686 results match your criteria Advances in applied microbiology[Journal]


Yeasts for low input winemaking: Microbial terroir and flavor differentiation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 17;111:89-121. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Ramey Wine Cellars, Healdsburg, CA, United States.

Vitis vinifera flowers and grape fruits are one of the most interesting ecosystem niches for native yeasts development. There are more than a 100 yeast species and millions of strains that participate and contribute to design the microbial terroir. The wine terroir concept is understood when grape and wine micro-regions were delimited by different quality characteristics after humans had been growing vines for more than 10,000 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2020.02.001DOI Listing

Engineering transport systems for microbial production.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 8;111:33-87. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

The rapid development in the field of metabolic engineering has enabled complex modifications of metabolic pathways to generate a diverse product portfolio. Manipulating substrate uptake and product export is an important research area in metabolic engineering. Optimization of transport systems has the potential to enhance microbial production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2020.01.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Advances in the control of phytopathogenic fungi that infect crops through their root system.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 10;111:123-170. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Instituto de Investigación de la Viña y el Vino, Universidad de León, León, Spain.

Productivity and economic sustainability of many herbaceous and woody crops are seriously threatened by numerous phytopathogenic fungi. While symptoms associated with phytopathogenic fungal infections of aerial parts (leaves, stems and fruits) are easily observable and therefore recognizable, allowing rapid or preventive action to control this type of infection, the effects produced by soil-borne fungi that infect plants through their root system are more difficult to detect. The fact that these fungi initiate infection and damage underground implies that the first symptoms are not as easily noticeable, and therefore both crop yield and plant survival are frequently severely compromised by the time the infection is found. Read More

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February 2020

Genetic engineering for enhanced productivity in bioelectrochemical systems.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 8;111:1-31. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Biosciences-Department of Applied Biology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Biological Interfaces, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

A shift from petrochemical processes toward a bio-based economy is one of the most advocated developments for a sustainable future. To achieve this will require the biotechnological production of platform chemicals that can be further processed by chemical engineering. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a novel tool within the biotechnology field. Read More

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February 2020

Anaerobic and hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide-oxidizing prokaryotes: Versatile microbial conversion of a toxic gas into an available energy.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 2;110:99-148. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Marine Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas that is toxic to various organisms including humans and even microbes; however, it has low redox potential, which can fuel certain microbes, namely, CO oxidizers. Hydrogenogenic CO oxidizers utilize an energy conservation system via a CO dehydrogenase/energy-converting hydrogenase complex to produce hydrogen gas, a zero emission fuel, by CO oxidation coupled with proton reduction. Biochemical and molecular biological studies using a few model organisms have revealed their enzymatic reactions and transcriptional response mechanisms using CO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.12.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Bacteroidetes bacteria in the soil: Glycan acquisition, enzyme secretion, and gliding motility.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 5;110:63-98. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Gothenburg and Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

The secretion of extracellular enzymes by soil microbes is rate-limiting in the recycling of biomass. Fungi and bacteria compete and collaborate for nutrients in the soil, with wide ranging ecological impacts. Within soil microbiota, the Bacteroidetes tend to be a dominant phylum, just like in human and animal intestines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.11.001DOI Listing
December 2019

Glutathione: A powerful but rare cofactor among Actinobacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 27;110:181-217. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Microbial Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a powerful cellular redox agent. In nature only the l,l-form is common among the tree of life. It serves as antioxidant or redox buffer system, protein regeneration and activation by interaction with thiol groups, unspecific reagent for conjugation during detoxification, marker for amino acid or peptide transport even through membranes, activation or solubilization of compounds during degradative pathways or just as redox shuttle. Read More

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December 2019

The versatility of Pseudomonas putida in the rhizosphere environment.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 28;110:149-180. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

CSIC- Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

This article addresses the lifestyle of Pseudomonas and focuses on how Pseudomonas putida can be used as a model system for biotechnological processes in agriculture, and in the removal of pollutants from soils. In this chapter we aim to show how a deep analysis using genetic information and experimental tests has helped to reveal insights into the lifestyle of Pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida is a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) that establishes commensal relationships with plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.12.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 20;110:1-61. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Fungi are an important but frequently overlooked cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections mainly occur in immunocompromised patients, and are typically caused by environmental opportunists that take advantage of a weakened immune system. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important and well-documented mold pathogen of humans, causing a number of complex respiratory diseases, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an often fatal disease in patients with acute leukemia or in immunosuppressed bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients. Read More

