698 results match your criteria Advances in genetics[Journal]


Preface.

Authors:
Dhavendra Kumar

Adv Genet 2019 ;103:ix-xi

Division of Cancer and Genetics, Institute of Medical Genetics, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom; The Genomic Policy Unit, The University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2660(19)30010-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Finding a cure for tuberous sclerosis complex: From genetics through to targeted drug therapies.

Adv Genet 2019 20;103:91-118. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic condition caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Phenotypically, this leads to aberrant cell growth and the formation of benign tumors called hamartomas in multiple organs. Understanding the mechanisms of pathology that are caused through the presence of disease causing mutations is a real hurdle for many rare genetic disorders; a limiting factor that restricts knowledge of the disease and any hope of a future cure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Understanding human DNA variants affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the NGS era.

Adv Genet 2019 17;103:39-90. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center, Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pre-mRNA splicing, an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression, relies on recognition of short sequences on the primary transcript intron ends and takes place along transcription by RNA polymerase II. Exonic and intronic auxiliary elements may modify the strength of exon definition and intron recognition. Splicing DNA variants (SV) have been associated with human genetic diseases at canonical intron sites, as well as exonic substitutions putatively classified as nonsense, missense or synonymous variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.09.002DOI Listing
January 2019

The role of inherited genetic variants in colorectal polyposis syndromes.

Authors:
E Short J Sampson

Adv Genet 2019 22;103:183-217. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women across the world. Most CRCs occur sporadically, but in 15-35% of cases, hereditary factors are important. Some patients with an inherited predisposition to CRC will be diagnosed with a "genetic polyposis syndrome" such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), polymerase proofreading associated polyposis (PPAP), NTHL1-associated polyposis, MSH3-associated polyposis or a hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652660183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.11.002DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

CDK13-related disorder.

Adv Genet 2019 11;103:163-182. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nottingham Clinical Genetics Service, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Mutations in CDK13 have recently been identified as a novel cause of syndromic intellectual disability. In this chapter, we review the 44 cases of CDK13-related disorder reported to date, highlighting key clinical pointers to this diagnosis including characteristic craniofacial features, feeding difficulties in infancy, and the presence of structural heart or brain malformations. The spectrum of reported mutations is also described, demonstrating an excess of missense mutations arising in the protein kinase domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Population-scale genomics-Enabling precision public health.

Adv Genet 2019 7;103:119-161. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

GN Ramachandran Knowledge Center for Genome Informatics, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB), New Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

The current excitement for affordable genomics technologies and national precision medicine initiatives marks a turning point in worldwide healthcare practices. The last decade of global population sequencing efforts has defined the enormous extent of genetic variation in the human population resulting in insights into differential disease burden and response to therapy within and between populations. Population-scale pharmacogenomics helps to provide insights into the choice of optimal therapies and an opportunity to estimate, predict and minimize adverse events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Multi-omics approaches for strategic improvement of stress tolerance in underutilized crop species: A climate change perspective.

Adv Genet 2019 20;103:1-38. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

For several decades, researchers are working toward improving the "major" crops for better adaptability and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, little or no research attention is given toward neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS) which hold the potential to ensure food and nutritional security among the ever-growing global population. NUCS are predominantly climate resilient, but their yield and quality are compromised due to selective breeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019
6.760 Impact Factor

Darwin's Pangenesis and Certain Anomalous Phenomena.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 20;102:93-120. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Darwin clearly described certain anomalous phenomena, including what he referred to as "the direct action of the male element on the female form" and what we now call xenia and telegony, bud variation (mutation), reversion or atavism, and the inheritance and non-inheritance of mutilation. Some phenomena, particularly xenia, telegony and the inheritance of mutilation, were considered as doubtful phenomena by such authorities as Weismann and Morgan. Over the past 150 year, however, there has been increasing evidence for xenia, which is of great interest and importance in physiological research and plant production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.009DOI Listing
July 2018
20 Reads

