666 results match your criteria Advances in applied microbiology[Journal]


Bacterial spores, from ecology to biotechnology.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;106:79-111. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The production of a highly specialized cell structure called a spore is a remarkable example of a survival strategy displayed by bacteria in response to challenging environmental conditions. The detailed analysis and description of the process of sporulation in selected model organisms have generated a solid background to understand the cellular processes leading to the formation of this specialized cell. However, much less is known regarding the ecology of spore-formers. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Oxalic acid, a molecule at the crossroads of bacterial-fungal interactions.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 27;106:49-77. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Oxalic acid is the most ubiquitous and common low molecular weight organic acid produced by living organisms. Oxalic acid is produced by fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current knowledge about the microbial cycling of oxalic acid through ecosystems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018

Siderophores: From natural roles to potential applications.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 29;106:193-225. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratory of Technologies for Heritage Materials, Institute of Chemistry, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-Restauration, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest iron-chelating complexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019

Nitrogen cycling during wastewater treatment.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 10;106:113-192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biology, American International College, Springfield, MA, United States.

Many wastewater treatment plants in the world do not remove reactive nitrogen from wastewater prior to release into the environment. Excess reactive nitrogen not only has a negative impact on human health, it also contributes to air and water pollution, and can cause complex ecosystems to collapse. In order to avoid the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen in the environment, tertiary wastewater treatment practices that ensure the removal of reactive nitrogen species need to be implemented. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Role and regulation of the stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σ) in the saprophytic and host-associated life stages of Listeria monocytogenes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2019 24;106:1-48. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

The stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σ) plays a pivotal role in allowing the food-borne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to modulate its transcriptional landscape in order to survive in a variety of harsh environments both outside and within the host. While we have a comparatively good understanding of the systems under the control of this sigma factor much less is known about how the activity of σ is controlled. In this review, we present a current model describing how this sigma factor is thought to be controlled including an overview of what is known about stress sensing and the early signal transduction events that trigger its activation. Read More

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December 2018

Enhancing Yeast Alcoholic Fermentations.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 14;105:87-129. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The production of ethanol by yeast fermentation represents the largest of all global biotechnologies. Consequently, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the world's premier industrial microorganism, which is responsible not only for the production of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, and distilled spirits, but also for the billions of liters of bioethanol produced annually for use as a renewable transportation fuel. Although humankind has exploited the fermentative activities of yeasts for millennia, many aspects of alcohol fermentation remain poorly understood. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Electrochemical Bioreactor Technology for Biocatalysis and Microbial Electrosynthesis.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 6;105:51-86. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States.

Two seemingly distinct fields, industrial biocatalysis and microbial electrosynthesis, can be viewed together through the lens of electrochemical bioreactor technology in order to highlight the challenges that exist in creating a versatile platform technology for use in chemical and biological applications. Industrial biocatalysis applications requiring NAD(P)H to perform redox transformations often necessitate convoluted coupled-enzyme regeneration systems to regenerate reduced cofactor, NAD(P)H from oxidized cofactor, NAD(P). Renewed interest in continuously recycling the cofactor via electrochemical reduction is motivated by the low cost of performing electrochemical reactions, easy monitoring of the reaction progress, and straightforward product recovery. Read More

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September 2018
16 Reads

Epigenetic and Posttranslational Modifications in Regulating the Biology of Aspergillus Species.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;105:191-226. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have been proved to participate in multiple cellular processes and suggested to be an important regulatory mechanism on transcription of genes in eukaryotes. However, our knowledge about epigenetic and posttranslational modifications mainly comes from the studies of yeasts, plants, and animals. Recently, epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have also raised concern for the relevance of regulating fungal biology in Aspergillus. Read More

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June 2018
10 Reads
2.740 Impact Factor

Diversity-Function Relationships in Natural, Applied, and Engineered Microbial Ecosystems.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 9;105:131-189. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

The connection between ecosystem function and taxonomic diversity has been of interest and relevance to macroecologists for decades. After many years of lagging behind due to the difficulty of assigning both taxonomy and function to poorly distinguishable microscopic cells, microbial ecology now has access to a suite of powerful molecular tools which allow its practitioners to generate data relating to diversity and function of a microbial community on an unprecedented scale. Instead, the problem facing today's microbial ecologists is coupling the ease of generation of these datasets with the formulation and testing of workable hypotheses relating the diversity and function of environmental, host-associated, and engineered microbial communities. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

The Genus Macrococcus: An Insight Into Its Biology, Evolution, and Relationship With Staphylococcus.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 13;105:1-50. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland.

