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    844 results match your criteria Advances in chronic kidney disease[Journal]

    1 OF 17

    Self-Management and Health Care Transition Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease: Medical and Psychosocial Considerations.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):405-409
    Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, NC; Hospital Pediátrico del Estado de México, Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia Pública, Toluca, Estado de Mexico, México; Hospital de Los Angeles, CDMx, México; Departamento de Enseñanza, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMx, México; Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMx, México; Unidad de Investigación y Diagnóstico en Nefrología, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, CDMx, México; Department of Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, NC; Departmento de Ética, Universidad Panamericana de Mexico, CDMx, Mexico; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH; Department of Nephrology, Cleveland Clinic Akron General, Akron, OH; SickKids, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Health care transition (HCT) is a process that requires preparation as a continuum from pediatric- to adult-focused services. For adolescents and young adults with chronic or ESRD, this process can be prolonged due to their physical, psychological, family, or ecological factors. HCT preparation is a matter of patient safety and patient rights as the consequences of poor preparation at the time of transfer to adult-focused services are great, including rejection of organs, disease relapse, or even death. Read More

    Special Considerations in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):398-404
    Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX; Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX; Division of Immunology and Organ Transplantation, Department of Surgery, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX; and Department of Pediatric Urology, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX.
    Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Read More

    Care of the Pediatric Patient on Chronic Dialysis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):388-397
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke Children's Hospital, Durham, NC and Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine; Division of Nephrology, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, MO.
    Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential. Read More

    Acute Kidney Injury in Children.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):380-387
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; and Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has become one of the more common complications seen among hospitalized children. The development of a consensus definition has helped refine the epidemiology of pediatric AKI, and we now have a far better understanding of its incidence, risk factors, and outcomes. Strategies for diagnosing AKI have extended beyond serum creatinine, and the most current data underscore the diagnostic importance of oliguria as well as introduce the concept of urinary biomarkers of kidney injury. Read More

    Monogenic Hypertension in Children: A Review With Emphasis on Genetics.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):372-379
    Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Hypertension (HT) is a public health problem in children particularly related to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. Monogenic forms of HT are important in the differential diagnosis in children presenting with severe or refractory HT, who have a family history of early-onset HT, unusual physical examination findings, and/or characteristic hormonal and biochemical abnormalities. Most genetic defects in these disorders ultimately result in increased sodium transport in the distal nephron resulting in volume expansion and HT. Read More

    Glomerular Diseases in Children.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):364-371
    From Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, and Texas Children's Hospital, Renal Section, Houston, TX; and Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology, and Department of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.
    Unique challenges exist in the diagnosis and treatment of glomerular diseases with their onset during childhood. Mounting evidence supports the notion that earlier onset cases occur due to larger numbers of genetic risk alleles. Nearly all causes of adult-onset glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and thrombotic microangiopathy have also been described in children, although the prevalence of specific causes differs. Read More

    Holding Water: Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract, CKD, and the Ongoing Role of Excellence in Plumbing.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):357-363
    Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tracts can result in diminished natal kidney function, possibly through common embryologic pathway disruption or as a result of development taking place in the face of disordered 'post-renal' drainage. Impaired conduit and reservoir function present potential for an ongoing assault leading to further deterioration and progression of chronic kidney disease, a risk that extends to adults with these conditions, even after "correction". The drainage and storage aspects of the urinary system that can impact kidney function are reviewed with attention to correctable or manageable problems including: Bladder dysfunction wherein the low pressure storage of urine is compromised requiring the kidney to work against a pressure gradient, the classic post renal failure problem. Read More

    Measurement and Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;24(6):348-356
    University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY.
    Rapid, accurate, and precise measures of kidney function are essential for daily management of patients. While plasma and urinary clearances provide the greatest accuracy for assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), these are often impractical particularly for the care of children. Serum creatinine, the most commonly used endogenous marker, is simple, convenient, and practical but less accurate because of the influence of non-GFR determinants such as muscle mass, which increases with age in children. Read More

    Treatment of Disorders of Sodium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):332-341
    Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; and Renal Section, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:
    Extracellular fluid volume expansion is nearly universal in patients with CKD. Such volume expansion has features similar to the syndrome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which not only leads to symptoms but can also lead to further organ damage. Unique treatment challenges are present in this patient population, including low glomerular filtration, which limits sodium chloride filtration, intrinsic tubule predisposition to sodium chloride retention, and proteinuria. Read More

    Sodium Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):325-331
    Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:
    The pathologic consequences of sodium retention in the CKD population can lead to hypertension, edema, and progressive disease. Sodium excess is responsible for increases in oxidative stress, which alters kidney vasculature. As progression of CKD occurs, hyperfiltration by remaining nephrons compensates for an overall decrease in the filtered load of sodium. Read More

