298,898 results match your criteria Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics[Journal]

Reprogramming of Hepatic Metabolism and Microenvironment in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Life Sciences Institute and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; email:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of metabolic liver disease associated with obesity, ranges from relatively benign hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The latter is characterized by persistent liver injury, inflammation, and liver fibrosis, which collectively increase the risk for end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent work has shed new light on the pathophysiology of NAFLD/NASH, particularly the role of genetic, epigenetic, and dietary factors and metabolic dysfunctions in other tissues in driving excess hepatic fat accumulation and liver injury. Read More

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Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the Modern Era.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains an important treatment for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We hypothesized that advances in ALL and transplantation have resulted in improved HCT outcomes in recent years.

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of adult ALL patients undergoing allogeneic HCT over the last decade. Read More

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Circular RNAs: Characterization, cellular roles, and applications.

Cell 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China; School of Life Science, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Most circular RNAs are produced from the back-splicing of exons of precursor mRNAs. Recent technological advances have in part overcome problems with their circular conformation and sequence overlap with linear cognate mRNAs, allowing a better understanding of their cellular roles. Depending on their localization and specific interactions with DNA, RNA, and proteins, circular RNAs can modulate transcription and splicing, regulate stability and translation of cytoplasmic mRNAs, interfere with signaling pathways, and serve as templates for translation in different biological and pathophysiological contexts. Read More

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Intrinsic transcriptional heterogeneity in neuroblastoma guides mechanistic and therapeutic insights.

Cell Rep Med 2022 May;3(5):100632

Division of Molecular Oncology, Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Cell state is controlled by master transcription factors (mTFs) that determine the cellular gene expression program. Cancer cells acquire dysregulated gene expression programs by mutational and non-mutational processes. Intratumoral heterogeneity can result from cells displaying distinct mTF-regulated cell states, which co-exist within the tumor. Read More

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Application of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and prognostic prediction of ovarian cancer.

Comput Biol Med 2022 May 13;146:105608. Epub 2022 May 13.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

In recent years, the wide application of artificial intelligence (AI) has dramatically improved the work efficiency of clinicians and reduced their workload. This review provides a glance at the latest advances in AI-assisted diagnosis and prognostic prediction of ovarian cancer (OC). We performed an advanced search in PubMed and IEEE/IET Electronic Library, and included 39 articles in this review. Read More

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Kidney health for all: bridging the gap in kidney health education and literacy.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2022 16;55:e12161. Epub 2022 May 16.

International Federation of Kidney Foundations - World Kidney Alliance, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The high burden of kidney disease, global disparities in kidney care, and the poor outcomes of kidney failure place a growing burden on affected individuals and their families, caregivers, and the community at large. Health literacy is the degree to which individuals and organizations have, or equitably enable individuals to have, the ability to find, understand, and use information and services to make informed health-related decisions and actions for themselves and others. Rather than viewing health literacy as a patient deficit, improving health literacy lies primarily with health care providers communicating and educating effectively in codesigned partnership with those with kidney disease. Read More

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Current Methods and Prospects for Analysis and Characterization of Nanomaterials in the Environment.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, 38 Tongyan Rd., Tianjin 300350, China.

Analysis and characterization of naturally occurring and engineered nanomaterials in the environment are critical for understanding their environmental behaviors and defining real exposure scenarios for environmental risk assessment. However, this is challenging primarily due to the low concentration, structural heterogeneity, and dynamic transformation of nanomaterials in complex environmental matrices. In this critical review, we first summarize sample pretreatment methods developed for separation and preconcentration of nanomaterials from environmental samples, including natural waters, wastewater, soils, sediments, and biological media. Read More

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Polymicrobial biofilms related to dental implant diseases: unravelling the critical role of extracellular biofilm matrix.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2022 May 18:1-21. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Brazil.

