223,618 results match your criteria Advances in experimental medicine and biology[Journal]


Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Clinical presentations and diagnosis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an overwhelming clinical syndrome associated with extreme immune activation. Familial HLH is caused by autosomal recessive inheritance of gene mutations that cripple lymphocyte cytotoxicity. X-linked lymphoproliferative diseases and mutations in NLRC4 also feature HLH as a predominant manifestation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Comprehensive identification of protein disulfide bonds with pepsin/trypsin digestion, Orbitrap HCD and Spectrum Identification Machine.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Advanced Proteomics Research and Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers University - New Jersey Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address:

Disulfide bonds (SS) are post-translational modifications important for the proper folding and stabilization of many cellular proteins with therapeutic uses, including antibodies and other biologics. With budding advances of biologics and biosimilars, there is a mounting need for a robust method for accurate identification of SS. Even though several mass spectrometry methods have emerged for this task, their practical use rests on the broad effectiveness of both sample preparation methods and bioinformatics tools. Read More

View Article
December 2018

KIT as a therapeutic target for non-oncological diseases.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, Marseille, France; Clinique des Bronches, Allergies et Sommeil, Hôpital Nord, AP-, HM, Marseille, France.. Electronic address:

KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Aquatic animal viruses mediated immune evasion in their host.

Authors:
Fei Ke Qi-Ya Zhang

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

Viruses are important and lethal pathogens that hamper aquatic animals. The result of the battle between host and virus would determine the occurrence of diseases. The host will fight against virus infection with various responses such as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, apoptosis, and so on. Read More

View Article
December 2018

How do complex animal signals evolve?

Authors:
Chad M Eliason

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 17;16(12):e3000093. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Integrative Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, United States of America.

Animal signals-involving combinations of acoustic, chemical, visual, and behavioral cues-are among the most diverse traits in nature. Testing hypotheses about signal evolution has been hampered by difficulties with comparing highly divergent signals among species. In this Primer, I describe recent advances in capturing signals and studying their evolution. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Automatic interpretation of otoliths using deep learning.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0204713. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

The age structure of a fish population has important implications for recruitment processes and population fluctuations, and is a key input to fisheries-assessment models. The current method of determining age structure relies on manually reading age from otoliths, and the process is labor intensive and dependent on specialist expertise. Recent advances in machine learning have provided methods that have been remarkably successful in a variety of settings, with potential to automate analysis that previously required manual curation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Williams syndrome: recent advances in our understanding of cognitive, social and psychological functioning.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Since the last review of Williams syndrome in Current Opinion (2001) there have been many advances in knowledge about the cognitive, social and psychological impairments that characterize the disorder. The present review focuses on current research in these areas.

Recent Findings: Williams syndrome is associated with a wide range of cognitive, linguistic, social and other difficulties. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Novel Immunotherapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

Am J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Hematology/Oncology and GW Cancer Center, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the abnormal proliferation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow leading to end-organ manifestations. Despite the advancement in the therapy and care of patients with MM, relapse and resistance to standard therapy remain significant. The development of immunotherapy as a treatment modality for many types of cancers has led investigators to explore its use in MM in order to elicit myeloma-targeted immune responses, especially given that immune dysregulation is an underlying feature in the pathogenesis and progression of MM. Read More

View Article
December 2018

New insights into the pathophysiology of IgG4-related disease and markers of disease activity.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine , Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine , Kanazawa , Japan.

Introduction: Recently, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has become a well-recognized clinical entity, although its causes are still not well understood. The pathophysiology of IgG4-RD has been reported from a variety of aspects. Areas covered: In this review, we outline a number of recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD, divided according to acquired immunology and innate immunology and other topics. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Topical hyaluronic acid in the management of oral lichen planus: A comparative study.

J Investig Clin Dent 2018 Dec 17:e12385. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder seen in clinical dental practice. Despite the progress in research and advances in knowledge, the successful management of OLP is still difficult to achieve. The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic effects of triamcinolone (TA) preparation (0. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Molecular Regulation Mechanisms and Interactions Between Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitophagy.

DNA Cell Biol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

1 Department of Spine Center, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University , Nanjing, Jiangsu, China .

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to oxidative stress has important effects on cell development, normal function, and survival. It may cause oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecular substances and mitochondria through several signaling pathways. However, the damaged mitochondria promote further ROS generation, creating a vicious cycle that can cause cellular injury. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Newborn screening for Prader-Willi syndrome is feasible: Early diagnosis for better outcomes.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics and Metabolism, University of California, Irvine, California.

