38,477 results match your criteria Advances in experimental medicine and biology[Journal]


Correction to: Hypoglycemia, Malnutrition and Body Composition.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The original version of this chapter was inadvertently published with a subtitle which was a duplication of the chapter title. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_559DOI Listing

A Serious Game on Skull Anatomy for Dental Undergraduates.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:217-237

Anatomy Facility, School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Knowledge of the anatomy of the skull and its bones forms an important part of the understanding required for the study and practice of safe clinical dentistry. The use of serious games in healthcare education is well-documented, but there is comparatively little evidence for their use in dental education. Intrinsically integrated rewards are a game mechanic that can be motivational for serious game users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_10DOI Listing
January 2020

Collect the Bones, Avoid the Cones: A Game-Based App for Public Engagement.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:203-216

Anatomy Facility, School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Game-based applications (apps) and serious games enable educationalists to teach complex life sciences topics. Gamification principles (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_9DOI Listing
January 2020

A Methodology for Visualising Growth and Development of the Human Temporal Bone.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:183-202

Anatomy Facility, School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

This chapter presents a methodological framework which could be used to produce accurate anatomical 3D models and animations of the developing skull, with a focus on the temporal bone. Initial modelling is based on information from core texts and visual references, before optimising these models for use in interactive real-time applications. A series of 3D modelling and animation workflows typically used in computer games and animation industry were tested and compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_8DOI Listing
January 2020

Understanding the Brain and Exploring the Effects of Clinical Fatigue: From a Patient's Perspective.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:149-181

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases are a group of devastating autoimmune disorders that all share a common debilitating symptom fatigue. Fatigue is not widely understood and is often underrepresented in treatment regimes. Fatigue is the least successfully managed symptom of these conditions; however, it can often be the one of the greatest impairments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_7DOI Listing
January 2020

The Use of Augmented Reality to Raise Awareness of the Differences Between Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:115-147

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Arthritis is one of the most common disease states worldwide but is still publicly misunderstood and lacks engaging public awareness materials. Within the UK, the most prevalent types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The two are commonly mistaken as the same disease but, in fact, have very different pathogenesis, symptoms and treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_6DOI Listing
January 2020

Enabling More Accessible MS Rehabilitation Training Using Virtual Reality.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:95-114

Department of Physiotherapy and Paramedicine, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder caused by damage to the myelin that protects nerve fibres, resulting in demyelinated lesions and causing various symptoms, one of which is muscle weakness. Physical rehabilitation is an integral part of managing MS, as well as its symptoms, and over time, the forms of implementing rehabilitation have changed according to novel technologies. Virtual reality (VR) has already been successfully applied to many fields of life sciences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Engaging with Children Using Augmented Reality on Clothing to Prevent Them from Smoking.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:59-94

School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Smoking is a harmful habit, causing a range of severe consequences which could lead to premature death. This habit is still prevalent amongst young people. In order to protect children, effective early interventions supported by public instances need to be set in place. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Animated Guide to Represent a Novel Means of Gut-Brain Axis Communication.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:39-57

College of Medicine, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Novel scientific concepts must be made understandable to allow their further development, highlighting the need for better communication of abstract ideas that these discoveries are built upon. This project focused on visually communicating the discovery of microbiome-derived molecules that play a major role in microbiome-gut-brain axis communication through multimedia learning.A 4-min animated video that was segmented and used a combination of 2D and 3D models was created. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_3DOI Listing
January 2020

eLearning and Embryology: Designing an Application to Improve 3D Comprehension of Embryological Structures.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:19-38

Anatomy Facility, School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Embryology and histology are subjects that are viewed as particularly challenging by students in higher education. This negative perception is the result of many factors such as restricted access to lab facilities, lack of allocated time to these labs, and the complexity of the subject itself. One main factor that influences this viewpoint is the difficulty of grasping 3D orientation of sectioned tissues, especially regarding embryology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Virtual Anatomy Museum: Facilitating Public Engagement Through an Interactive Application.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1262:1-18

Anatomy Facility, School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Digitisation has become a common practice in the preservation of museum collections. Recent development of photogrammetry techniques allows for more accessible acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) models that serve as accurate representations of their originals. One of the potential applications of this is presenting digital collections as virtual museums to engage the public. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43961-3_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Human Hair: Scaffold Materials for Regenerative Medicine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:223-229

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

This chapter reviews the studies of keratin-based biomaterials in the past and discusses the advancement of it in recent years. Keratin, as a protein-based biopolymer, possesses excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, keratin has abundant disulfide bonds, which result in its unique and tough structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_14DOI Listing
January 2020