    Treatment of Abnormalities of Potassium Homeostasis in CKD.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):319-324
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; and Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research Division, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.
    Hyperkalemia, defined as serum potassium concentrations greater than 5.0 to 5.5 mEq/L, is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice because of the increasing incidence and prevalence of CKD. Read More

    Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia in CKD: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):315-318
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; and Nephrology Section, Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:
    Abnormalities of serum potassium are common in patients with CKD. Although hyperkalemia is a well-recognized complication of CKD, the prevalence rates of hyperkalemia (14%-20%) and hypokalemia (12%-18%) are similar. CKD severity, use of medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and diuretics, and dietary potassium intake are major determinants of serum potassium concentration in CKD. Read More

    Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis in CKD.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):305-314
    Section on General Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, and the Division of Nephrology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:
    Disturbances of potassium homeostasis can cause either hyperkalemia or hypokalemia and result in serious consequences. Although the consequences of acute and chronic hyperkalemia and treatment of these conditions in CKD have been widely appreciated by nephrologists, more recent information has focused attention on the consequences of chronic hypokalemia. Several recent studies have documented a "U-shaped" relationship between the serum [K] and higher mortality in several clinical studies. Read More

    Management of the Metabolic Acidosis of Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):298-304
    Baylor Scott and White Health Department of Internal Medicine, Temple, TX; Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX; Baylor Scott and White Health Department of Internal Medicine, Dallas, TX; and Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:
    Subjects with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate are at risk for chronic metabolic acidosis, and CKD is its most common cause. Untreated metabolic acidosis, even in its mildest forms, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and should therefore be treated. If reduced glomerular filtration rate or the tubule abnormality causing chronic metabolic acidosis cannot be corrected, it is typically treated with dietary acid (H) reduction using Na-based alkali, usually NaHCO. Read More

    Adverse Effects of the Metabolic Acidosis of Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):289-297
    Medical and Research Services VHAGLA Healthcare System, UCLA Membrane Biology Laboratory and Division of Nephrology VHAGLA Healthcare System and David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; and Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance, and therefore, a fall in renal net acid excretion and positive Hbalance often leading to reduced serum [HCO] are observed in the course of CKD. This metabolic acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, development or exacerbation of bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, increased inflammation, progression of CKD, protein malnutrition, alterations in insulin, leptin, and growth hormone, and increased mortality. Importantly, some of the adverse effects can be observed even in the absence of overt hypobicarbonatemia. Read More

    Epidemiology of Acid-Base Derangements in CKD.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):280-288
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY; and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. Electronic address:
    Acid-base disorders are in patients with chronic kidney disease, with chronic metabolic acidosis receiving the most attention clinically in terms of diagnosis and treatment. A number of observational studies have reported on the prevalence of acid-base disorders in this patient population and their relationship with outcomes, mostly focusing on chronic metabolic acidosis. The majority have used serum bicarbonate alone to define acid-base status due to the lack of widely available data on other acid-base disorders. Read More

    Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):274-279
    Nephrology Section 111L, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; and Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.
    The kidneys play a major role in the regulation of acid-base balance by reabsorbing bicarbonate filtered by the glomeruli and excreting titratable acids and ammonia into the urine. In CKD, with declining kidney function, acid retention and metabolic acidosis occur, but the extent of acid retention depends not only on the degree of kidney impairment but also on the dietary acid load. Acid retention can occur even when the serum bicarbonate level is apparently normal. Read More

    Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Review of Treatment of Cardiorenal Syndrome.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):261-266
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI; and Division of Cardiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.
    Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalization with worsening kidney function or acute kidney injury often complicating the admission, which can result in further dysfunction of both systems in the form of a cardiorenal syndrome. Therapy in this arena has been largely empiric as rigorous clinical trial data to inform therapeutic choices are lacking. Here we review and discuss the available clinical evidence for common approaches to the management of this condition. Read More

    Dual Organ Duel: The Hepatorenal Axis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):253-260
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.
    Recent developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of liver failure have highlighted that kidney injury, rather than occurring in isolation, is a marker of systemic disease and poor prognosis. The differential diagnosis of kidney disease associated with liver failure is broader than formerly described and new biopsy data, along with better acute kidney injury classification tools, have increased appreciation for distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Evidence suggests that acute kidney injury contributes to worsening hepatic failure by directly injuring hepatic cells and by imposing restrictions on therapeutic strategies for portal hypertension. Read More