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), is a complex genetic disease affecting 1/15,000 individuals, characterized by lack of expression of genes on the paternal chromosome 15q11-q13 region. Clinical features include central hypotonia, poor suck, learning and behavior problems, growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Despite significant advances in genetic testing, the mean age for diagnosis in PWS continues to lag behind. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Reanalysis and optimisation of bioinformatic pipelines is critical for mutation detection.

Hum Mutat 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre for Clinical Genetics, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, Australia.

Rapid advances in genomic technologies have facilitated the identification pathogenic variants causing human disease. We report siblings with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to a novel, shared heterozygous pathogenic 13 bp duplication in SYNGAP1 (c.435_447dup, p. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

RAB27A promotes melanoma cell invasion and metastasis via regulation of pro-invasive exosomes.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

The Centenary Institute, The University of Sydney, Newtown, NSW, Australia.

Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, advanced stage melanoma remains a clinical challenge with a poor prognosis. Understanding the genes and cellular processes that drive progression and metastasis is critical for identifying new therapeutic strategies. Here, we found that the GTPase RAB27A was overexpressed in a subset of melanomas, which correlated with poor patient survival. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Surface and interface design for heterogeneous catalysis.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China.

Surface and interface designs are an efficient strategy to fabricate innovative and advanced catalysts. A prerequisite for this is a fundamental understanding of the structure-performance relations of catalyst nanoparticles, which, however, remains a formidable challenge due to the complexity of heterogeneous catalysis. Recent progresses in catalytic nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined structures, in situ characterization techniques, and theoretical calculations have offered opportunities for the fundamental studies of heterogeneous catalysis, and the achieved outputs are turning the innovation of efficient catalysts via surface and interface designs into a reality. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Phenolic Acids Derivatives - Biotechnological Methods of Synthesis and Bioactivity.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department Of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Poland.

Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites belonging to polyphenol classes, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. The name "phenolic acids", in general, describes phenols that possess one carboxylic acid functionality and they could be divided into three major subclasses: hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxyphenylacetic acids. The great interest in phenolic acids is associated with their high potential for food preservation (antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) and, last but not least, high therapeutic potential. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Recent Advances in the Understanding of the Reaction Chemistries of the Heme Catabolizing Enzymes HO and BVR Based on High Resolution Protein Structures.

Curr Med Chem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka. Japan.

In mammals, catabolism of the heme group is indispensable for life. Heme is first cleaved by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) to the linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin IXα (BV), and BV is then converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVR). HO utilizes three oxygen molecules (O2) and seven electrons supplied by NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) to open the heme ring and BVR reduces BV through the use of NAD(P)H. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nanomedicine Advances in Topical Infective and Non-Infective Skin Diseases Therapy.

Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2018 ;13(2):104

University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

View Article
January 2018
1 Read

Joshua Harold Burn (1892-1981): A visionary during the evolution of pharmacology as a biomedical discipline.

Authors:
Ronald P Rubin

J Med Biogr 2018 Dec 17:967772016685908. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine, the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

This article encapsulates the career of Joshua Burn, whose work encouraged new lines of experimentation and paved the way for fundamental advances in our knowledge of the autonomic nervous system. His legacy also endures in his efforts as Department Chairman to oversee a very supportive environment which led to the development of many successful scientists. By producing a body of work that enabled the discipline of pharmacology to contribute in a major way to the advancement of clinical medicine, Joshua Burn stands out as a unique figure in the annals of true scientific pioneers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Spatiotemporal Control Strategies for Bone Formation through Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Approaches.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 17:e1801044. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 599 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Global increases in life expectancy drive increasing demands for bone regeneration. The gold standard for surgical bone repair is autografting, which enjoys excellent clinical outcomes; however, it possesses significant drawbacks including donor site morbidity and limited availability. Although collagen sponges delivered with bone morphogenetic protein, type 2 (BMP2) are a common alternative or supplement, they do not efficiently retain BMP2, necessitating extremely high doses to elicit bone formation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Enabling PIEZOpotential in PIEZOelectric Semiconductors for Enhanced Catalytic Activities.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 771 Ferst Dr., NW, 3100K, Molecular Science & Engineering Bldg., 30332, Atlanta, UNITED STATES.

The past several decades have witnessed significant advances in synthesis and applications of PIEZOelectric semiconductors. They represent an important class of materials, including piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric semiconductors. Notably, an intriguing combination of physical and chemical phenomena in PIEZOelectric semiconductors has triggered much interest in PIEZOcatalysis. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Temperature thresholds for germination in 20 short-range endemic plant species from a Greenstone Belt in southern Western Australia.

