1,028 results match your criteria Advances in cancer research[Journal]


The second genome: Effects of the mitochondrial genome on cancer progression.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 27;142:63-105. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, and The University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS, United States. Electronic address:

The role of genetics in cancer has been recognized for centuries, but most studies elucidating genetic contributions to cancer have understandably focused on the nuclear genome. Mitochondrial contributions to cancer pathogenesis have been documented for decades, but how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences cancer progression and metastasis remains poorly understood. This lack of understanding stems from difficulty isolating the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes as experimental variables, which is critical for investigating direct mtDNA contributions to disease given extensive crosstalk exists between both genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Bittersweet tumor development and progression: Emerging roles of epithelial plasticity glycosylations.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 27;142:23-62. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The best-known cancer metabolic anomaly is an increase in aerobic glycolysis, which generates ATP and other basic building blocks, such as nucleotides, lipids, and proteins to support tumor cell growth and survival. Epithelial plasticity (EP) programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are evolutionarily conserved processes that are essential for embryonic development. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0065230X193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Pharmacology of ME-344, a novel cytotoxic isoflavone.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 6;142:187-207. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

Isoflavones isolated from members of the Fabaceae (primarily Leguminosae) family have been characterized for their phytoestrogenic properties, but certain derivatives have also shown potential as possible cancer therapeutic agents. ME-344, related to phenoxodiol (Fig. 1), is a second generation isoflavone with a recent history of both preclinical and early clinical testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.005DOI Listing

HVEM network signaling in cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 27;142:145-186. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, NCI-Designated Cancer Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Somatic mutations in cancer cells may influence tumor growth, survival, or immune interactions in their microenvironment. The tumor necrosis factor receptor family member HVEM (TNFRSF14) is frequently mutated in cancers and has been attributed a tumor suppressive role in some cancer contexts. HVEM functions both as a ligand for the lymphocyte checkpoint proteins BTLA and CD160, and as a receptor that activates NF-κB signaling pathways in response to BTLA and CD160 and the TNF ligands LIGHT and LTα. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Pathways- and epigenetic-based assessment of relative immune infiltration in various types of solid tumors.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 6;142:107-143. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

3R Biosystems, Long Beach, CA, United States.

Recent clinical studies document the power of immunotherapy in treating subsets of patients with advanced cancers. In this context and with multiple cancer immunotherapeutics already evaluated in the clinic and a large number in various stages of clinical trials, it is imperative to comprehensively examine genomics data to better comprehend the role of immunity in different cancers in predicting response to therapy and in directing appropriate therapies. The approach we chose is to scrutinize the pathways and epigenetic factors predicted to drive immune infiltration in different cancer types using publicly available TCGA transcriptional and methylation datasets, along with accompanying clinico-pathological data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019
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Highly variant DNA methylation in normal tissues identifies a distinct subclass of cancer patients.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 27;142:1-22. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Fels Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

The "CpG Island Methylator Phenotype" (CIMP) has been found to be a useful concept in stratifying several types of human cancer into molecularly and clinically distinguishable subgroups. We have identified an additional epigenetic stratification category, the "Outlier Methylation Phenotype" (OMP). Whereas CIMP is defined on the basis of hyper-methylation in tumor genomes, OMP is defined on the basis of highly variant (either or both hyper- and hypo-methylation) methylation at many sites in normal tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2019.01.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Preface.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 ;141:xi-xiii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-230X(19)30008-9DOI Listing
January 2019

Clonal hematopoiesis: Pre-cancer PLUS.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 14;141:85-128. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Clonal hematopoiesis is a common, age-related process in which a somatically mutated hematopoietic precursor gives rise to a genetically distinct subpopulation in the blood. This phenomenon has been observed in populations across the globe and, while virtually non-existent in children is estimated to affect >10% of the 70-and-older age group. The mutations are thought to occur in stem cells, which makes them pre-cancerous, and precursors to cancer stem cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0065230X183007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019
19 Reads