    Follow-up Care in Acute Kidney Injury: Lost in Transition.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):246-252
    Division of Nephrology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA; Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS), Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center, Veteran's Health Administration, Nashville, TN; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; and Vanderbilt Center for Kidney Disease (VCKD) and Integrated Program for AKI Research (VIP-AKI), Nashville, TN.
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common condition that is associated with long-term health outcomes. Recent studies have demonstrated that AKI, particularly when severe or persistent, is associated with all-cause mortality, CKD, ESRD, cardiovascular events, and reduced quality of life. However, data from multiple health care systems indicate that most patients do not see a nephrologist, although 1 study has suggested patients with AKI requiring dialysis may benefit from doing so. Read More

    Information Technology and Acute Kidney Injury: Alerts, Alarms, Bells, and Whistles.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):241-245
    Program of Applied Translational Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Haven, CT. Electronic address:
    The goal of this review is to describe the rationale for alerting systems for acute kidney injury, the challenges associated with alert implementation, and the efficacy (or lack thereof) of acute kidney injury alerts to date. Read More

    Kidney Toxicities Associated With Novel Cancer Therapies.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):233-240
    Renal Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. Electronic address:
    Targeted therapies that act via unique molecular pathways and interfere with cancer cell growth and tumor progression have dramatically changed the cancer treatment paradigm. However, although, ideally, these therapies intend to target only cancer cells, they do often affect nonmalignant tissue. Numerous renal side effects have been reported to date. Read More

    Acute Kidney Injury in Transplant Setting: Differential Diagnosis and Impact on Health and Health Care.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):228-232
    Division of Nephrology, Kidney C.A.R.E. Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; and Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in kidney transplant recipients. In addition to the usual causes of AKI in native kidneys, certain features and risk factors are unique to kidney allografts. In this article, we will present an overview of the common transplant-specific AKI etiologies that include increased susceptibility to hemodynamic-mediated AKI, acute rejection, medication-induced AKI, recurrence of native kidney disease, infections, urinary tract obstruction, vascular thrombosis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Read More

    Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):219-227
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:
    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. Read More

    Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Reviewing Current Best Practice to Provide High-Quality Extracorporeal Therapy to Critically Ill Patients.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):213-218
    Divisions of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine; Renal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; and Division of Nephrology, University of Arkansas for Medial Sciences, Little Rock, AK.
    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use continues to expand globally. Despite improving technology, CRRT remains a complex intervention. Delivery of high-quality CRRT requires close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team including members of the critical care medicine, nephrology, nursing, pharmacy, and nutrition support teams. Read More

    Fluid Resuscitation: Principles of Therapy and "Kidney Safe" Considerations.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):205-212
    Division of Nephrology, Kidney C.A.R.E. Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:
    Fluid resuscitation in the acutely ill must take into consideration numerous elements, including the intravenous solution itself, the phase of resuscitation, and the strategies toward volume management which are paramount. With the advancement in the understanding and implementation of aggressive fluid resuscitation has also come a greater awareness of the resultant fluid toxicity, especially in those that suffer acute kidney injury, and the realization that there is continued ambiguity with regard to volume mitigation and removal in the resuscitated patient. As such, the discussion regarding intravenous solutions continues to evolve especially as it pertains to their effect on kidney and metabolic function, electrolytes, and ultimately patient outcome. Read More

    Epidemiology of AKI: Utilizing Large Databases to Determine the Burden of AKI.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 07;24(4):194-204
    Kidney Disease@Farr Collaboration, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; and Kidney Disease@Farr Collaboration, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Large observational databases linking kidney function and other routine patient health data are increasingly being used to study acute kidney injury (AKI). Routine health care data show an apparent rise in the incidence of population AKI and an increase in acute dialysis. Studies also report an excess in mortality and adverse renal outcomes after AKI, although with variation depending on AKI severity, baseline, definition of renal recovery, and the time point during follow-up. Read More

    A High-Content Screening Technology for Quantitatively Studying Podocyte Dynamics.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):183-188
    Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:
    Podocytes form the visceral layer of a kidney glomerulus and express a characteristic octopus-like cellular architecture specialized for the ultrafiltration of blood. The cytoskeletal dynamics and structural elasticity of podocytes rely on the self-organization of highly interconnected actin bundles, and the maintenance of these features is important for the intact glomerular filtration. Development of more differentiated podocytes in culture has dramatically increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating podocyte actin dynamics. Read More

    The Impact of Excess Ligand on the Retention of Nonionic, Linear Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in Patients With Various Levels of Renal Dysfunction: A Review and Simulation Analysis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):176-182
    Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
    The role of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in the pathophysiology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is now uncontested. Although the definitive mechanism has not been established, the association with weaker GBCA ligands and with reduced renal clearance supports a hypothesis that Gd release from the GBCAs is a key process in precipitating the disease. Prevention strategies often include the use of more stable GBCA ligands in patients with reduced kidney function, but animal models and some clinical data suggest that better patient outcomes can be achieved when excess ligand is administered with weaker GBCAs; this is particularly significant for OptiMARK, which contains a nonionic, linear ligand similar to gadodiamide, the active ingredient in Omniscan, but contains twice the amount of excess ligand. Read More