Protein-Based Drug Delivery in Brain Tumor Therapy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:203-221

Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, and BK21 PLUS Future Biopharmaceutical Human Resource Training and Research Team, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Despite the use of active surgeries, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in clinical practice, brain tumors are still a difficult health problem due to their rapid development and poor prognosis. To treat brain tumors, various nanoparticles can be used to target effective physiological conditions based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and microenvironments to promote effective brain tumor-targeting drug delivery. In addition, a brain tumor-targeting drug delivery system that increases drug accumulation in the brain tumor area and reduces toxicity in the normal brain and peripheral tissues is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_13DOI Listing
January 2020

Fundamentals and Current Strategies for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:173-201

3B's Research Group, I3Bs - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal.

A body of evidence indicates that peripheral nerves have an extraordinary yet limited capacity to regenerate after an injury. Peripheral nerve injuries have confounded professionals in this field, from neuroscientists to neurologists, plastic surgeons, and the scientific community. Despite all the efforts, full functional recovery is still seldom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_12DOI Listing
January 2020

Application of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Maternal-Fetal Medicine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:161-171

Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

A rapid development of ultrasonography has enabled physicians to make earlier prenatal diagnosis of various fetal congenital diseases, in maternal-fetal medicine. Due to the significant mortality and irreversible damage to fetal vital organs during pregnancy, fetal surgeries have been tried in some congenital disease including congenital diaphragmatic hernia, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), myelomeningocele (MMC), and lower urinary tract obstruction. However, open fetal surgery requires laparotomy followed by hysterotomy, which can cause preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM), oligohydramnios, preterm delivery, dehiscence of uterine wall, and other maternal complications during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_11DOI Listing
January 2020

Extracellular Vesicles: The Next Frontier in Regenerative Medicine and Drug Delivery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:143-160

College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized membrane particles secreted by cells to convey intercellular information. In recent years, EVs have enticed scientists owing to their prevalent distribution, enormous possibility as therapeutic aspirants, and probable roles as disease biomarkers. As natural transporters in the endogenous communication system, they play a role in protein, lipid, miRNA, mRNA, and DNA transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_10DOI Listing
January 2020

Directional Cell Migration Guide for Improved Tissue Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:131-140

Institute of Cell & Tissue Engineering and College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

The field of tissue regeneration has seen a paradigm shift after one wave of technological innovation after another, which has notably made significant contributions to basic cellular response control and overall tissue regeneration. One particular area that is seeing rekindled interest after technological innovation is managing cell migration toward defects because successful host cell migration from adjacent tissue can accelerate overall regeneration time in tissue defects that are either large in size or irregular in shape. This chapter surveys significant advances on directed cell migration upon topological cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_9DOI Listing
January 2020

Bio-application of Inorganic Nanomaterials in Tissue Engineering.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:115-130

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea.

Inorganic nanomaterials or nanoparticles (INPs) have drawn high attention for their usage in the biomedical field. In addition to the facile synthetic and modifiable property of INPs, INPs have various unique properties that originate from the components of the INPs, such as metal ions that are essential for the human body. Apart from their roles as components of the human body, inorganic materials have unique properties, such as magnetic, antibacterial, and piezoelectric, so that INPs have been widely used as either carriers or inducers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_8DOI Listing
January 2020

Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration: To Use or Not to Use?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:97-114

Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

Joint cartilage has been a significant focus on the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) since its inception in the 1980s. Represented by only one cell type, cartilage has been a simple tissue that is thought to be straightforward to deal with. After three decades, engineering cartilage has proven to be anything but easy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Visible Light-Curable Hydrogel Systems for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:85-93

Institute of Cell & Tissue Engineering and College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Visible light-curable hydrogels have been investigated as tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery carriers due to their physicochemical and biological properties such as porosity, reservoirs for drugs/growth factors, and similarity to living tissue. The physical properties of hydrogels used in biomedical applications can be controlled by polymer concentration, cross-linking density, and light irradiation time. The aim of this review chapter is to outline the results of previous research on visible light-curable hydrogel systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_6DOI Listing
January 2020

3D Bioprinting of Tissue Models with Customized Bioinks.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:67-84

Biovalda Health Technologies, Inc., Ankara, Turkey.