Dormancy and cancer stem cells: An enigma for cancer therapeutic targeting.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 16;141:43-84. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Dormancy occurs when cells remain viable but stop proliferating. When most of a cancer population undergoes this phenomenon, the result is called tumor dormancy, and when a single cancer cell undergoes this process, it is termed quiescence. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) share several overlapping characteristics and signaling pathways with dormant cancer cells, including therapy resistance, and an ability to metastasize and evade the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Exploiting epigenetically mediated changes: Acute myeloid leukemia, leukemia stem cells and the bone marrow microenvironment.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 21;141:213-253. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) derives from the clonal expansion of immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and results in the disruption of normal hematopoiesis and subsequent bone marrow failure. The bone marrow microenvironment (BME) and its immune and other supporting cells are regarded to facilitate the survival, differentiation and proliferation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which enables AML cells to persist and expand despite treatment. Recent studies have identified epigenetic modifications among AML cells and BME constituents in AML, and have shown that epigenetic therapy can potentially reprogram these alterations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Hypoxia-inducible factors promote breast cancer stem cell specification and maintenance in response to hypoxia or cytotoxic chemotherapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 19;141:175-212. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Institute for Cell Engineering, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, and Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Clinical studies have revealed that breast cancers contain regions of intratumoral hypoxia (reduced oxygen availability), which activates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The relationship between intratumoral hypoxia, distant metastasis and cancer mortality has been well established. A major mechanism by which intratumoral hypoxia contributes to disease progression is through induction of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Assays for functionally defined normal and malignant mammary stem cells.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 17;141:129-174. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Stem Cell and Cancer Biology, Division of Experimental Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:

The discovery of rare, heterogeneous self-renewing stem cells with shared developmental and molecular features within epithelial components of mammary gland and breast cancers has provided a conceptual framework to understand cellular composition of these tissues and mechanisms that control their number. These normal mammary epithelial stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified and analyzed using transplant assays (namely mammary repopulating unit (MRU) assay, mammary tumor-initiating cell (TIC) assay), which reveal their latent ability to regenerate respective normal and malignant epithelial tissues with self-renewing units displaying hierarchical cellular differentiation over multiple generations in recipient mice. "Next-generation" methods using "barcoded" normal and malignant mammary cells, with the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, have revealed hidden complexity and heterogeneous growth potential of MaSCs and BCSCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Regulation of cancer stem cell properties by SIX1, a member of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network.

Adv Cancer Res 2019 16;141:1-42. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network (PSEDN) is a central developmental transcriptional regulatory network from Drosophila to humans. The PSEDN is comprised of four conserved protein families; including paired box (PAX), sine oculis (SIX), eyes absent (EYA), and dachshund (DACH). Aberrant expression of PSEDN members, particularly SIX1, has been observed in multiple human cancers, where SIX1 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019
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Neutral Sphingomyelinases in Cancer: Friend or Foe?

Adv Cancer Res 2018 28;140:97-119. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

For many years, neutral sphingomyelinases (N-SMases) were long thought to be anticancer enzymes owing to their roles as key producers of ceramide linked to apoptosis, growth arrest, and the chemotherapeutic response. However, in recent years, with the cloning of multiple isoforms and with new information on their cellular roles, particularly for nSMase2, a more complex picture is emerging suggesting that N-SMases have both pro- and anticancer roles. In this chapter, we will summarize current knowledge on N-SMase expression in cancer and the roles of N-SMase activity and specific isoforms in cancer-relevant biologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.010DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Role and Function of Sphingomyelin Biosynthesis in the Development of Cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 29;140:61-96. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

Sphingomyelin (SM) biosynthesis represents a complex, finely regulated process, mostly occurring in vertebrates. It is intimately linked to lipid transport and it is ultimately carried out by two enzymes, SM synthase 1 and 2, selectively localized in the Golgi and plasma membrane. In the course of the SM biosynthetic reaction, various lipids are metabolized. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0065230X183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.009DOI Listing
May 2018
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Side Effects in Cancer Therapy: Are Sphingolipids to Blame?