Authors:
A Cochrane

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Biodiversity Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions Bentley Delivery Centre, Locked Bag 104, Western Australia, 6983.

The study of climate-driven effects on seed traits such as germination has gained momentum over the past decade as the impact of global warming becomes more apparent on the health and survival of plant diversity. Seed response to warming was evaluated in a suite of short-range endemic species from the biodiverse Greenstone Belt of southern Western Australia. The temperature dimensions for germination in 20 woody perennials were identified using small un-replicated samples over 6 weeks on a temperature gradient plate (constant and fluctuating temperatures between 5 and 40 °C). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Recent Advances in Transparent Electronics with Stretchable Forms.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 17:e1804690. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Nano Science Technology Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Advances in materials science and the desire for next-generation electronics have driven the development of stretchable and transparent electronics in the past decade. Novel applications, such as smart contact lenses and wearable sensors, have been introduced with stretchable and transparent form factors, requiring a deeper and wider exploration of materials and fabrication processes. In this regard, many research efforts have been dedicated to the development of mechanically stretchable, optically transparent materials and devices. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions: dynamic associations that facilitate network function and remodeling.

Curr Opin Physiol 2018 Jun 7;3:94-100. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine 638A Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6085.

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can form complex networks in the cell. These networks can be rapidly remodeled in response to environmental changes or to support cellular needs. Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on interactions with the cellular cytoskeleton - both microtubules and actin filaments. Read More

View Article

All-photonic quantum teleportation using on-demand solid-state quantum emitters.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 14;4(12):eaau1255. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz, Austria.

All-optical quantum teleportation lies at the heart of quantum communication science and technology. This quantum phenomenon is built up around the nonlocal properties of entangled states of light that, in the perspective of real-life applications, should be encoded on photon pairs generated on demand. Despite recent advances, however, the exploitation of deterministic quantum light sources in push-button quantum teleportation schemes remains a major open challenge. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Self-Assembly of a Designed Nucleoprotein Architecture through Multimodal Interactions.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 15;4(11):1578-1586. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

The co-self-assembly of proteins and nucleic acids (NAs) produces complex biomolecular machines (e.g., ribosomes and telomerases) that represent some of the most daunting targets for biomolecular design. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Conceptual Advances from Werner Complexes to Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 22;4(11):1457-1464. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Alfred Werner's work on the geometric aspects of how ligands bind to metal ions at the end of the 19th century has given rise, in the molecular realm, to organometallic, bioinorganic, and cluster chemistries. By stitching together organic and inorganic units into crystalline porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the connectivity, spatial arrangement, and geometry of those molecular complexes can now be fixed in space and become directly addressable. The fact that MOFs are porous provides additional space within which molecules can further be transformed and their chemistry controlled. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Declining Procedures by Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Trainees.

Front Pediatr 2018 30;6:365. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Departments of Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine and Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship trainees need to acquire skills to perform procedures. Over the last several years there have been advances that allowed for less invasive forms of interventions. Our hypothesis was that over the past decade the rate of procedures performed by Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship trainees decreased. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Spontaneous Regression of Ovarian Carcinoma After Septic Peritonitis; A Unique Case Report.

Front Oncol 2018 29;8:562. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy and prognosis has not substantially improved over the past 3 decades. Immunotherapy is a promising new treatment option. However, the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment must be overcome for immunotherapy to be successful. Read More

View Article
November 2018

The regulatory network of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis with a focus on EBV, lncRNAs and miRNAs.

Am J Cancer Res 2018 1;8(11):2185-2209. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis of The Chinese Ministry of Health and The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of The Chinese Ministry of Education, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University Changsha 410008, Hunan, P. R. China.

Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains a main cause of death for NPC patients even though great advances have been made in therapeutic approaches. An in-depth study into the molecular mechanisms of NPC metastasis will help us combat NPC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an evident feature of nonkeratinizing NPC and is strongly associated with tumor metastasis. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Exosomes in cancer therapy: a novel experimental strategy.

Am J Cancer Res 2018 1;8(11):2165-2175. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Shenzhen Hornetcorn Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Shihua Road 14, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P. R. China.

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types. They play important roles in intercellular communications and many physiological processes. DCs-derived exosomes can prime naïve T cells and activate NK cells to shrink the tumor. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Recent advances in the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium uptake.

F1000Res 2018 28;7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, 35131, Italy.