The ordered assembly of multicellular structures mimicking native tissues has lately come into prominence for various applications of biomedicine. In this respect, three-dimensional bioprinting (3DP) of cells and other biologics through additive manufacturing techniques has brought the possibility to develop functional in vitro tissue models and perhaps creating de novo transplantable tissues or organs in time. Bioinks, which can be defined as the printable analogues of the extracellular matrix, represent the foremost component of 3DP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Silk Fibroin Bioinks for Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Bioprinting.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:53-66

Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been a highly influential technology in the field of tissue engineering to enable speedy and precise spatial patterning of cells, growth factors, and biomaterials. Bioink is one of the main factors in 3D bioprinting, and hydrogels are excellent matrix type by means of bioinks for 3D bioprinting. Recently, stereolithographic bioprinting via digital light processing (DLP) that allows high spatial resolution and rapid printing time of complex structures has attracted many studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Natural Fibrous Protein for Advanced Tissue Engineering Applications: Focusing on Silk Fibroin and Keratin.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:39-49

Department of Industrial Engineering and BIOtech Research Center, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

As one of the important branches of natural biopolymer, natural fibrous protein has a lot of advantages including good mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, renewability, abundant sources, and so on. Moreover, natural fibrous protein is also a protein that could only be used for structure supporting without any bioactivities, which attracts a lot of attentions in the field of tissue engineering scaffold. This chapter is taking silk fibroin and keratin as model materials of natural fibrous protein, focusing on their protein structure, chemical compositions, processing and extraction methods, chemical modification methods, and their applications in tissue engineering through advanced manufacturing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_3DOI Listing
January 2020

Application of Gellan Gum-Based Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:15-37

Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Department of Polymer Nano Science & Technology and Polymer BIN Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea.

Gellan gum (GG) is a linear microbial exopolysaccharide which is derived naturally by the fermentation process of Pseudomonas elodea. Application of GG in tissue engineering and regeneration medicine (TERM) is already over 10 years and has shown great potential. Although this biomaterial has many advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxic in nature, and physical stability in the presence of cations, a variety of modification methods have been suggested due to some disadvantages such as mechanical properties, high gelation temperature, and lack of attachment sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Natural Sources and Applications of Demineralized Bone Matrix in the Field of Bone and Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:3-14

Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Department of Polymer Nano Science & Technology and Polymer BIN Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea.

Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is one of the most widely used materials for bone repair. Recently, different strategies in tissue engineering have been used to improve preparation of biomaterials from natural sources suitable for the use in bone regeneration. However, the application of DBM in tissue engineering is still a challenge, because the mechanical properties which are essential to bear tensile and load and the risk of transmission of disease by donor are still a matter of homework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Surface-Modifying Polymers for Blood-Contacting Polymeric Biomaterials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:189-198

Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Bulk blending is considered as one of the most effective and straightforward ways to improve the hemo-compatibility of blood-contacting polymeric biomaterials among many surface modification methods. Zwitterionic structure-, glycocalyx-like structure-, and heparin-like structure-based oligomers have been synthesized as additives and blended with base polymers to improve the blood compatibility of base polymers. Fluorinated end- and side-functionalized oligomers could promote the migration of functionalized groups to the surface of biomedical polymers without changing their bulk properties, and it highly depends on the number and concentration of functional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_13DOI Listing
January 2020

Recent Advances of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics for Bone Tissue Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:177-188

Department of Systems Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics consist of an intimate mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in varying ratios. Due to their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and safety in in vitro, in vivo, and clinical models, they have become promising bone substitute biomaterials and are recommended for use as alternatives for or as additives in bone tissue regeneration in various orthopedic and dental applications. Many studies have demonstrated the potential uses of BCP bioceramics as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_12DOI Listing
January 2020

Natural Polyphenols as Modulators of the Fibrillization of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:159-176

3B's Research Group, I3Bs - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (type-2 diabetes) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the increased blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (e.g., muscles and adipose tissue). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_11DOI Listing
January 2020

Regulation of Stem Cell Functions by Micro-Patterned Structures.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:141-155

Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Micro-patterned surfaces have been broadly used to control the morphology of stem cells for investigation of the influence of physiochemical and biological cues on stem cell functions. Different structures of micro-patterned surfaces can be prepared by photolithography through designing the photomask features. Cell spreading area, geometry, aspect ratio, and alignment can be regulated by the micro-patterned structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_10DOI Listing
January 2020

Biocompatibility of Materials for Biomedical Engineering.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:125-140

Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

In the tissue engineering research field, nanobiomaterials highlight the impact of novel bioactive materials in both current applications and their potentials in future progress for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering is a well-investigated and challenging biomedical field, with promising perspectives to improve and support quality of life for the patient. To assess the response of those extracellular matrices (ECMs), induced by biomedical materials, this review will focus on cell response to natural biomaterials for biocompatibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_9DOI Listing
January 2020

In Vivo Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of Biomaterial Device.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:109-124

I3B's - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics of University of Minho: 3Bs Research Group, Guimarães, Portugal.