Adv Cancer Res 2018 5;140:367-388. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Cancer patients' quality of life is greatly dependent on the efficacy of treatments and their associated side effects, which can significantly reduce the overall quality of life. Although the effectiveness of cancer treatments has improved over time, adverse effects persist with each treatment. Some side effects, such as paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, can be dose limiting, thus further reducing the potential of paclitaxel chemotherapy treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.017DOI Listing
June 2018
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Novel Sphingolipid-Based Cancer Therapeutics in the Personalized Medicine Era.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 19;140:327-366. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; University of Virginia Cancer Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids that participate in a wide variety of biological mechanisms, including cell death and proliferation. The myriad of pro-death and pro-survival cellular pathways involving sphingolipids provide a plethora of opportunities for dysregulation in cancers. In recent years, modulation of these sphingolipid metabolic pathways has been in the forefront of drug discovery for cancer therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320700PMC

Targeting Sphingosine Kinases for the Treatment of Cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 9;140:295-325. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Apogee Biotechnology Corporation, Hummelstown, PA, United States.

Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) are key, druggable targets within the sphingolipid metabolism pathway that promote tumor growth and pathologic inflammation. A variety of isozyme-selective and dual inhibitors of SK1 and SK2 have been described in the literature, and at least one compound has reached clinical testing in cancer patients. In this chapter, we will review the rationale for targeting SKs and summarize the preclinical and emerging clinical data for ABC294640 as the first-in-class selective inhibitor of SK2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447312PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Sphingolipids as Regulators of Autophagy and Endocytic Trafficking.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 22;140:27-60. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States.

Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a highly conserved stress response that engulfs damaged proteins, lipids, and/or organelles within double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Dysregulated autophagy is a hallmark of cancer; and thus, there is great interest in modulating autophagy for cancer therapy. Sphingolipids regulate each step of autophagosome biogenesis with roles for sphingolipid metabolites and enzymes spanning from the initial step of de novo ceramide synthesis to the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1-mediated exit from the sphingolipid pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.008DOI Listing
May 2018
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Interdiction of Sphingolipid Metabolism Revisited: Focus on Prostate Cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 20;140:265-293. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Sphingolipid metabolism is known to play a role in cell death, survival, and therapy resistance in cancer. Sphingolipids, particularly dihydroceramide and ceramide, are associated with antiproliferative or cell death responses, respectively, and are central to effective cancer therapy. Within the last decade, strides have been made in elucidating many intricacies of sphingolipid metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460930PMC
June 2018
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The Onus of Sphingolipid Enzymes in Cancer Drug Resistance.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 5;140:235-263. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, East Carolina University, Brody School of Medicine, and the East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, Greenville, SC, United States.

Chemotherapy resistance, inherent or acquired, represents a serious barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Although drug efflux, conducted by plasma membrane-resident proteins, detoxification enzymes, cell death inhibition, and DNA damage repair are ensemble players in this unwanted biology, a full understanding of the many in concert molecular mechanisms driving drug resistance is lacking. Recent discoveries in sphingolipid (SL) metabolism have provided significant insight into the role of these lipids in cancer growth; however, considerably less is known with respect to SLs and the drug-resistant phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.013DOI Listing
June 2018
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The Role of Ceramide 1-Phosphate in Tumor Cell Survival and Dissemination.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 24;140:217-234. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao, Spain.

Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive sphingolipid metabolite capable of regulating key physiologic cell functions and promoting pathologic processes. Concerning pathology, C1P or ceramide kinase (CerK), the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis in mammalian cells, has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and dissemination and is involved in inflammatory responses associated with different types of cancer cells. The mechanisms or signaling pathways mediating these C1P actions have only been partially described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.012DOI Listing

Ceramide Signaling and p53 Pathways.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 1;140:191-215. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Nutrition Research Institute, UNC Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, United States; Department of Nutrition, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Ceramides, important players in signal transduction, interact with multiple cellular pathways, including p53 pathways. However, the relationship between ceramide and p53 is very complex, and mechanisms underlying their coregulation are diverse and not fully characterized. The role of p53, an important cellular regulator and a transcription factor, is linked to its tumor suppressor function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361168PMC