Darwin's Pangenesis and Medical Genetics.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 20;102:67-92. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Darwin had many close connections with medical men, and made a number of observations on inherited diseases, clearly describing the inheritance of sex-linked diseases, inherited diseases at corresponding ages, infectious disease and the causes of diseases. Darwin's Pangenesis provides an alternative explanation for cancer metastasis, and is now supported by the discovery of circulating tumour DNA. The "genometastasis hypothesis" proposed by Garcia-Olmo et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.008DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Darwin's Pangenesis and Graft Hybridization.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 20;102:27-66. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Although there were many records of graft-induced variations in ancient China, it was Darwin who coined the term "graft hybridization", the formation of hybrids between distinct species or varieties, through plant grafting, without the intervention of the sexual organs. He described many cases of the so-called "graft hybrids", in which shoots produced from grafted plants exhibited a combination of characters of both rootstock and scion, and explained their formation by his Pangenesis. Michurin invented "mentor-grafting" and "preliminary vegetative approximation" methods, which greatly increased the production of graft hybrids, thus providing a solution to Darwin's puzzle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.007DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Natural Selection and Pangenesis: The Darwinian Synthesis of Evolution and Genetics.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 20;102:121-142. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Since the end of the 19th century, Lamarck's name has been tightly linked to the notion of the inheritance of acquired characters. Darwin regarded Lamarck as a great zoologist and a forerunner of evolution, and repeatedly expressed the opinion that "natural selection has been the main but not the exclusive means of modification." The original Darwinism not only includes natural selection, but also the inheritance of acquired characters and mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.010DOI Listing
July 2018
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Darwin and Mendel: The Historical Connection.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 20;102:1-25. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Darwin carried out a host of carefully controlled cross- and self-pollination experiments in a wide variety of plants, and made a significant and imperishable contribution to the knowledge of hybridization. He not only clearly described the phenomenon of what he called prepotency and what we now call dominance or Mendelian inheritance, but also explained it by his Pangenesis. Recent discovery of small RNAs acting as dominance modifiers supports his Pangenesis regarding the control of prepotency by gemmules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.006DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

In Search of Darwin's Imaginary Gemmules.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 17;101:87-114. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Darwin's gemmules were supposed to be "thrown off" by cells and were "inconceivably minute and numerous as the stars in heaven." They were capable of self-propagation and diffusion from cell to cell, and circulation through the system. The word "gene" coined by Wilhelm Johannsen, was derived from de Vries's term "pangen," itself a substitute for "gemmule" in Darwin's Pangenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.004DOI Listing
July 2018
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The Influence of Darwin's Pangenesis on Later Theories.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 17;101:63-85. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Although Darwin's Pangenesis received strong criticism and never gained any very wide acceptance, it was of great importance due to its stimulating effect on later work and thought. Nearly every major theory of heredity developed in the late 19th century began with a discussion of Darwin's Pangenesis. Darwin was shown to play a more important role in the history of genetics than hitherto attributed to him by historians through a detailed analysis of the influence of his Pangenesis on de Vries' "Intracellular Pangenesis" and "The Mutation Theory," Weismann's theory of "Continuity of the Germ-plasm," Galton's "A Theory of Heredity" and "Natural Inheritance," Brooks' "The Law of Heredity, Ross's "Graft Theory of Diseases", Haeckel's perigenesis and Kozo-Polyansky's hypothetical version of symbiogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.003DOI Listing
July 2018
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The Criticisms of Pangenesis: The Years of Controversy.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 17;101:31-61. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

When first published in 1868, Darwin's Pangenesis was almost uniformly rejected by his contemporaries. Until recently it has still been regarded as Darwin's biggest mistake or a brilliant blunder. There are three main reasons for this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.002DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Darwin's Pangenesis and the Lamarckian Inheritance of Acquired Characters.

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 17;101:115-144. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Since the earliest days of evolutionary thought, the problem of the inheritance of acquired characters has been a central debate. Darwin accepted the inheritance of acquired characters as an established fact and gave many instances. His Pangenesis was more than anything else an attempt to provide a theory for its explanation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.005DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Darwin's Pangenesis: A Theory of Everything?