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November 2019

Advances in yeast alcoholic fermentations for the production of bioethanol, beer and wine.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 25;109:61-119. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Yeasts have a long-standing relationship with humankind that has widened in recent years to encompass production of diverse foods, beverages, fuels and medicines. Here, key advances in the field of yeast fermentation applied to alcohol production, which represents the predominant product of industrial biotechnology, will be presented. More specifically, we have selected industries focused in producing bioethanol, beer and wine. Read More

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July 2020
5 Reads

Research progress on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of Aspergillus species.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 22;109:31-59. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

College of Biology and the Environment, Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins belong to a superfamily of transcription factors, and they are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Members of the bHLH protein family can form homodimers or heterodimers with themselves or other family members, and they often play bifunctional roles as activators and repressors to uniquely regulate the transcription of downstream target genes. The bHLH transcription factors are usually involved in developmental processes, including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.09.001DOI Listing

Microalgae for biofuel production.

Authors:
D James Gilmour

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 25;109:1-30. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Microalgae have been used commercially since the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in the Far East for human health foods and in the United States for wastewater treatment. Initial attempts to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels from microalgae were not successful, despite commercially favorable conditions during the 1970s oil crisis. However, research initiatives at this time, many using extremophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria (e. Read More

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The role of microorganisms in soy sauce production.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;108:45-113. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Soy sauce is a salty condiment commonly used in Eastern Asia that is made from soy beans with varying amounts of wheat or no wheat at all. It is known as shoyu in Japan, chiang-yu (or -yi) in China, kecup in Indonesia, kunjang in Korea, toyo in The Philippines, and see-ieu in Thailand (Beuchat, 1985; Djien, 1982; Fukushima, 1989). It provides flavor in an otherwise bland diet, and nutritionally it provides salt (NaCl) and predigested proteins in a diet that is traditionally protein poor. Read More

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Application of model systems to study adaptive responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and disease.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 26;108:115-161. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) claims more human lives than any other infectious organism. The lethal synergy between TB-HIV infection and the rapid emergence of drug resistant strains has created a global public health threat that requires urgent attention. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB is an exquisitely well-adapted human pathogen, displaying the ability to promptly remodel metabolism when encountering stressful environments during pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.08.001DOI Listing
July 2020
3 Reads

Azotobacters as biofertilizer.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 28;108:1-43. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Azotobacters have been used as biofertilizer since more than a century. Azotobacters fix nitrogen aerobically, elaborate plant hormones, solubilize phosphates and also suppress phytopathogens or reduce their deleterious effect. Application of wild type Azotobacters results in better yield of cereals like corn, wheat, oat, barley, rice, pearl millet and sorghum, of oil seeds like mustard and sunflower, of vegetable crops like tomato, eggplant, carrot, chillies, onion, potato, beans and sugar beet, of fruits like mango and sugar cane, of fiber crops like jute and cotton and of tree like oak. Read More

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Toward rational selection criteria for selection of probiotics in pigs.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 12;107:83-112. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; College of Bioengineering and Food Science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, PR China. Electronic address:

An accurate understanding of properties of probiotics is a prerequisite for selecting probiotic organisms for use in swine production. This review aims to review selection criteria for probiotic organism in swine. The systematically investigated ecological history rather than the source of isolates should be regarded as the natural origin of probiotic strains, which helps to correct the inconsistencies arising from incorrect identification of the source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2020
10 Reads

Microbes associated with fresh produce: Sources, types and methods to reduce spoilage and contamination.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 13;107:29-82. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Sighthill Court, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Global food security remains one of the most important challenges that needs to be addressed to ensure the increasing demand for food of the fast growing human population is satisfied. Fruits and vegetables comprise an essential component of a healthy balanced diet as they are the major source of both macro- and micronutrients. They are particularly important for communities in developing countries whose nutrition often relies solely on a plant-based diet. Read More

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March 2020
2 Reads

Phenotypic instability in fungi.