Sphingolipids at the Crossroads of NAFLD and Senescence.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 1;140:155-190. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Lexington, KY, United States.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a group of liver disorders encompassing simple hepatic steatosis and its more aggressive forms of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. It is a rapidly growing health concern and the major cause for the increasing incidence of primary liver tumors. Unequivocal evidence shows that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in the course of the disease and these changes might contribute to NAFLD progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.05.002DOI Listing
June 2018
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Ceramide and Exosomes: A Novel Target in Cancer Biology and Therapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 9;140:121-154. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry micro RNAs and other factors to reprogram cancer cells and tissues affected by cancer. Exosomes are exchanged between cancer cells and other tissues, often to prepare a premetastatic niche, escape immune surveillance, or spread multidrug resistance. Only a few studies investigated the function of lipids in exosomes although their lipid composition is different from that of the secreting cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109973PMC

Mechanisms of Ceramide-Dependent Cancer Cell Death.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;140:1-25

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Mechanistic details for the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumor growth, response to chemo/radiotherapy, and metastasis have been investigated in recent studies using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacologic tools in various cancer models. Induction of ceramide generation in response to cellular stress by chemotherapy, radiation, or exogenous ceramide analog drugs mediates cell death via apoptosis, necroptosis, or mitophagy. In this chapter, distinct functions and mechanisms of action of endogenous ceramides with different fatty acyl chain lengths in the regulation of cancer cell death versus survival will be discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.007DOI Listing
January 2018

Preface.

Authors:
Ann-Marie Broome

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;139:xiii-xiv

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-230X(18)30054-XDOI Listing
January 2018

Dendronized Systems for the Delivery of Chemotherapeutics.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 18;139:85-120. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

This chapter reviews the use of dendronized systems as nanocarriers for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Dendronized systems include dendrimers prepared through convergent methods as well as other systems containing dendrons (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.003DOI Listing
May 2018
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Ultrasound Contrast Agents and Delivery Systems in Cancer Detection and Therapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 24;139:57-84. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Ultrasound is the second most utilized imaging modality in the world because it is widely accessible, robust, and safe. Aside from its extensive use in diagnostic imaging, ultrasound has also been frequently utilized in therapeutic applications. Particularly, when combined with appropriate delivery systems, ultrasound provides a flexible platform for simultaneous real-time imaging and triggered release, enabling precise, on-demand drug delivery to target sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.002DOI Listing
May 2018
19 Reads

Nanotechnology Approaches to Improving Cancer Immunotherapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 7;139:35-56. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, Carolina Institute of Nanomedicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapy is a powerful, growing treatment approach to cancer that can be combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and oncosurgery. Modulating the immune system to enhance anticancer response by several strategies has yielded improved cancer survival. Despite this progress, the success rate for immunotherapy has been below expectations due to unpredictable efficacy and off-target side effects from systemic dosing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.05.003DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Single-Cell Proteomics for Cancer Immunotherapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 23;139:185-207. Epub 2018 May 23.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapy fights against cancer by modulating the immune response and is delivering encouraging results in clinical treatments. However, it is challenging to achieve durable response in all cancer patients during treatment due to the diversity and dynamic nature of immune system as well as inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. A comprehensive assessment of system immunity and tumor microenvironment is crucial for effective and safe cancer therapy, which can potentially be resolved by single-cell proteomic analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.006DOI Listing
May 2018
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Gold Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 24;139:163-184. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States; Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States; Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are very attractive and versatile nanoparticles since they have a remarkable capacity to absorb and scatter light, convert optical energy into heat via nonradiative electron relaxation dynamics, and surface chemistries that can be capitalized upon so that the nanoparticles act as drug carriers. Au NPs have excellent stability and biocompatibility, tailorable shapes and sizes, an easily functionalized surface, high drug-loading capacity, and low toxicity. The properties of Au NPs can be leveraged to develop more precisely targeted and effective cancer therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.05.001DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry in Cancer Research.

