drug discovery effort in biomedical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2020.06.004DOI Listing

Accelerating drug development for neuroblastoma: Summary of the Second Neuroblastoma Drug Development Strategy forum from Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer and International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma.

Eur J Cancer 2020 Jul 9;136:52-68. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Paediatric Drug Development, Children & Young People's Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK; Division of Clinical Studies and Cancer Therapeutics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK.

Only one class of targeted agents (anti-GD2 antibodies) has been incorporated into front-line therapy for neuroblastoma since the 1980s. The Neuroblastoma New Drug Development Strategy (NDDS) initiative commenced in 2012 to accelerate the development of new drugs for neuroblastoma. Advances have occurred, with eight of nine high-priority targets being evaluated in paediatric trials including anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors being investigated in front-line, but significant challenges remain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Time to Redefine Risk-Stratification and Response Criteria in Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis?

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Haematology, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust; NIHR BRC Blood Theme, Oxford, England, UK; Oxford Myeloma Centre for Translational Research.

Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis results from clonal plasma cell (PC)-derived immunoglobulin light chain-mediated end-organ dysfunction, the extent and severity of which predicts survival. Anti-PC therapies reduce clonal light chain burden, which usually results in improvement of organ function, and consequently overall survival. Response assessment is critical to gauge therapeutic efficacy, to report clinical trial outcomes, and to switch therapy in those without response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.05.025DOI Listing

Executive summary of the 2020 KDIGO Diabetes Management in CKD Guideline: Evidence-based advances in monitoring and treatment.

Kidney Int 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Steno Diabetes Center, University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline on Diabetes Management in Chronic Kidney Disease represents the first KDIGO guideline on this subject. The guideline comes at a time when advances in diabetes technology and therapeutics offer new options to manage the large population of patients with diabetes and CKD at high risk of poor health outcomes. An enlarging base of high-quality evidence from randomized clinical trials is available to evaluate important new treatments offering organ protection, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.06.024DOI Listing

Best Practices in Robotic-assisted Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula: A Consensus Report from the European Association of Urology Robotic Urology Section Scientific Working Group for Reconstructive Urology.

Eur Urol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Context: Surgical repair of a vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) has been described extensively in the literature for several decades. Advances in robotic repair have been adopted since 2005.

Objective: A consensus review of existing data based on published case series, expert opinion, and a survey monkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.06.029DOI Listing

Reliability enhancement with dependable model predictive control.

ISA Trans 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Defence Science and Technology Group, 81 Labs, Third Ave, Edinburgh, SA 5111, Australia. Electronic address:

Operational Technology (OT) systems are merging towards a conjoint architecture with the advances in communication networks and emerging standards such as IEC/IEEE 60802 for industrial automation, automotive, power and energy and other areas. In this paper, we present a Dependable Control System (DepCS) with Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that works in such architectures using multiple MPC controllers (of a feedback control loop) to enhance the operational reliability. We termed this as Dependable Model Predictive Control (DepMPC) system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.06.027DOI Listing

The value of antimicrobial peptides in the age of resistance.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Reading Hospital, Tower Health, West Reading, PA, USA; Micromoria, Venture X Marlborough, Marlborough, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Accelerating growth and global expansion of antimicrobial resistance has deepened the need for discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides have clear advantages over conventional antibiotics which include slower emergence of resistance, broad-spectrum antibiofilm activity, and the ability to favourably modulate the host immune response. Broad bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides offers an additional tool to expand knowledge about the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30327-3DOI Listing

Significance of tumor microenvironment in acquiring resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor and recent advance of systemic treatment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Pathol Int 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The development of systemic therapies, including vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGF-TKI) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, inherent resistance is observed in some patients and acquired resistance commonly develops in many patients within several months of the initiation of systemic therapies. Since these treatments rarely cure patients, their aim is to suppress tumor progression and prolong survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.12984DOI Listing

Issues of theory and method in the analysis of Paleolithic mortuary behavior: A view from Shanidar Cave.

Evol Anthropol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Mortuary behavior (activities concerning dead conspecifics) is one of many traits that were previously widely considered to have been uniquely human, but on which perspectives have changed markedly in recent years. Theoretical approaches to hominin mortuary activity and its evolution have undergone major revision, and advances in diverse archeological and paleoanthropological methods have brought new ways of identifying behaviors such as intentional burial. Despite these advances, debates concerning the nature of hominin mortuary activity, particularly among the Neanderthals, rely heavily on the rereading of old excavations as new finds are relatively rare, limiting the extent to which such debates can benefit from advances in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.21854DOI Listing

Long Term Follow Up of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Survivors: A Focus on Screening, Monitoring, and Therapeutics.