Authors:
Yongsheng Liu

Adv Genet 2018 17;101:1-30. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China; Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

This chapter briefly discusses Darwin's The Origin of Species and its companion volume The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. It is in the second great book that Darwin took a broad survey of the whole range of variation and heredity, and developed his Pangenesis, an expanded cell theory and a unified genetical theory that would strengthen his theory of evolution and explains the numerous phenomena of life. The essential assumption of Pangenesis is the existence of inherited particles or molecules called gemmules, and their production by cells at each stage of development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2018.05.001DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Preface.

Adv Genet 2017 ;100:xi-xii

New Haven, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2660(17)30059-7DOI Listing
January 2017
42 Reads

Describing Genomic and Epigenomic Traits Underpinning Emerging Fungal Pathogens.

Adv Genet 2017 28;100:73-140. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

An unprecedented number of pathogenic fungi are emerging and causing disease in animals and plants, putting the resilience of wild and managed ecosystems in jeopardy. While the past decades have seen an increase in the number of pathogenic fungi, they have also seen the birth of new big data technologies and analytical approaches to tackle these emerging pathogens. We review how the linked fields of genomics and epigenomics are transforming our ability to address the challenge of emerging fungal pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.009DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Fungal Phylogeny in the Age of Genomics: Insights Into Phylogenetic Inference From Genome-Scale Datasets.

Adv Genet 2017 20;100:49-72. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The genomic era has been transformative for many fields, including our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between organisms. The wide availability of whole-genome sequences practically eliminated data availability as a limiting factor for inferring phylogenetic trees, providing hundreds to thousands of loci for analyses, leading to molecular phylogenetics gradually being replaced by phylogenomics. The new era has also brought new challenges: systematic errors (resulting from, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.008DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Advances in Fungal Phylogenomics and Their Impact on Fungal Systematics.

Adv Genet 2017 20;100:309-328. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

In the past decade, advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic pipelines for phylogenomic analysis have led to remarkable progress in fungal systematics and taxonomy. A number of long-standing questions have been addressed using comparative analysis of genome sequence data, resulting in robust multigene phylogenies. These have added to, and often surpassed traditional morphology or single-gene phylogenetic methods. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652660173002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.004DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics of Rust Fungi.

Adv Genet 2017 26;100:267-307. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

IUnité Mixte de Recherche INRA/Université de Lorraine, Champenoux, France. Electronic address:

Rust fungi (Pucciniales) are the most speciose and the most complex group of plant pathogens. Historically, rust taxonomy was largely influenced by host and phenotypic characters, which are potentially plastic. Molecular systematic studies suggest that the extant diversity of this group was largely shaped by host jumps and subsequent shifts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.011DOI Listing
July 2018
16 Reads

Multiple Approaches to Phylogenomic Reconstruction of the Fungal Kingdom.

Adv Genet 2017 6;100:211-266. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Maynooth University, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland. Electronic address:

Fungi are possibly the most diverse eukaryotic kingdom, with over a million member species and an evolutionary history dating back a billion years. Fungi have been at the forefront of eukaryotic genomics, and owing to initiatives like the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project the amount of fungal genomic data has increased considerably over the last 5 years, enabling large-scale comparative genomics of species across the kingdom. In this chapter, we first review fungal evolution and the history of fungal genomics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.006DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Deciphering Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum From a Phylogenomics Perspective.

Adv Genet 2017 31;100:179-209. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Fusarium oxysporum is a large species complex of both plant and human pathogens that attack a diverse array of species in a host-specific manner. Comparative genomic studies have revealed that the host-specific pathogenicity of the F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC) was determined by distinct sets of supernumerary (SP) chromosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.010DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Fungal Gene Cluster Diversity and Evolution.

Authors:
Jason C Slot

Adv Genet 2017 20;100:141-178. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Metabolic gene clusters (MGCs) have provided some of the earliest glimpses at the biochemical machinery of yeast and filamentous fungi. MGCs encode diverse genetic mechanisms for nutrient acquisition and the synthesis/degradation of essential and adaptive metabolites. Beyond encoding the enzymes performing these discrete anabolic or catabolic processes, MGCs may encode a range of mechanisms that enable their persistence as genetic consortia; these include enzymatic mechanisms to protect their host fungi from their inherent toxicities, and integrated regulatory machinery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.005DOI Listing

Maximizing Power in Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics: A Perspective Illuminated by Fungal Big Data.