Authors:
Shiqun Shao Min Xue

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;139:147-161

Department of Chemistry, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Supramolecular interactions, such as those observed between antibodies and antigens, have been employed in developing analytical methods for several decades. One major area of interest concerns cancer research, where intricate supramolecular designs have emerged to tackle difficult analytes in complex tumor systems. Our increasing knowledge toward supramolecular systems have elicited profound interest in creating more efficient analytical approaches, evidenced by the ever-growing body of literature in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.005DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Thermosensitive Liposomes for Image-Guided Drug Delivery.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;139:121-146

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States; Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Liposomes have been employed as cancer therapy clinically since the 1990s, with the primary benefit of reduced toxicity but no appreciable efficacy improvement. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) are specifically formulated such that they release the encapsulated drug when exposed to hyperthermic temperatures in the fever range (~40-42°C) and have been investigated as cancer therapy for several decades, with first clinical trials initiated in the last decade. Combined with localized hyperthermia, TSLs allow precise drug delivery to a targeted region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.004DOI Listing
January 2018

Exosomes as Theranostics for Lung Cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;139:1-33

Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; Department of Medicine and Hematology Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Extensive research in genetics and genomics has revealed that lung cancer is a physiologically complex and genetically heterogeneous disease. Although molecular targets that can yield favorable response have been identified, those targets cannot be exploited due to the lack of suitable drug carriers. Furthermore, lung cancer often is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the disease has metastasized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.04.001DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Extracellular-Regulated Kinases: Signaling From Ras to ERK Substrates to Control Biological Outcomes.

Authors:
Scott T Eblen

Adv Cancer Res 2018 2;138:99-142. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine-threonine kinases that are involved in regulating cellular signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. Their expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation is a major factor in cancer development and progression. Since their discovery as one of the major signaling mediators activated by mitogens and Ras mutation, we have learned much about their regulation, including their activation, binding partners and substrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6007982PMC

Acquired Resistance to Drugs Targeting Tyrosine Kinases.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 2;138:71-98. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs exemplifies the greatest hindrance to effective treatment of cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms responsible have been investigated for over 50 years and have revealed the lack of a single cause, but instead, multiple mechanisms including induced expression of membrane transporters that pump drugs out of cells (multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype), changes in the glutathione system, and altered metabolism. Treatment of cancer patients/cancer cells with chemotherapeutic agents and/or molecularly targeted drugs is accompanied by acquisition of resistance to the treatment administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985159PMC

VDAC Regulation: A Mitochondrial Target to Stop Cell Proliferation.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 2;138:41-69. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States; Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234976PMC
March 2018
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Prospects of Gene Therapy to Treat Melanoma.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 ;138:213-237

Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

The incidence of melanoma has continued to increase over the past 30 years. Hence, developing effective therapies to treat both primary and metastatic melanoma are essential. While advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy have provided novel therapeutic options to treat melanoma, gene therapy may provide additional strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma clinically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.007DOI Listing
January 2018
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Advances and Challenges of HDAC Inhibitors in Cancer Therapeutics.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 1;138:183-211. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Medical University of South Carolina, College of Pharmacy, Charleston, SC, United States. Electronic address:

Since the identification and cloning of human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the rapid approval of vorinostat (Zolinza®) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the field of HDAC biology has met many initial successes. However, many challenges remain due to the complexity involved in the lysine posttranslational modifications, epigenetic transcription regulation, and nonepigenetic cellular signaling cascades. In this chapter, we will: review the discovery of the first HDAC inhibitor and present discussion regarding the future of next-generation HDAC inhibitors, give an overview of different classes of HDACs and their differences in lysine deacylation activity, discuss different classes of HDAC inhibitors and their HDAC isozyme preferences, and review HDAC inhibitors' preclinical studies, their clinical trials, their pharmacokinetic challenges, and future direction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.006DOI Listing
March 2018
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Role of MDA-7/IL-24 a Multifunction Protein in Human Diseases.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 2;138:143-182. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Subtraction hybridization identified genes displaying differential expression as metastatic human melanoma cells terminally differentiated and lost tumorigenic properties by treatment with recombinant fibroblast interferon and mezerein. This approach permitted cloning of multiple genes displaying enhanced expression when melanoma cells terminally differentiated, called melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. One mda gene, mda-7, has risen to the top of the list based on its relevance to cancer and now inflammation and other pathological states, which based on presence of a secretory sequence, chromosomal location, and an IL-10 signature motif has been named interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218935PMC
March 2018
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Leveraging Epigenetics to Enhance the Cellular Response to Chemotherapies and Improve Tumor Immunogenicity.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 5;138:1-39. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs have greatly advanced our ability to successfully treat a variety of human malignancies. The different forms of stress produced by these agents in cancer cells result in both cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous effects. Desirable cell autonomous effects include reduced proliferative potential, cellular senescence, and cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2018.02.001DOI Listing
March 2018
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New Insights Into Beclin-1: Evolution and Pan-Malignancy Inhibitor Activity.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 27;137:77-114. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a functionally conserved self-degradation process that facilitates the survival of eukaryotic life via the management of cellular bioenergetics and maintenance of the fidelity of genomic DNA. The first known autophagy inducer was Beclin-1. Beclin-1 is expressed in multicellular eukaryotes ranging throughout plants to animals, comprising a nonmonophyllic group, as shown in this report via aggressive BLAST searches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.11.002DOI Listing
December 2017
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Bcl-2 Antiapoptotic Family Proteins and Chemoresistance in Cancer.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 6;137:37-75. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Cancer is a daunting global problem confronting the world's population. The most frequent therapeutic approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more recently immunotherapy. In the case of chemotherapy, patients ultimately develop resistance to both single and multiple chemotherapeutic agents, which can culminate in metastatic disease which is a major cause of patient death from solid tumors. Read More