Pharmacotherapy 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Services, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Annually, approximately 50,000 patients undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) worldwide with almost 22,000 of these patients receiving HCT in the United States. HCT is a curative option for a wide range of hematologic malignancies and advances in transplantation medicine have resulted in an increase in HCT survivors. It is anticipated that the number of HCT survivors will more than double from 242,000 in 2020 to approximately 500,000 in 2030. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2443DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms of enterococcal-bacteriophage interactions and implications for human health.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2020 Jul 8;56:38-44. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address:

Once overlooked as passive bystanders of the human intestinal microbiota, new evidence is shedding light on the importance of enterococci and their bacteriophages (phages) in shaping human health. Natural predators of enterococci, phages represent a narrow spectrum, precision targeting modality for the eradication of problematic enterococci within the microbiota or infected tissue. The identification of enterococcal phage receptors, absorption factors, and transcriptional responses following phage infection reveals a complex predator-prey relationship that modulates enterococcal cell surface architecture, susceptibility to antibiotics, and adaptation to host associated environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Recent advances in chemistry and bioactivity of marine cyanobacteria Moorea species.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 May 31;201:112473. Epub 2020 May 31.

Li Dak Sum Yip Yio Chin Kenneth Li Marine Biopharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Marine Pharmacy, College of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315832, China. Electronic address:

Cyanobacteria are one of the oldest creatures on earth, originated 3.5-3.3 billion years ago, and are distributed all over the world, including freshwater ponds and lakes, hot springs, and polar ice, especially in tropical and subtropical marine locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112473DOI Listing

Recent advances in multitarget-directed ligands targeting G-protein-coupled receptors.

Drug Discov Today 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 East Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. Electronic address:

Mounting evidence indicates that single-target drugs might be inadequate to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects on complex diseases. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to developing drugs that can manipulate multiple targets to generate beneficial effects through potential synergy. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) become desirable targets for developing multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) because of their crucial roles in the pathophysiology of various human diseases and the accessibility of druggable sites at the cell surface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.07.004DOI Listing

A Novel Method to Study Reward-Context Associations Paired With Drug-Seeking Behaviors.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 Jul 8:108857. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA; Departments of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine and Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA. Electronic address:

Animal models have significantly contributed to the understanding of reward-related behaviors, such as in Substance Use Disorder research. One of the most heavily utilized paradigms to date is conditioned place preference (CPP). However CPP is limited by non-contingent exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108857DOI Listing

HPMA copolymer-antibody constructs in neoplastic treatment: an overview of therapeutics, targeted diagnostics, and drug-free systems.

J Control Release 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

In the past decades, nanosized drug delivery systems based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers (pHPMA) have gained increasing attention in nanomedicine field due to their hydrophilicity, versatility, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and non-immunogenicity. Indeed, pHPMA nanosystems with various controlled drug release capabilities inside targeted tissues or cells have been intensively studied. This paper summarizes recent advances in the design and application of pHPMA conjugates with specific antibodies or their fragments, focusing predominantly on the systems for the cancer therapy, particularly, the mechanisms of action of therapeutic antibodies, the approaches of their modification and subsequent attachment of pHPMA and their conjugates with diverse active moieties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.040DOI Listing

Updates for the treatment of EGPA.

Presse Med 2020 Jul 8:104036. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Referral Center for Rare Systemic and Autoimmune Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is the least frequent antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Major advances of our knowledge on its pathophysiology have revealed features of both AAV and eosinophilic disorders. The development of targeted biotherapies for both diseases opened new possibilities for EGPA management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2020.104036DOI Listing

Breastmilk Feeding Practices Are Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Bacteria in Mothers' Milk and the Infant Gut: the CHILD Cohort Study.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba and Developmental Origins of Chronic Diseases in Children Network (DEVOTION), Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota play a critical role in infant health. It is now accepted that breastmilk contains live bacteria from endogenous and exogenous sources, but it remains unclear whether these bacteria transfer to the infant gut and whether this process is influenced by breastmilk feeding practices. Here, we show that certain bacteria, including Streptococcus spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Physiopathological roles of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), an essential component for vesicular ATP release.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2020 Jul 8:183408. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan.

Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is the last identified member of the SLC17 organic anion transporter family, which plays a central role in vesicular storage in ATP-secreting cells. The discovery of VNUT demonstrated that, despite having been neglected for a long time, vesicular ATP release represents a major pathway for purinergic chemical transmission, which had been mainly attributed to ATP permeation channels. This article summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism of VNUT and its physiopathological roles as well as the development of inhibitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2020.183408DOI Listing

The current status of research on gibberellin biosynthesis.