    Intravenous Contrast-Induced Nephropathy-The Rise and Fall of a Threatening Idea.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):169-175
    Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:
    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been considered to be a cause of renal failure for over 50 years, but careful review of past and recent studies reveals the risks of CIN to be overestimated. Older studies frequently cited the use of high-osmolality contrast media, which have since been replaced by low-osmolality contrast media, which have lower risks for nephropathy. In addition, literature regarding CIN typically describes the incidence following cardiac angiography, whereas the risk of CIN from intravenous injection is much lower. Read More

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Kidneys-With and Without Gadolinium-Based Contrast.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):162-168
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, 729 Arapeen Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108. Electronic address:
    Assessment of renal function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been actively explored in the past decade. In this review, we introduce the principle of MRI and review recent progress of MRI methods (contrast enhanced and noncontrast) in assessing renal function. Contrast-enhanced MRI using ultra-low dose of gadolinium-based agent has been validated for measuring single-kidney glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow accurately. Read More

    The Role of PET Scanning in the Evaluation of Patients With Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):154-161
    Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT; Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; and VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT. Electronic address:
    Patients with underlying kidney disease are often required to undergo imaging for a variety of purposes including diagnosis and prognosis. A test that is being increasingly used with for this group of patients is the positron emission test (PET) scan. In addition, combining the nuclear medicine technique (PET) with computed tomography scan allows additional imaging advantages over either alone. Read More

    Recent Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Renal Fibrosis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):150-153
    Selzman Institute for Kidney Health and Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; and Center for Translational Research on Inflammatory Diseases (CTRID) and Renal Section, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    CKD is a global public health problem. Renal fibrosis is a final common pathway leading to progressive loss of function in CKD. The degree of renal fibrosis predicts the prognosis of CKD. Read More

    Intravenous Contrast: Friend or Foe? A Review on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):147-149
    Division of Nephrology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX. Electronic address:
    Intravenous iodinated contrast is used in many contrasted imaging studies ranging from computed tomography to angiography. The risks of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and its incidence have not been clearly defined. Most iodinated contrast media used today are hypertonic compared with serum osmolality and pose biological risks. Read More

    Gadolinium Retention and Toxicity-An Update.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 05;24(3):138-146
    Department of Radiology, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal; Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; and Department of Radiology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Until 2006, the main considerations regarding safety for all gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) were related to short-term adverse reactions. However, the administration of certain "high-risk" GBCAs to patients with renal failure resulted in multiple reported cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Findings have been reported regarding gadolinium deposition within the body and various reports of patients who report suffering from acute and chronic symptoms secondary to GBCA's exposure. Read More

    IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):94-100
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Read More

    Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):86-93
    Section on Nephrology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Institute for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Prague, Czech Republic; and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    There are 3 major forms of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD): ADTKD due to UMOD mutations, MUC1 mutations, and mutations in the REN gene encoding renin. Lack of knowledge about these conditions contributes to frequent nondiagnosis, but with even limited knowledge, nephrologists can easily obtain a diagnosis and improve patient care. There are 3 cardinal features of these disorders: (1) the conditions are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and should be considered whenever both a parent and child suffer from kidney disease; the presence of even more affected family members provides further support. Read More

    Tubulointerstitial Injury and Drugs of Abuse.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):80-85
    Department of Nephrology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; and Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Read More

    Medication-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in the 21st Century.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):72-79
    Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:
    Interstitial nephritis is an immune mediated form of tubulointerstitial kidney injury that may occur secondary to drugs, autoimmune disease, infections, and hematologic disorders or as a reactive process. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) occurs in 0.5%-3% of all kidney biopsies and in 5%-27% of biopsies performed for acute kidney injury. Read More

    Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Interstitial Nephritis.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):64-71
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) is a drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) that manifests 7 to 10 days after exposure to the culprit drug. DHRs account for fewer than 15% of reported adverse drug reactions. The kidneys are susceptible to DHR because: (1) the high renal blood flow whereby antigens are filtered, secreted, or concentrated, and (2) it is a major site of excretion for drugs and drug metabolites. Read More

    Clinical Approach to Diagnosing Acute and Chronic Tubulointerstitial Disease.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):57-63
    Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:
    Tubulointerstitial diseases are a relatively common cause of acute and/or chronic kidney disease. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) most commonly develops in patients exposed to various medications; however, it can occur from infections, autoimmune and systemic diseases, environmental exposures, and some idiopathic causes. Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis may develop in patients with previous ATIN or may be the initial manifestation of an autoimmune, systemic, environmental, or metabolic process. Read More

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