Adv Genet 2017 6;100:1-47. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Since its original inception over 150 years ago by Darwin, we have made tremendous progress toward the reconstruction of the Tree of Life. In particular, the transition from analyzing datasets comprised of small numbers of loci to those comprised of hundreds of loci, if not entire genomes, has aided in resolving some of the most vexing of evolutionary problems while giving us a new perspective on biodiversity. Correspondingly, phylogenetic trees have taken a central role in fields that span ecology, conservation, and medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.007DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Preface.

Adv Genet 2017 ;99:ix

Oxford, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2660(17)30048-2DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Natural Variation in Human Clocks.

Adv Genet 2017 3;99:73-96. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Our own species has a diurnal activity pattern and an average circadian period of 24.2h. Exact determination of circadian period requires expensive and intrusive protocols, and investigators are therefore using chronotype questionnaires as a proxy quantitative measure. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652660173002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.003DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Natural Variation and Genetics of Photoperiodism in Wyeomyia smithii.

Adv Genet 2017 12;99:39-71. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.

Seasonal change in the temperate and polar regions of Earth determines how the world looks around us and, in fact, how we live our day-to-day lives. For biological organisms, seasonal change typically involves complex physiological and metabolic reorganization, the majority of which is regulated by photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is the ability of animals and plants to use day length or night length, resulting in life-historical transformations, including seasonal development, migration, reproduction, and dormancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.002DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Natural Variation of the Circadian Clock in Neurospora.

Adv Genet 2017 12;99:1-37. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ, United States; Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

Most living organisms on earth experience daily and expected changes from the rotation of the earth. For an organism, the ability to predict and prepare for incoming stresses or resources is a very important skill for survival. This cellular process of measuring daily time of the day is collectively called the circadian clock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808978PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Genetics of Mitochondrial Disease.

Authors:
Russell P Saneto

Adv Genet 2017 1;98:63-116. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Seattle Children's Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are intracellular organelles responsible for adenosine triphosphate production. The strict control of intracellular energy needs require proper mitochondrial functioning. The mitochondria are under dual controls of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.06.002DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

The Genetics of Parkinson Disease.

Authors:
Lina Mastrangelo

Adv Genet 2017 2;98:43-62. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The 200years of research efforts on Parkinson disease (PD) form the basis of our understanding of the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease. This journey has been marked by the revolutionary discovery of a neurotransmitter replacement therapy that provides a longer and healthier life to patients. Since 1997, the advances in the genetics of PD have expanded our understanding of this neurodegenerative disorder and they are opening up new ways to search for disease-modifying therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.08.001DOI Listing
May 2018
27 Reads

Delivery of Biomolecules via Extracellular Vesicles: A Budding Therapeutic Strategy.

Adv Genet 2017 11;98:155-175. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles that are secreted by nearly all cells and play an important role in intercellular communication by transporting protein and nucleic acids between cells. EV-mediated processes shape phenomena as diverse as cancer progression, immune function, and wound healing. The natural role of EVs in encapsulating and delivering cargo to modify cellular function highlights the potential to use these particles as therapeutic delivery vehicles. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652660173000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.08.002DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

Evolutionary Trajectories of Entomopathogenic Fungi ABC Transporters.

Authors:
Bikash Baral

Adv Genet 2017 4;98:117-154. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The ABC protein superfamily-also called traffic ATPases-are energy-dependent ubiquitous proteins, representing one of the crucial and the largest family in the fungal genomes. The ATP-binding cassette endows a characteristic 200-250 amino acids and is omnipresent in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Unlike in bacteria with nutrient import functions, ABC transporters in fungal entomopathogens serve as effective efflux pumps that are largely involved in the shuttle of metabolites across the biological membranes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.07.002DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Evolving Centromeres and Kinetochores.