Biomaterials are widely used to produce devices for regenerative medicine. After its implantation, an interaction between the host immune system and the implanted biomaterial occurs, leading to biomaterial-specific cellular and tissue responses. These responses may include inflammatory, wound healing responses, immunological and foreign-body reactions, and even fibrous encapsulation of the implanted biomaterial device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_8DOI Listing
January 2020

The Development of Extracellular Vesicle-Integrated Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:97-108

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The clinical need for effective bone regeneration remains in huge demands. Although autologous and allogeneic bone grafts are generally considered "gold standard" treatments for bone defects, these approaches may result in various complications. Furthermore, safety considerations of gene- and cell-based therapies require further clarification and approval from regulatory authorities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Enhancing Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration of Gellan Gum by Incorporating Gallus gallus var Domesticus-Derived Demineralized Bone Particle.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:79-93

Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Department of Polymer Nano Science & Technology and Polymer BIN Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea.

Treatment for the osteochondral defects (ODs) is more challenging nowadays that needs to be addressed by developing alternative bone tissue engineering materials. Gellan gum (GG) is a widely used natural polysaccharide in the field of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine due to its versatile properties. There are many reports about the successful application of GG in cartilage tissue engineering and guiding bone formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_6DOI Listing
January 2020

Design of Advanced Polymeric Hydrogels for Tissue Regenerative Medicine: Oxygen-Controllable Hydrogel Materials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:63-78

Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Engineered polymeric hydrogels have been extensively utilized in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine because of their biocompatibility, tunable properties, and structural similarity in their native extracellular microenvironment. The native extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated as a crucial factor in the regulation of cellular behaviors and their fate. The emerging trend in the design of hydrogels involves the development of advanced materials to precisely recapitulate the native ECM or to stimulate the surrounding tissues via physical, chemical, or biological stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Alginate Hydrogels: A Tool for 3D Cell Encapsulation, Tissue Engineering, and Biofabrication.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:49-61

Department of Industrial Engineering and BIOtech Research Center, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

A wide variety of hydrogels have been proposed for tissue engineering applications, cell encapsulation, and bioinks for bioprinting applications. Cell-laden hydrogel constructs rely on natural hydrogels such as alginate, agarose, chitosan, collagen, gelatin, fibroin, and hyaluronic acid (HA), as well as on synthetic hydrogels such as poloxamers (Pluronics) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alginate has become more and more important in the last years, thanks to the possibility to prepare alginate hydrogels suitable for cell encapsulation mainly because of the mild and reversible cross-linking conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Injectable In Situ-Forming Hydrogels for Protein and Peptide Delivery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:35-48

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

Injectable in situ-forming hydrogels have been used clinically in diverse biomedical applications. These hydrogels have distinct advantages such as easy management and minimal invasiveness. The hydrogels are aqueous formulations, and a simple injection at the target site replaces a traditional surgical procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_3DOI Listing
January 2020

Decellularized Extracellular Matrices for Tissue Engineering and Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:15-31

Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) from mammalian tissues and organs are particularly interesting as scaffolds for tissue engineering and regeneration when considering their ability to retain chemical compositions and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures that are similar to native ECMs. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different decellularization methods that use various agents, such as ionic and nonionic detergents and biological enzymes. The applications of dECMs as scaffolds or hydrogels for tissue engineering of specific tissues including heart valves, blood vessels, and skin, as well as their performance in vitro and in vivo, are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Bone Regeneration Using Duck's Feet-Derived Collagen Scaffold as an Alternative Collagen Source.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1250:3-13

Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Department of Polymer Nano Science & Technology and Polymer BIN Research Center, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea.

Collagen is an important component that makes 25-35% of our body proteins. Over the past decades, tissue engineers have been designing collagen-based biocompatible materials and studying their applications in different fields. Collagen obtained from cattle and pigs has been mainly used until now, but collagen derived from fish and other livestock has attracted more attention since the outbreak of mad cow disease, and they are also used as a raw material for cosmetics and foods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3262-7_1DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Urinary Tract Infections: Current Concepts and Therapeutic Options.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common infections in human medicine worldwide, recognized as an important public health concern to healthcare systems around the globe. In addition, urine specimens are one of the most frequently submitted samples for culture to the clinical microbiology laboratory, exceeding the number of most of the other sample types. The epidemiology, species-distribution and susceptibility-patterns of uropathogens vary greatly in a geographical and time-dependent manner and it also strongly correlated with the reported patient population studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_566DOI Listing