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December 2017
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Evaluation of Resveratrol in Cancer Patients and Experimental Models.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 15;137:171-188. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Toxicology Research Cluster, Joan C. Edward School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, United States. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the top three causes of death in the United States. The treatment regimen for controlling cancer includes a number of approaches depending on the classification of the tumor. Treatment may include radiation, surgery, and cancer chemotherapy agents as well as other interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.11.006DOI Listing
December 2017
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A Theoretical Basis for the Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy and Immunogenic Tumor Dormancy: The Adaptation Model of Immunity.

Authors:
Masoud H Manjili

Adv Cancer Res 2018 10;137:17-36. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

In the past decades, a variety of strategies have been explored to cure cancer by means of immunotherapy, which is less toxic compared with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and could establish memory for long-lasting protection against tumor recurrence. These endeavors have been successful in offering therapeutic antibodies, vaccines, or cellular immunotherapies, which resulted in prolonging survival of some cancer patients; however, complete cures have not been consistently achieved. The conception, design, and implementation of these promising immunotherapeutic strategies have been influenced by two schools of thought in immunology, which include the "self-nonself" (SNS) model and the "danger" model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.11.005DOI Listing
January 2018

Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based Cancer Drug and Gene Delivery.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 7;137:115-170. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Effective and safe delivery of anticancer agents is among the major challenges in cancer therapy. The majority of anticancer agents are toxic to normal cells, have poor bioavailability, and lack in vivo stability. Recent advancements in nanotechnology provide safe and efficient drug delivery systems for successful delivery of anticancer agents via nanoparticles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.11.003DOI Listing
December 2017
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Unconventional Approaches to Modulating the Immunogenicity of Tumor Cells.

Adv Cancer Res 2018 3;137:1-15. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

For several years, it has been known that histone deacetylase inhibitors have the potential to alter the immunogenicity of tumor cells exposed to checkpoint inhibitory immunotherapy antibodies. HDAC inhibitors can rapidly reduce expression of PD-L1 and increase expression of MHCA in various tumor types that subsequently facilitate the antitumor actions of checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, we have discovered that drug combinations which cause a rapid and intense autophagosome formation also can modulate the expression of HDAC proteins that control tumor cell immunogenicity via their regulation of PD-L1 and MHCA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311107PMC
January 2018
1 Read

Preface.

Adv Cancer Res 2017 ;136:xi-xiv

Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-230X(17)30046-5DOI Listing
January 2017
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Selenoproteins and Metastasis.

Adv Cancer Res 2017 1;136:85-108. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States. Electronic address:

Cancer survival is largely impacted by the dissemination of cancer cells from the original tumor site to secondary tissues or organs through metastasis. Targets for antimetastatic therapies have recently become a focus of research, but progress will require a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving metastasis. Selenoproteins play important roles in many of the cellular activities underlying metastasis including cell adhesion, matrix degradation and migration, invasion into the blood and extravasation into secondary tissues, and subsequent proliferation into metastatic tumors along with the angiogenesis required for growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acr.2017.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150923PMC
June 2018
5 Reads