In the last few decades, a large body of experimental evidence has highlighted the complex role for mitochondria in eukaryotic cells: they are not only the site of aerobic metabolism (thus providing most of the ATP supply for endergonic processes) but also a crucial checkpoint of cell death processes (both necrosis and apoptosis) and autophagy. For this purpose, mitochondria must receive and decode the wide variety of physiological and pathological stimuli impacting on the cell. The "old" notion that mitochondria possess a sophisticated machinery for accumulating and releasing Ca , the most common and versatile second messenger of eukaryotic cells, is thus no surprise. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Skin as an immune organ and clinical applications of skin-based immunotherapy.

World Allergy Organ J 2018 7;11(1):38. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

5Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo Mexico.

Background: The prevalence of food allergy is increasing, and allergen avoidance continues to be the main standard of care. There is a critical need for safe and effective forms of immunotherapy for patients with food allergy as well as other allergic diseases.

Findings: The skin is a multifunctional organ with unique immunologic properties, making it a favorable administration route for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Adoptive Cell Transfer: Is it a Promising Immunotherapy for Colorectal Cancer?

Theranostics 2018 10;8(20):5784-5800. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, USA.

The last decade has witnessed significant advances in the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) technique, which has been appreciated as one of the most promising treatments for patients with cancer. Utilization of ACT can enhance the function of the immune system or improve the specificity and persistence of transferred cells. Various immune cells including T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and even stem cells can be used in the ACT despite their different functional mechanisms. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Self-assembly of porphyrin-grafted lipid into nanoparticles encapsulating doxorubicin for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy and fluorescence imaging.

Theranostics 2018 3;8(19):5501-5518. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The limited clinical efficacy of monotherapies in the clinic has urged the development of novel combination platforms. Taking advantage of light-triggered photodynamic treatment combined together with the controlled release of nanomedicine, it has been possible to treat cancer without eliciting any adverse effects. However, the challenges imposed by limited drug loading capacity and complex synthesis process of organic nanoparticles (NPs) have seriously impeded advances in chemo-photodynamic combination therapy. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Chemoresistance of Cancer Cells: Requirements of Tumor Microenvironment-mimicking Models in Anti-Cancer Drug Development.

Theranostics 2018 22;8(19):5259-5275. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Center for BioMicrosystems, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea.

For decades, scientists have been using two-dimensional cell culture platforms for high-throughput drug screening of anticancer drugs. Growing evidence indicates that the results of anti-cancer drug screening vary with the cell culture microenvironment, and this variation has been proposed as a reason for the high failure rate of clinical trials. Since the culture condition-dependent drug sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs may negatively impact the identification of clinically effective drug candidates, more reliable cancer platforms are urgently needed. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Genetic Diagnostic Evaluation of Trio-Based Whole Exome Sequencing Among Children With Diagnosed or Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Genet 2018 30;9:594. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Developmental and Behavioral Pediatric Department - Child Primary Care Department, Brain and Behavioral Research Unit of Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research and MOE Shanghai Key Laboratory for Children's Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent tremendous advances in the whole exome sequencing (WES) enable rapid identification of variants associated with ASD including single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and indels. To further explore genetic etiology of ASD in Chinese children with negative findings of copy number variants (CNVs), we applied WES in 80 simplex families with a single affected offspring with ASD or suspected ASD, and validated variations predicted to be damaging by Sanger sequencing. Read More

View Article
November 2018

The Epigenetics of Alzheimer's Disease: Factors and Therapeutic Implications.

Front Genet 2018 30;9:579. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder that imposes a great burden on the world. The mechanisms of AD are not yet fully understood. Current insight into the role of epigenetics in the mechanism of AD focuses on DNA methylation, remodeling of chromatin, histone modifications and non-coding RNA regulation. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Novel Strategies for Malaria Vaccine Design.

Front Immunol 2018 29;9:2769. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cape Coast, Ghana.

The quest for a licensed effective vaccine against malaria remains a global priority. Even though classical vaccine design strategies have been successful for some viral and bacterial pathogens, little success has been achieved for , which causes the deadliest form of malaria due to its diversity and ability to evade host immune responses. Nevertheless, recent advances in vaccinology through high throughput discovery of immune correlates of protection, lymphocyte repertoire sequencing and structural design of immunogens, provide a comprehensive approach to identifying and designing a highly efficacious vaccine for malaria. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Host-Directed Drug Therapies for Neglected Tropical Diseases Caused by Protozoan Parasites.

Front Microbiol 2018 30;9:2655. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pathology, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatments using anti-parasitic drugs are toxic and prolonged with poor patient compliance. In addition, emergence of drug-resistant parasites is increasing worldwide. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Reciprocal Effects Among Parental Homework Support, Effort, and Achievement? An Empirical Investigation.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:2334. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Foundations, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, United States.