Adv Genet 2017 1;98:1-41. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

The genetic material, contained on chromosomes, is often described as the "blueprint for life." During nuclear division, the chromosomes are pulled into each of the two daughter nuclei by the coordination of spindle microtubules, kinetochores, centromeres, and chromatin. These four functional units must link the chromosomes to the microtubules, signal to the cell when the attachment is made so that division can proceed, and withstand the force generated by pulling the chromosomes to either daughter cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.07.001DOI Listing
May 2018
19 Reads

Integrated Genomic Medicine: A Paradigm for Rare Diseases and Beyond.

Authors:
N J Schork K Nazor

Adv Genet 2017 25;97:81-113. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

MYi Diagnostics and Discovery, San Diego, CA, United States.

Individualized medicine, or the tailoring of therapeutic interventions to a patient's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, exposure and behavioral profile, has been enhanced, if not enabled, by modern biomedical technologies such as high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms, induced pluripotent stem cell assays, biomarker discovery protocols, imaging modalities, and wireless monitoring devices. Despite successes in the isolated use of these technologies, however, it is arguable that their combined and integrated use in focused studies of individual patients is the best way to not only tailor interventions for those patients, but also shed light on treatment strategies for patients with similar conditions. This is particularly true for individuals with rare diseases since, by definition, they will require study without recourse to other individuals, or at least without recourse to many other individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383766PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Sleeping Beauty? Developmental Timing, Sleep, and the Circadian Clock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Adv Genet 2017 16;97:43-80. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

The genetics toolkit is pretty successful in drilling down into minutiae. The big challenge is to integrate the information from this specialty as well as those of biochemistry, physiology, behavior, and anatomy to explain how fundamental biological processes really work. Sleep, the circadian clock and development all qualify as overarching processes that encompass levels from molecule to behavior as part of their known mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.05.001DOI Listing

Sixteen Years of Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA.

Authors:
T M Hammond

Adv Genet 2017 29;97:1-42. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Illinois State University, Normal, IL, United States. Electronic address:

The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa possesses a process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). MSUD has a remarkable ability to scan homologous chromosomes for unpaired DNA during meiosis. After unpaired DNA is identified, MSUD silences all RNA from the unpaired DNA along with any RNA transcribed from homologous sequences at other locations in the genome, regardless of their pairing state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.11.001DOI Listing
April 2018
49 Reads

Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

Adv Genet 2016 27;96:99-141. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.001DOI Listing
September 2017

Advances in Dyslexia Genetics-New Insights Into the Role of Brain Asymmetries.

Adv Genet 2016 5;96:53-97. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Dyslexia is a common condition affecting up to 10% school-aged children. There is strong evidence that genetics plays an important role in dyslexia and is expected to be complex in nature. Few specific susceptibility factors have been identified so far, but their functional characterization has provided novel insights into the biology of dyslexia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.003DOI Listing
September 2017

The Functionality and Evolution of Eukaryotic Transcriptional Enhancers.

Adv Genet 2016 13;96:143-206. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Enhancers regulate precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in eukaryotes and, moreover, evolutionary changes in these modular cis-regulatory elements may represent the predominant genetic basis for phenotypic evolution. Here, we review approaches to identify and functionally analyze enhancers and their transcription factor binding sites, including assay for transposable-accessible chromatin-sequencing (ATAC-Seq) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, respectively. We also explore enhancer functionality, including how transcription factor binding sites combine to regulate transcription, as well as research on shadow and super enhancers, and how enhancers can act over great distances and even in trans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.004DOI Listing
September 2017

Fungal Light Sensing at the Bench and Beyond.

Adv Genet 2016 23;96:1-51. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States.

Visible light is a pervasive environmental signal that orients most organisms in space and time. For a fungus, the detection of light is facilitated by diverse classes of photoreceptor proteins, which in turn coordinate growth, spore dispersal, stress resistance, primary metabolism, and toxin production. We will first provide a discussion on signal input, focusing on recent insights into how fungal photoreceptors detect and transmit information at the biochemical and molecular levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.002DOI Listing
September 2017

Transcriptomic Approaches in the Zebrafish Model for Tuberculosis-Insights Into Host- and Pathogen-specific Determinants of the Innate Immune Response.