Authors:
Philippe Silar

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 25;107:141-187. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Energies de Demain (LIED), Paris, France. Electronic address:

Fungi are prone to phenotypic instability, that is, the vegetative phase of these organisms, be they yeasts or molds, undergoes frequent switching between two or more behaviors, often with different morphologies, but also sometime having different physiologies without any obvious morphological outcome. In the context of industrial utilization of fungi, this can have a negative impact on the maintenance of strains and/or on their productivity. Instabilities have been shown to result from various mechanisms, either genetic or epigenetic. Read More

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March 2020
6 Reads

Mucoid switch in Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: Triggers, molecular mechanisms and implications in pathogenesis.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;107:113-140. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

IBB-Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Bacteria produce a vast range of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) to thrive in diverse environmental niches and often display a mucoid phenotype in solid media. One such exopolysaccharide, cepacian, is produced by bacteria of the genus Burkholderia and is of interest due to its role in pathogenesis associated with lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Cepacian is a repeat-unit polymer that has been implicated in biofilm formation, immune system evasion, interaction with host cells, resistance against antimicrobials, and virulence. Read More

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March 2020
3 Reads

Biological oxidation of iron sulfides.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 14;107:1-27. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Laboratory of Technologies for Heritage Materials, Institute of Chemistry, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-Restauration, University of Applied Science, HES-SO, Avenches, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The biological oxidation of minerals and ores, called bioleaching, has been studied for the last decades to solubilize metals and recover them. In particular, iron sulfides are the most studied ores for an optimum extraction of different metals, such as copper or zinc. The use of chemolithotrophic bacteria, as Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, to oxidize both iron and sulfur species in aerobic conditions and at acidic pH shows promising results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.12.002DOI Listing
March 2020
5 Reads

Bacterial spores, from ecology to biotechnology.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;106:79-111. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The production of a highly specialized cell structure called a spore is a remarkable example of a survival strategy displayed by bacteria in response to challenging environmental conditions. The detailed analysis and description of the process of sporulation in selected model organisms have generated a solid background to understand the cellular processes leading to the formation of this specialized cell. However, much less is known regarding the ecology of spore-formers. Read More

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February 2020
43 Reads

Oxalic acid, a molecule at the crossroads of bacterial-fungal interactions.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;106:49-77. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Oxalic acid is the most ubiquitous and common low molecular weight organic acid produced by living organisms. Oxalic acid is produced by fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current knowledge about the microbial cycling of oxalic acid through ecosystems. Read More

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February 2020
4 Reads

Siderophores: From natural roles to potential applications.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 29;106:193-225. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratory of Technologies for Heritage Materials, Institute of Chemistry, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-Restauration, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest iron-chelating complexes. Read More

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February 2020
3 Reads

Nitrogen cycling during wastewater treatment.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 10;106:113-192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biology, American International College, Springfield, MA, United States.

Many wastewater treatment plants in the world do not remove reactive nitrogen from wastewater prior to release into the environment. Excess reactive nitrogen not only has a negative impact on human health, it also contributes to air and water pollution, and can cause complex ecosystems to collapse. In order to avoid the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen in the environment, tertiary wastewater treatment practices that ensure the removal of reactive nitrogen species need to be implemented. Read More

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February 2020
16 Reads

Role and regulation of the stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σ) in the saprophytic and host-associated life stages of Listeria monocytogenes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 24;106:1-48. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

The stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σ) plays a pivotal role in allowing the food-borne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to modulate its transcriptional landscape in order to survive in a variety of harsh environments both outside and within the host. While we have a comparatively good understanding of the systems under the control of this sigma factor much less is known about how the activity of σ is controlled. In this review, we present a current model describing how this sigma factor is thought to be controlled including an overview of what is known about stress sensing and the early signal transduction events that trigger its activation. Read More

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February 2020
1 Read

Enhancing Yeast Alcoholic Fermentations.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 14;105:87-129. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The production of ethanol by yeast fermentation represents the largest of all global biotechnologies. Consequently, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the world's premier industrial microorganism, which is responsible not only for the production of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, and distilled spirits, but also for the billions of liters of bioethanol produced annually for use as a renewable transportation fuel. Although humankind has exploited the fermentative activities of yeasts for millennia, many aspects of alcohol fermentation remain poorly understood. Read More

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August 2019
6 Reads

Electrochemical Bioreactor Technology for Biocatalysis and Microbial Electrosynthesis.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 6;105:51-86. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States.