The present study investigates reciprocal influences of parental homework support, effort, and math achievement, using two waves of data from 336 9th-graders. Results revealed that higher prior autonomy-oriented support and homework effort resulted in higher subsequent achievement. Higher prior content-oriented support led to higher subsequent effort, but lower subsequent achievement. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Editorial: Advances and Challenges in Nanomedicine.

Front Pharmacol 2018 29;9:1397. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

View Article
November 2018

Advances in Achieving Opioid Analgesia Without Side Effects.

Front Pharmacol 2018 29;9:1388. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental Anesthesiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Opioids are the most effective drugs for the treatment of severe pain, but they also cause addiction and overdose deaths, which have led to a worldwide opioid crisis. Therefore, the development of safer opioids is urgently needed. In this article, we provide a critical overview of emerging opioid-based strategies aimed at effective pain relief and improved side effect profiles. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Uncovering Biologically Coherent Peripheral Signatures of Health and Risk for Alzheimer's Disease in the Aging Brain.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 29;10:390. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, United States.

Brain aging is a multifaceted process that remains poorly understood. Despite significant advances in technology, progress toward identifying reliable risk factors for suboptimal brain health requires realistically complex analytic methods to explain relationships between genetics, biology, and environment. Here we show the utility of a novel unsupervised machine learning technique - Correlation Explanation (CorEx) - to discover how individual measures from structural brain imaging, genetics, plasma, and CSF markers can jointly provide information on risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Potentials of Cellular Reprogramming as a Novel Strategy for Neuroregeneration.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 30;12:460. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Cellular reprogramming technology holds great potential for tissue repair and regeneration to replace cells that are lost due to diseases or injuries. In addition to the landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells, advances in cellular reprogramming allow the direct lineage conversion of one somatic cell type to another using defined transcription factors. This direct reprogramming technology represents a rapid way to generate target cells in the laboratory, which can be used for transplantation and studies of biology and diseases. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Efficacy and safety of crizotinib in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 29;10:6555-6561. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Thoracic Oncology - Sheikha Badriya Alsabah Centre, Kuwait Cancer Control Center, Shuwaikh, Kuwait.

Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, despite advances in management, especially with targeted agents and immunotherapy. Numerous oncogenes have been identified that control the growth of these malignancies. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase that develops distorted functioning as a result of chromosomal rearrangement. Read More

View Article
November 2018

miR-424 targets AKT3 and PSAT1 and has a tumor-suppressive role in human colorectal cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 29;10:6537-6547. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China,

Background: Recent advances in cancer biology have uncovered critical roles for microRNAs in regulating tumor responses. This study is to elucidate the role of miR-424 in colorectal cancer development.

Materials And Methods: miR-424 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Read More

View Article
November 2018

lncRNA FBXL19-AS1 regulates osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by sponging miR-346.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 29;11:8409-8420. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China,

Background: It was recently reported that lncRNA FBXL19 antisense RNA 1 (FBXL19-AS1) is a novel tumor-promoting RNA that contributes to tumor progression by sponging miRNAs. However, the expression and function of FBXL19-AS1 in osteosarcoma (OS) have not been investigated.

Methods: Cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 and colony formation assays, while cell migration and invasion were assessed using wound healing and transwell invasion assays, respectively. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Structure-Property Relationships for 3D printed PEEK Intervertebral Lumbar Cages Produced using Fused Filament Fabrication.

J Mater Res 2018 Jul 18;33(14):2040-2051. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Implant Research Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.

Recent advances in additive manufacturing technology now enable fused filament fabrication (FFF) of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). A standardized lumbar fusion cage design was 3D printed with different speeds of the print head nozzle to investigate whether 3D printed PEEK cages exhibit sufficient material properties for lumbar fusion applications. It was observed that the compressive and shear strength of the 3D printed cages were 63-71% of the machined cages, whereas the torsion strength was 92%. Read More

View Article
July 2018
1 Read

Wiring the depressed brain: optogenetic and chemogenetic circuit interrogation in animal models of depression.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The advent of optogenetics and chemogenetics has revolutionized the study of neural circuit mechanisms of behavioral dysregulation in psychiatric disease. These powerful technologies allow manipulation of specific neurons to determine causal relationships between neuronal activity and behavior. Optogenetic tools have been key to mapping the circuitry underlying depression-like behavior in animal models, clarifying the contribution of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral hippocampus, and other limbic areas, to stress susceptibility. Read More

View Article
December 2018