Adv Genet 2016 14;95:217-51. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Mycobacterium marinum infection in zebrafish has become a well-established model of tuberculosis. Both embryonic and adult zebrafish infection studies have contributed to our knowledge of the development and function of tuberculous granulomas, which are typical of mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review we discuss how transcriptome profiling studies have helped to characterize this infection process. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652660163002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.004DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

The Zebrafish as Model for Deciphering the Regulatory Architecture of Vertebrate Genomes.

Adv Genet 2016 13;95:195-216. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Despite enormous progress to map cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), like enhancers and promoters in genomes, elucidation of the regulatory landscape of the developing embryo remains a challenge. The zebrafish embryo with its experimental virtues has a great potential to contribute to this endeavor. However, so far progress remained behind expectation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.003DOI Listing

Transcriptional Regulation During Zygotic Genome Activation in Zebrafish and Other Anamniote Embryos.

Authors:
J Wragg F Müller

Adv Genet 2016 4;95:161-94. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Embryo development commences with the fusion of two terminally differentiated haploid gametes into the totipotent fertilized egg, which through a series of major cellular and molecular transitions generate a pluripotent cell mass. The activation of the zygotic genome occurs during the so-called maternal to zygotic transition and prepares the embryo for zygotic takeover from maternal factors, in the control of the development of cellular lineages during differentiation. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the dissection of the genomic and epigenomic processes mediating this transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.05.001DOI Listing

Evolutionary Genetics of the Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

Authors:
D Casane S Rétaux

Adv Genet 2016 13;95:117-59. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Paris-Saclay Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS and University Paris-Sud, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Blind and depigmented fish belonging to the species Astyanax mexicanus are outstanding models for evolutionary genetics. During their evolution in the darkness of caves, they have undergone a number of changes at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels, but they can still breed with their river-dwelling conspecifics. The fertile hybrids between these two morphotypes allow forward genetic approaches, from the search of quantitative trait loci to the identification of the mutations underlying the evolution of troglomorphism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.03.001DOI Listing
May 2017
16 Reads

Whole-Organism Cellular Pathology: A Systems Approach to Phenomics.

Adv Genet 2016 29;95:89-115. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States.

Phenotype is defined as the state of an organism resulting from interactions between genes, environment, disease, molecular mechanisms, and chance. The purpose of the emerging field of phenomics is to systematically determine and measure phenotypes across biology for the sake of understanding. Phenotypes can affect more than one cell type and life stage, so ideal phenotyping would include the state of every cell type within the context of both tissue architecture and the whole organism at each life stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.05.003DOI Listing
May 2017
1 Read

Gal4 Driver Transgenic Zebrafish: Powerful Tools to Study Developmental Biology, Organogenesis, and Neuroscience.

Adv Genet 2016 13;95:65-87. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

National Institute of Genetics and SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Mishima, Japan.

Targeted expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful genetic method to analyze the functions of genes and cells in vivo. Although the Gal4-UAS system has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila, it had not been applied to genetic studies in vertebrates until the mid-2000s. This was mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis tool in model vertebrates, such as the P-transposable element of Drosophila, that can create hundreds or thousands of transgene insertions in different loci on the genome and thereby enables the generation of transgenic lines expressing Gal4 in various tissues and cells via enhancer trapping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.002DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches to Study Cancer in Small Aquarium Fish Models.

Adv Genet 2016 14;95:31-63. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; University Clinic Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

Zebrafish and medaka that develop tumors have become valuable tools for experimental cancer research. With the advent of microarrays and new sequencing technologies it has become feasible to perform whole genome, exome, and transcriptome analyses in these fish models. Analyses that compare the two fish models with each other and with data from human tumors have revealed a plethora of important insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.001DOI Listing

Studying the Evolution of the Vertebrate Circadian Clock: The Power of Fish as Comparative Models.

Adv Genet 2016 27;95:1-30. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

The utility of any model species cannot be judged solely in terms of the tools and approaches it provides for genetic analysis. A fundamental consideration is also how its biology has been shaped by the environment and the ecological niche which it occupies. By comparing different species occupying very different habitats we can learn how molecular and cellular mechanisms change during evolution in order to optimally adapt to their environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.05.002DOI Listing