The Gram-positive genus Macrococcus is composed of eight species that are evolutionarily closely related to species of the Staphylococcus genus. In contrast to Staphylococcus species, species of Macrococcus are generally regarded to be avirulent in their animal hosts. Recent reports on Macrococcus have focused on the presence of novel methicillin resistance genes in Macrococcus caseolyticus and Macrococcus canis, with the discovery of the first plasmid-encoded methicillin resistance gene in clinical Staphylococcus aureus of probable macrococcal origin generating further interest in these organisms. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

Ecology of Contaminant Biotransformation in the Mycosphere: Role of Transport Processes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 3;104:93-133. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Ecological Modelling, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.

Fungi and bacteria often share common microhabitats. Their co-occurrence and coevolution give rise to manifold ecological interactions in the mycosphere, here defined as the microhabitats surrounding and affected by hyphae and mycelia. The extensive structure of mycelia provides ideal "logistic networks" for transport of bacteria and matter in structurally and chemically heterogeneous soil ecosystems. Read More

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Applications of Microbial Processes in Geotechnical Engineering.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 13;104:39-91. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Over the last 10-15 years, a new field of "biogeotechnics" has emerged as geotechnical engineers seek to find ground improvement technologies which have the potential to be lower carbon, more ecologically friendly, and more cost-effective than existing practices. This review summarizes the developments which have occurred in this new field, outlining in particular the microbial processes which have been shown to be most promising for altering the hydraulic and mechanical responses of soils and rocks. Much of the research effort in this new field has been focused on microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) via ureolysis, while a comprehensive review of MICP is presented here, the developments which have been made regarding other microbial processes, including MICP via denitrification and biogenic gas generation are also presented. Read More

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June 2018
17 Reads

Enhancement of Metallosphaera sedula Bioleaching by Targeted Recombination and Adaptive Laboratory Evolution.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;104:135-165. Epub 2018 May 7.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States. Electronic address:

Thermophilic and lithoautotrophic archaea such as Metallosphaera sedula occupy acidic, metal-rich environments and are used in biomining processes. Biotechnological approaches could accelerate these processes and improve metal recovery by biomining organisms, but systems for genetic manipulation in these organisms are currently lacking. To gain a better understanding of the interplay between metal resistance, autotrophy, and lithotrophic metabolism, a genetic system was developed for M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.03.002DOI Listing

Salmonella Cold Stress Response: Mechanisms and Occurrence in Foods.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 11;104:1-38. Epub 2018 May 11.

Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States.

Since bacteria in foods often encounter various cold environments during food processing, such as chilling, cold chain distribution, and cold storage, lower temperatures can become a major stress environment for foodborne pathogens. Bacterial responses in stressful environments have been considered in the past, but now the importance of stress responses at the molecular level is becoming recognized. Documenting how bacterial changes occur at the molecular level may help to achieve the in-depth understanding of stress responses, to predict microbial fate when they encounter cold temperatures, and to design and develop more effective strategies to control pathogens in food for ensuring food safety. Read More

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May 2018
12 Reads

Microbial Source Tracking of Cronobacter spp.

Authors:
Steve Forsythe

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:49-101. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Adams Hill, Keyworth, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Being able to track bacterial pathogens is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as monitoring in-house production facilities. Common bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella serovars, are already been well defined, and their detection methods are very advanced. However, this will not be the case for emergent bacterial pathogens, as was the case for Cronobacter. Read More

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March 2018
19 Reads

Biofilm: A Hotspot for Emerging Bacterial Genotypes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:223-246. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Bacterial Anaerobic Synthesis Gas (Syngas) and CO+H Fermentation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 16;103:143-221. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Anaerobic bacterial gas fermentation gains broad interest in various scientific, social, and industrial fields. This microbial process is carried out by a specific group of bacterial strains called acetogens. All these strains employ the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway but they belong to different taxonomic groups. Read More

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March 2018
7 Reads

Modeling Bacteria-Phage Interactions and Its Implications for Phage Therapy.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 12;103:103-141. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:

Bacteriophages are more abundant than any other organism on our planet. The interaction of bacteriophages and bacteria and their coevolution is well known. In this chapter, we describe various aspects of modeling such systems and their dynamics. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Species: Mechanisms and Genomic Epidemiology.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 12;103:1-47. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD, United States.