Authors:
Peter Hedden

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Institute of Experimental Botany, Czech Academy of Sciences, and Faculty of Science, Palacký University, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic and Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

Gibberellins are produced by all vascular plants as well as several fungal and bacterial species that associate with plants as pathogens or symbionts. In the 60 years since the first experiments on the biosynthesis of gibberellic acid in the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi, research on gibberellin biosynthesis has advanced to provide detailed information on the pathways, biosynthetic enzymes and their genes in all three kingdoms, in which the production of the hormones evolved independently. Gibberellins function as hormones in plants, affecting growth and differentiation in organs in which their concentration is very tightly regulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa092DOI Listing

Beyond description: the many facets of dental biomechanics.

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, 515 Morrill Hall, 505 S Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL.

Teeth lie at the interface between an animal and its environment and, with some exceptions, act as a major component of resource procurement through food acquisition and processing. Therefore, the shape of a tooth is closely tied to the type of food being eaten. This tight relationship is of use to biologists describing the natural history of species and given the high instance of tooth preservation in the fossil record, is especially useful for paleontologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa103DOI Listing

Modeling endodermal organ development and diseases using human pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids.

J Mol Cell Biol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Recent advances in development of protocols for directed differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to defined lineages, in combination with three-dimensional (3D) organoid technology, have facilitated the generation of various endoderm-derived organoids for in vitro modeling of human gastrointestinal development and associated diseases. In this review, we discuss current state-of-the-art strategies for generating hPSC-derived endodermal organoids including stomach, liver, pancreatic, small intestine, and colonic organoids. We also review the advantages of using this system to model various human diseases and evaluate the shortcomings of this technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjaa031DOI Listing

Preliminary Outcomes of Hypochlorous Acid as an Adjunct for Pocket Irrigation in Revision Aesthetic Breast Surgery.

Aesthet Surg J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Background: Capsular contracture is a challenging problem for plastic surgeons despite advances in surgical technique. Breast pocket irrigation decreases bacterial bioburden. Studies have shown hypochlorous acid (PhaseOne Health, Nashville, TN) to effectively penetrate and disrupt biofilms; however, there is limited clinical data regarding this irrigation in breast augmentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa201DOI Listing

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: an update on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil João Paulo II - Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais (HIJPII/MG - FHEMIG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a highly prevalent autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene (7q31.2), which encodes the CFTR chloride-anion channel that is expressed in several tissues. Life expectancy has increased significantly over the past few decades due to therapeutic advances and early diagnosis through neonatal screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0484DOI Listing

Complete genome sequence and epigenetic profile of Bacillus velezensis UCMB5140 used for plant and crop protection in comparison with other plant-associated Bacillus strains.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institut für Biologie, Humboldt Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The application of biocontrol biopesticides based on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), particularly members of the genus Bacillus, is considered a promising perspective to make agricultural practices sustainable and ecologically safe. Recent advances in genome sequencing by third-generation sequencing technologies, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10767-wDOI Listing

CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPRi and CRISPR-BEST-mediated genetic manipulation in streptomycetes.

Nat Protoc 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Streptomycetes are prominent sources of bioactive natural products, but metabolic engineering of the natural products of these organisms is greatly hindered by relatively inefficient genetic manipulation approaches. New advances in genome editing techniques, particularly CRISPR-based tools, have revolutionized genetic manipulation of many organisms, including actinomycetes. We have developed a comprehensive CRISPR toolkit that includes several variations of 'classic' CRISPR-Cas9 systems, along with CRISPRi and CRISPR-base editing systems (CRISPR-BEST) for streptomycetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0339-zDOI Listing

Molecular profiling of lipid droplets inside HuH7 cells with Raman micro-spectroscopy.

Commun Biol 2020 Jul 10;3(1):372. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8480, Japan.

Raman imaging has become an attractive technology in molecular biology because of its ability to detect multiple molecular components simultaneously without labeling. Two major limitations in accurately accounting for spectral features, viz., background removal and spectral unmixing, have been overcome by employing a modified and effective routine in multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1100-4DOI Listing

All-printed nanomembrane wireless bioelectronics using a biocompatible solderable graphene for multimodal human-machine interfaces.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3450. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.