Two seemingly distinct fields, industrial biocatalysis and microbial electrosynthesis, can be viewed together through the lens of electrochemical bioreactor technology in order to highlight the challenges that exist in creating a versatile platform technology for use in chemical and biological applications. Industrial biocatalysis applications requiring NAD(P)H to perform redox transformations often necessitate convoluted coupled-enzyme regeneration systems to regenerate reduced cofactor, NAD(P)H from oxidized cofactor, NAD(P). Renewed interest in continuously recycling the cofactor via electrochemical reduction is motivated by the low cost of performing electrochemical reactions, easy monitoring of the reaction progress, and straightforward product recovery. Read More

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August 2019
26 Reads

Epigenetic and Posttranslational Modifications in Regulating the Biology of Aspergillus Species.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;105:191-226. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have been proved to participate in multiple cellular processes and suggested to be an important regulatory mechanism on transcription of genes in eukaryotes. However, our knowledge about epigenetic and posttranslational modifications mainly comes from the studies of yeasts, plants, and animals. Recently, epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have also raised concern for the relevance of regulating fungal biology in Aspergillus. Read More

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August 2019
25 Reads
2.740 Impact Factor

Diversity-Function Relationships in Natural, Applied, and Engineered Microbial Ecosystems.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 9;105:131-189. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

The connection between ecosystem function and taxonomic diversity has been of interest and relevance to macroecologists for decades. After many years of lagging behind due to the difficulty of assigning both taxonomy and function to poorly distinguishable microscopic cells, microbial ecology now has access to a suite of powerful molecular tools which allow its practitioners to generate data relating to diversity and function of a microbial community on an unprecedented scale. Instead, the problem facing today's microbial ecologists is coupling the ease of generation of these datasets with the formulation and testing of workable hypotheses relating the diversity and function of environmental, host-associated, and engineered microbial communities. Read More

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August 2019
8 Reads

The Genus Macrococcus: An Insight Into Its Biology, Evolution, and Relationship With Staphylococcus.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 13;105:1-50. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland.

The Gram-positive genus Macrococcus is composed of eight species that are evolutionarily closely related to species of the Staphylococcus genus. In contrast to Staphylococcus species, species of Macrococcus are generally regarded to be avirulent in their animal hosts. Recent reports on Macrococcus have focused on the presence of novel methicillin resistance genes in Macrococcus caseolyticus and Macrococcus canis, with the discovery of the first plasmid-encoded methicillin resistance gene in clinical Staphylococcus aureus of probable macrococcal origin generating further interest in these organisms. Read More

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August 2019
10 Reads

Ecology of Contaminant Biotransformation in the Mycosphere: Role of Transport Processes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 3;104:93-133. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Ecological Modelling, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.

Fungi and bacteria often share common microhabitats. Their co-occurrence and coevolution give rise to manifold ecological interactions in the mycosphere, here defined as the microhabitats surrounding and affected by hyphae and mycelia. The extensive structure of mycelia provides ideal "logistic networks" for transport of bacteria and matter in structurally and chemically heterogeneous soil ecosystems. Read More

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August 2019
2 Reads

Applications of Microbial Processes in Geotechnical Engineering.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 13;104:39-91. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Over the last 10-15 years, a new field of "biogeotechnics" has emerged as geotechnical engineers seek to find ground improvement technologies which have the potential to be lower carbon, more ecologically friendly, and more cost-effective than existing practices. This review summarizes the developments which have occurred in this new field, outlining in particular the microbial processes which have been shown to be most promising for altering the hydraulic and mechanical responses of soils and rocks. Much of the research effort in this new field has been focused on microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) via ureolysis, while a comprehensive review of MICP is presented here, the developments which have been made regarding other microbial processes, including MICP via denitrification and biogenic gas generation are also presented. Read More

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August 2019
39 Reads

Enhancement of Metallosphaera sedula Bioleaching by Targeted Recombination and Adaptive Laboratory Evolution.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;104:135-165. Epub 2018 May 7.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States. Electronic address:

Thermophilic and lithoautotrophic archaea such as Metallosphaera sedula occupy acidic, metal-rich environments and are used in biomining processes. Biotechnological approaches could accelerate these processes and improve metal recovery by biomining organisms, but systems for genetic manipulation in these organisms are currently lacking. To gain a better understanding of the interplay between metal resistance, autotrophy, and lithotrophic metabolism, a genetic system was developed for M. Read More

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August 2019
3 Reads

Salmonella Cold Stress Response: Mechanisms and Occurrence in Foods.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 11;104:1-38. Epub 2018 May 11.

Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States.

Since bacteria in foods often encounter various cold environments during food processing, such as chilling, cold chain distribution, and cold storage, lower temperatures can become a major stress environment for foodborne pathogens. Bacterial responses in stressful environments have been considered in the past, but now the importance of stress responses at the molecular level is becoming recognized. Documenting how bacterial changes occur at the molecular level may help to achieve the in-depth understanding of stress responses, to predict microbial fate when they encounter cold temperatures, and to design and develop more effective strategies to control pathogens in food for ensuring food safety. Read More

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August 2019
26 Reads

Microbial Source Tracking of Cronobacter spp.

Authors:
Steve Forsythe

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:49-101. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Adams Hill, Keyworth, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Being able to track bacterial pathogens is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as monitoring in-house production facilities. Common bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella serovars, are already been well defined, and their detection methods are very advanced. However, this will not be the case for emergent bacterial pathogens, as was the case for Cronobacter. Read More

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August 2019
38 Reads

Biofilm: A Hotspot for Emerging Bacterial Genotypes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:223-246. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652164183000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.01.003DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Bacterial Anaerobic Synthesis Gas (Syngas) and CO+H Fermentation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:143-221. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Anaerobic bacterial gas fermentation gains broad interest in various scientific, social, and industrial fields. This microbial process is carried out by a specific group of bacterial strains called acetogens. All these strains employ the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway but they belong to different taxonomic groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.01.002DOI Listing
August 2019
12 Reads

Modeling Bacteria-Phage Interactions and Its Implications for Phage Therapy.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 12;103:103-141. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:

Bacteriophages are more abundant than any other organism on our planet. The interaction of bacteriophages and bacteria and their coevolution is well known. In this chapter, we describe various aspects of modeling such systems and their dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.01.005DOI Listing
August 2019
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Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Species: Mechanisms and Genomic Epidemiology.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 12;103:1-47. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD, United States.

The Campylobacter genus is a large and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to colonize humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, and shellfish. While it is now recognized that several emerging Campylobacter species can be associated with human disease, two species, C. jejuni and C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.01.001DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Fungi in Deep Subsurface Environments.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 6;102:83-116. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

The igneous crust of the oceans and the continents represents the major part of Earth's lithosphere and has recently been recognized as a substantial, yet underexplored, microbial habitat. While prokaryotes have been the focus of most investigations, microeukaryotes have been surprisingly neglected. However, recent work acknowledges eukaryotes, and in particular fungi, as common inhabitants of the deep biosphere, including the deep igneous provinces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.11.001DOI Listing
August 2019
42 Reads

Fungal Genomes and Genotyping.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;102:37-81. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this "kingdom." The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The "1000 Fungal Genomes Project" represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal organisms trying to fill some gaps on fungal genomics. Read More

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August 2019
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Host Sensing by Pathogenic Fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;102:159-221. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Institute for Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.004DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Spore Germination of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 22;102:117-157. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.002DOI Listing
August 2019
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Twenty-Five Years of Investigating the Universal Stress Protein: Function, Structure, and Applications.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 8;102:1-36. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants, and even some invertebrate animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.001DOI Listing
August 2019
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Microbial Transformation of Iodine: From Radioisotopes to Iodine Deficiency.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 7;101:83-136. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Texas A&M University, Galveston, TX, United States.

Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I), iodide (I), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.07.002DOI Listing
June 2018
24 Reads

Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 31;101:49-82. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

ETH Zürich, Basel, Switzerland.

Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based metabolic engineering in bacteria for chemical production, with focus on the λ-Red recombineering and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.07.001DOI Listing
June 2018
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The Contribution of Bacteriophages to the Biology and Virulence of Pathogenic Clostridia.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 19;101:169-200. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.05.002DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Uranium Bioreduction and Biomineralization.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 3;101:137-168. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China; University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation in contaminated water and soil environments due to its reduced cost and environmental friendliness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.01.003DOI Listing
June 2018
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Sodium Chloride Does Not Ensure Microbiological Safety of Foods: Cases and Solutions.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 16;101:1-47. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.05.001DOI Listing
June 2018
72 Reads

Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 17;100:49-160. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.02.003DOI Listing
August 2017
27 Reads