The Campylobacter genus is a large and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to colonize humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, and shellfish. While it is now recognized that several emerging Campylobacter species can be associated with human disease, two species, C. jejuni and C. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Fungi in Deep Subsurface Environments.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 6;102:83-116. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

The igneous crust of the oceans and the continents represents the major part of Earth's lithosphere and has recently been recognized as a substantial, yet underexplored, microbial habitat. While prokaryotes have been the focus of most investigations, microeukaryotes have been surprisingly neglected. However, recent work acknowledges eukaryotes, and in particular fungi, as common inhabitants of the deep biosphere, including the deep igneous provinces. Read More

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December 2017
18 Reads

Fungal Genomes and Genotyping.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;102:37-81. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this "kingdom." The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The "1000 Fungal Genomes Project" represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal organisms trying to fill some gaps on fungal genomics. Read More

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December 2017
11 Reads

Host Sensing by Pathogenic Fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 7;102:159-221. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Institute for Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Spore Germination of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 22;102:117-157. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

Twenty-Five Years of Investigating the Universal Stress Protein: Function, Structure, and Applications.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2018 8;102:1-36. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants, and even some invertebrate animals. Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

Microbial Transformation of Iodine: From Radioisotopes to Iodine Deficiency.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 7;101:83-136. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Texas A&M University, Galveston, TX, United States.

Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I), iodide (I), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions. Read More

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June 2018
11 Reads

Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 31;101:49-82. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

ETH Zürich, Basel, Switzerland.

Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based metabolic engineering in bacteria for chemical production, with focus on the λ-Red recombineering and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease systems. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

The Contribution of Bacteriophages to the Biology and Virulence of Pathogenic Clostridia.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 19;101:169-200. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Uranium Bioreduction and Biomineralization.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 3;101:137-168. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China; University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation in contaminated water and soil environments due to its reduced cost and environmental friendliness. Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

Sodium Chloride Does Not Ensure Microbiological Safety of Foods: Cases and Solutions.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 16;101:1-47. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. Read More

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June 2018
48 Reads

Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 17;100:49-160. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.02.003DOI Listing
August 2017
9 Reads

Diversity, Application, and Synthetic Biology of Industrially Important Aspergillus Fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 24;100:161-202. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States.

The filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. A handful of these Aspergillus fungi are predominantly used for food fermentation and large-scale production of enzymes, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. These industrially important Aspergilli primarily belong to the two major Aspergillus sections, Nigri and Flavi. Read More

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August 2017
1 Read

Current Interventions for Controlling Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 18;100:1-47. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments, and food products themselves. Read More

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August 2017
3 Reads

Stone-Eating Fungi: Mechanisms in Bioweathering and the Potential Role of Laccases in Black Slate Degradation With the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 17;99:83-101. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.

Many enzymes, such as laccases, are involved in the saprotrophic lifestyle of fungi and the effects of those may be linked to enhanced bioweathering on stone surfaces. To test this hypothesis, we studied the decomposition of kerogen-enriched lithologies, especially with black slate containing up to 20% of C. Indeed, a formation of ditches with attached hyphal material could be observed. Read More

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August 2017
6 Reads

Fungal Biorecovery of Gold From E-waste.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 31;99:53-81. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Waste electric and electronic devices (e-waste) represent a source of valuable raw materials of great interest, and in the case of metals, e-waste might become a prized alternative source. Regarding gold, natural ores are difficult to mine due to their refractory nature and the richest ores have almost all been exploited. Additionally, some gold mining areas are present in geopolitically unstable regions. Read More

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August 2017
1 Read

The Arsenic Detoxification System in Corynebacteria: Basis and Application for Bioremediation and Redox Control.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 6;99:103-137. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

University of León, León, Spain.

Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and highly toxic. It has been released by volcanic and anthropogenic activities and causes serious health problems worldwide. To survive arsenic-rich environments, soil and saprophytic microorganisms have developed molecular detoxification mechanisms to survive arsenic-rich environments, mainly by the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenate (As) to arsenite (As) by arsenate reductases, which is then extruded by arsenite permeases. Read More

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August 2017
24 Reads

Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 18;99:1-51. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Paterna, Spain.

Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.12.002DOI Listing
August 2017
8 Reads

Microbial Phosphite Oxidation and Its Potential Role in the Global Phosphorus and Carbon Cycles.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 1;98:93-117. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Phosphite [Formula: see text] is a highly soluble, reduced phosphorus compound that is often overlooked in biogeochemical analyses. Although the oxidation of phosphite to phosphate is a highly exergonic process (E=-650mV), phosphite is kinetically stable and can account for 10-30% of the total dissolved P in various environments. There is also evidence that phosphite was more prevalent under the reducing conditions of the Archean period and may have been involved in the development of early life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.004DOI Listing
July 2017
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Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

Authors:
J Kallmeyer

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 18;98:61-91. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany. Electronic address:

Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.003DOI Listing

Iron and Fungal Physiology: A Review of Biotechnological Opportunities.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 29;98:31-60. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-Restauration, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Iron is an essential inorganic micronutrient. Because of its low toxicity only a few studies have dealt with the importance of iron in fungal physiology. Most of the studies published so far focus on iron sequestration by animal fungal pathogens, iron uptake by mycorrhizal fungi, or iron redox activities by fungal wood degraders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.11.001DOI Listing

Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2017 28;98:1-29. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States.

Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.12.001DOI Listing
July 2017
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Pathogen and Particle Associations in Wastewater: Significance and Implications for Treatment and Disinfection Processes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 15;97:63-119. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Disinfection guidelines exist for pathogen inactivation in potable water and recycled water, but wastewater with high numbers of particles can be more difficult to disinfect, making compliance with the guidelines problematic. Disinfection guidelines specify that drinking water with turbidity ≥1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) is not suitable for disinfection and therefore not fit for purpose. Treated wastewater typically has higher concentrations of particles (1-10NTU for secondary treated effluent). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.08.001DOI Listing

The Oral Microbiome in Health and Its Implication in Oral and Systemic Diseases.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 21;97:171-210. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Universidade do Porto, Portugal; Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.08.002DOI Listing

Insights in Waste Management Bioprocesses Using Genomic Tools.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 13;97:121-170. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, CSIR, Nagpur, India.

Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.002DOI Listing

Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 13;97:1-61. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

American International College, Springfield, MA, United States.

Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.001DOI Listing

The Role of the Gut Microbiome on Chronic Kidney Disease.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 18;96:65-94. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect nearly 500 million people worldwide and cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of death in this population. However, therapeutic interventions targeting traditional CV risks are not effective at lowering the incidence of CV events or at delaying the progression of the disease in CKD patients. In recent years, disturbances of normal gut microbiome were recognized in the pathogenesis of diverse chronic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.06.002DOI Listing
July 2017
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In Sickness and in Health: The Relationships Between Bacteria and Bile in the Human Gut.

Authors:
A J Hay J Zhu

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 5;96:43-64. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Colonization of a human host with a commensal microbiota has a complex interaction in which bacterial communities provide numerous health benefits to the host. An equilibrium between host and microbiota is kept in check with the help of biliary secretions by the host. Bile, composed primarily of bile salts, promotes digestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.07.019DOI Listing

Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation and Coagulation Mechanisms, and Their Function in Host-Pathogen Interactions.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 4;96:1-41. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

The human commensal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus can cause a wide range of infections ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to invasive diseases like septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Muticellular organization almost certainly contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.07.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5221605PMC

The Impact of Oxygen on Bacterial Enteric Pathogens.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 18;95:179-204. Epub 2016 May 18.

University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, United States.

Bacterial enteric pathogens are responsible for a tremendous amount of foodborne illnesses every year through the consumption of contaminated food products. During their transit from contaminated food sources to the host gastrointestinal tract, these pathogens are exposed and must adapt to fluctuating oxygen levels to successfully colonize the host and cause diseases. However, the majority of enteric infection research has been conducted under aerobic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.04.002DOI Listing
July 2017
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Analysis of Low-Biomass Microbial Communities in the Deep Biosphere.

Authors:
Y Morono F Inagaki

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 11;95:149-78. Epub 2016 May 11.

Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Nankoku, Japan; R&D center for submarine Resources, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Japan.

Over the past few decades, the subseafloor biosphere has been explored by scientific ocean drilling to depths of about 2.5km below the seafloor. Although organic-rich anaerobic sedimentary habitats in the ocean margins harbor large numbers of microbial cells, microbial populations in ultraoligotrophic aerobic sedimentary habitats in the open ocean gyres are several orders of magnitude less abundant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.04.001DOI Listing

Familiar Stranger: Ecological Genomics of the Model Saprotroph and Industrial Enzyme Producer Trichoderma reesei Breaks the Stereotypes.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2016 21;95:69-147. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Institute of Chemical Engineering, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria.

The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) has properties of an efficient cell factory for protein production that is exploited by the enzyme industry, particularly with respect to cellulase and hemicellulase formation. Under conditions of industrial fermentations it yields more than 100g secreted protein L(-1). Consequently, T. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652164163000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.02.001DOI Listing
July 2017
22 Reads