Recent advances in nanomaterials and nano-microfabrication have enabled the development of flexible wearable electronics. However, existing manufacturing methods still rely on a multi-step, error-prone complex process that requires a costly cleanroom facility. Here, we report a new class of additive nanomanufacturing of functional materials that enables a wireless, multilayered, seamlessly interconnected, and flexible hybrid electronic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17288-0DOI Listing

A family of lead clusters with precious metal cores.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3477. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Tianjin Key Lab for Rare Earth Materials and Applications, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Gold nanoparticles have been used for centuries, both for decoration and in medical applications. More recently, many of the major advances in cluster chemistry have involved well-defined clusters containing tens or hundreds of atoms, either with or without a ligand shell. In this paper we report the synthesis of two gold/lead clusters, [AuPb] and [AuPb], both of which contain nido [Au@Pb] icosahedra surrounding a core of Au atoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17187-4DOI Listing

Genetic testing in the acute setting: a round table discussion.

J Med Ethics 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Manchester Centre for Genomic, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

Genetic testing has historically been performed in the context of chronic disease and cancer diagnostics. The timelines for these tests are typically measured in days or weeks, rather than in minutes. As such, the concept that genetic information might be generated and then used to alter management in the acute setting has, thus far, not been feasible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2019-106043DOI Listing

Advances in the Fabrication of Biomaterials for Gradient Tissue Engineering.

Trends Biotechnol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK; Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address:

Natural tissues and organs exhibit an array of spatial gradients, from the polarized neural tube during embryonic development to the osteochondral interface present at articulating joints. The strong structure-function relationships in these heterogeneous tissues have sparked intensive research into the development of methods that can replicate physiological gradients in engineered tissues. In this Review, we consider different gradients present in natural tissues and discuss their critical importance in functional tissue engineering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Quality of life of patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma initiating first-line chemotherapy in routine practice.

BMC Palliat Care 2020 Jul 10;19(1):103. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institut Català d'Oncologia (ICO), Girona, Spain.

Background: Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, pancreatic adenocarcinoma often progresses rapidly and causes death. The physical decline of these patients is expected to impact their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, in addition to objective measures of effectiveness, the evaluation of health-related QoL should be considered a matter of major concern when assessing therapy outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-00610-4DOI Listing

Leveraging Bayesian networks and information theory to learn risk factors for breast cancer metastasis.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Jul 10;21(1):298. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Even though we have established a few risk factors for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) through epidemiologic studies, these risk factors have not proven to be effective in predicting an individual's risk of developing metastasis. Therefore, identifying critical risk factors for MBC continues to be a major research imperative, and one which can lead to advances in breast cancer clinical care. The objective of this research is to leverage Bayesian Networks (BN) and information theory to identify key risk factors for breast cancer metastasis from data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03638-8DOI Listing

Advances in the Use of Neuromodulation for Neurogenic Dysphagia: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Application of Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 Jul 10;29(2S):1044-1064. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health, University of Manchester, Salford, United Kingdom.

Purpose The swallowing motor system and, specifically, its cortical substrates appear to have certain unique properties that make it highly susceptible to brain plasticity, both driven and following injury. Furthermore, neurogenic dysphagia is a common complication of brain disease, associated with poor outcomes, and yet treatment options remain limited. Therefore, translating the physiology of neurostimulation into clinical populations becomes imperative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00073DOI Listing

High-Resolution Cervical Auscultation and Data Science: New Tools to Address an Old Problem.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 Jul 10;29(2S):992-1000. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA.

High-resolution cervical auscultation (HRCA) is an evolving clinical method for noninvasive screening of dysphagia that relies on data science, machine learning, and wearable sensors to investigate the characteristics of disordered swallowing function in people with dysphagia. HRCA has shown promising results in categorizing normal and disordered swallowing (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00155DOI Listing

Dosimetric study of Whole-Brain irradiation with High-Energy photon beams for dose reduction to the scalp.

Br J Radiol 2020 Jul 10:20200159. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of high-energy photons for mitigating alopecia due to whole-brain irradiation (WBRT).

Methods: Planning computed tomography data from 10 patients who received WBRT were collected. We prepared four WBRT plans that used six or 15 MV photon beams, with or without use of a field-in-field technique (FiF), and compared outcomes using a treatment planning system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200159DOI Listing

Encoding Time Series as Multi-Scale Signed Recurrence Plots for Classification Using Fully Convolutional Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

College of Electronic Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

Recent advances in time series classification (TSC) have exploited deep neural networks (DNN) to improve the performance. One promising approach encodes time series as recurrence plot (RP) images for the sake of leveraging the state-of-the-art DNN to achieve accuracy. Such an approach has been shown to achieve impressive results, raising the interest of the community in it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143818DOI Listing