Evaluation of Microbial Growth in Hospital Textiles Through Challenge Test.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Introduction: Ensuring the microbiological quality of textiles is an important requirement for health care facilities. The present study examines the way transport times and temperatures influence microbial growth in textiles. Therefore, the effectiveness of washing and disinfection processes has also been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_560DOI Listing

Biomatrices for Heart Regeneration and Cardiac Tissue Modelling In Vitro.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Cardiac muscle is the hardest working muscle in the body, pumping approximately 70 g of blood with every heartbeat, circulating 9500 l of blood daily and contracting over 3 billion times during the average human's life. Heart failure - a heterogeneous syndrome - is a major and increasing health care problem worldwide and a leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in elderly. Adequate heart tissue regeneration in human is lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_564DOI Listing

Smart Polymeric Systems: A Biomedical Viewpoint.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, 1665659911, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) are a recent innovative approach that has numerous biomedical applications. These smart polymers can be used in various industrial and medical areas. Smart polymeric hydrogels are a new class of biomedical materials that have attracted much attention in recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_563DOI Listing

Pruritus Characteristics in Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Adult Patients.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Physiotherapy, Opole Medical School, Opole, Poland.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as a most common inflammatory skin disease. The condition is characterized by recurrent eczematous lesions and intense pruritus or itch, a hallmark of AD. The aim of this study was to identify the provoking factors of itch in severe AD adult patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_548DOI Listing

Multiple Dynamics in Tumor Microenvironment Under Radiotherapy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:175-202

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an evolutionally low-level and embryonically featured tissue comprising heterogenic populations of malignant and stromal cells as well as noncellular components. Under radiotherapy (RT), the major modality for the treatment of malignant diseases [1], TME shows an adaptive response in multiple aspects that affect the efficacy of RT. With the potential clinical benefits, interests in RT combined with immunotherapy (IT) are intensified with a large scale of clinical trials underway for an array of cancer types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_10DOI Listing
January 2020

Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in the Tumor Microenvironment (TME): A Dragon-Like Weapon in a Non-fantasy Game of Thrones.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:145-173

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMRS1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are expressed not only in innate and adaptive immune cells but also in stromal cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells (EC), and tumor cells. The role of TLR signaling in the TME is complex and controversial due to their wide expression within the TME. Moreover, TLR signaling may culminate in different outcomes depending on the type of tumor, the implicated TLR, the type of TLR ligands, and, most importantly, the main type of cell(s) that are targeted by TLR ligands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_9DOI Listing
January 2020

Chimeric Antigen Receptors for the Tumour Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:117-143

Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has dramatically revolutionised cancer treatment. The FDA approval of two CAR-T cell products for otherwise incurable refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) and aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma has established this treatment as an effective immunotherapy option. The race for extending CAR-T therapy for various tumours is well and truly underway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_8DOI Listing
January 2020

Endothelial Progenitors in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:85-115

Department of Oncology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Tumor vascularization refers to the formation of new blood vessels within a tumor and is considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Tumor vessels supply the tumor with oxygen and nutrients, required to sustain tumor growth and progression, and provide a gateway for tumor metastasis through the blood or lymphatic vasculature. Blood vessels display an angiocrine capacity of supporting the survival and proliferation of tumor cells through the production of growth factors and cytokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Stellate Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:67-84

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

As tumor microenvironments share many of the same qualities as chronic wounds, attention is turning to the wound-repair cells that support the growth of cancerous cells. Stellate cells are star-shaped cells that were first discovered in the perisinusoidal spaces in the liver and have been found to support wound healing by the secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix. They have since been also found to serve a similar function in the pancreas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_6DOI Listing
January 2020

GLI2-Mediated Inflammation in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:55-65

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer and has been shown to contribute to resistance to therapy. Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of cancer implicated in disease phenotype. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflammation in cancer and consequently how inflammatory mediators promote cancer progression is important for our understanding of cancer cell biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of HIV on the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1263:45-54

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Oncomodulatory viruses can affect the tumor microenvironment (TME) by triggering inflammation, suppressing apoptosis, initiating angiogenesis, altering tumor metabolism, and stimulating tumor cell signaling pathways, leading to tumor growth, proliferation, and invasion. The higher incidence of malignancies among people with HIV (PWH), despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suggests a more complex relation than HIV-associated immune deregulation. Viral cooperation can have synergistic effect on tumorigenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44518-8_4DOI Listing
January 2020