Biofilms are complex tri-dimensional structures that encase microbial cells in an extracellular matrix comprising self-produced polymeric substances. The matrix rich in extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) contributes to the unique features of biofilm lifestyle and structure, enhancing microbial accretion, biofilm virulence, and antimicrobial resistance. The role of the EPS matrix of biofilms growing on biotic surfaces, especially dental surfaces, is largely unravelled. Read More

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Translator: A fer earning Approach to Facilitate Single-Cell AC-Seq Data Analysis frm eference Dataset.

J Comput Biol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Recent advances in single-cell sequencing assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-seq) have allowed simultaneous epigenetic profiling over thousands of individual cells to dissect the cellular heterogeneity and elucidate regulatory mechanisms at the finest possible resolution. However, scATAC-seq is challenging to model computationally due to the ultra-high dimensionality, low signal-to-noise ratio, complex feature interactions, and high vulnerability to various confounding factors. In this study, we present Translator, an efficient transfer learning approach to capture generalizable chromatin interactions from high-quality (HQ) reference scATAC-seq data to obtain robust cell representations in low-to-moderate quality target scATAC-seq data. Read More

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Dynamics of the dyad: How mothers and infants co-construct interaction spaces during object play.

Dev Sci 2022 May 18:e13281. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, USA.

Studies of dyadic interaction often examine infants' social exchanges with their caregivers in settings that constrain their physical properties (e.g., infant posture, fixed seating location for infants and adults). Read More

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Advances and future outlooks in soft robotics for minimally invasive marine biology.

Sci Robot 2022 May 18;7(66):eabm6807. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

This Viewpoint describes interdisciplinary research that aims to maximize understanding of deep marine life, while concurrently being minimally invasive. We describe the synthesis of multiple modern approaches (spanning robotics, biology, biomechanics, engineering, imaging, and genomic sequencing) and present future directions that hold the potential for a paradigm shift in marine biology. Read More

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Recent Advances in Polysaccharide-Based Physical Hydrogels and Their Potential Applications for Biomedical and Wastewater Treatment.

Macromol Biosci 2022 May 18:e2200153. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, National Engineering Research Center of Low-Carbon Processing and Utilization of Forest Biomass, Key Lab. of Chemical Engineering of Forest Products, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing, 210042, China.

Polysaccharides have been widely employed to fabricate hydrogels owing to their intrinsic properties including biocompatibility, biodegradability, sustainability, and easy modification. However, a considerable amount of polysaccharide-based hydrogels are prepared by chemical crosslinking method using organic solvents or toxic crosslinkers. The presence of reaction by-products and residual toxic substances in the obtained materials cause a potential secondary pollution risk and thus severely limited their practical applications. Read More

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Parenting Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Developmental Acquisition of Expertise.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Lakeland Regional Health, Lakeland, FL.

Objective: This study was designed to increase our understanding of parents' experiences managing the needs of their children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to identify potential gaps in services.

Method: We used grounded dimensional analysis of anonymous survey data obtained from a quality improvement initiative conducted by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF). The Patient and Family Experience of Care (PFEC) survey was administered continuously at 125 CF care centers throughout the United States in 2017. Read More

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A Comprehensive Appraisal of Risk Prediction Models for Cardiogenic Shock.

Shock 2022 May;57(5):617-629

Section of Interventional Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abstract: Despite advances in early revascularization, percutaneous hemodynamic support platforms, and systems of care, cardiogenic shock (CS) remains associated with a mortality rate higher than 50%. Several risk stratification models have been derived since the 1990 s to identify patients at high risk of adverse outcomes. Still, limited information is available on the differences between scoring systems and their relative applicability to both acute myocardial infarction and advanced decompensated heart failure CS. Read More

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The Evolving Landscape of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: Pathogenic Insight, Clinical Challenges, and New Frontiers in Therapy.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, 240 East 38th Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by accumulation of granulomas in affected tissue. Cutaneous manifestations are among the most common extrapulmonary manifestations in sarcoidosis and can lead to disfiguring disease requiring chronic therapy. In many patients, skin disease may be the first recognized manifestation of sarcoidosis, necessitating a thorough evaluation for systemic involvement. Read More

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Advances in Physiological Mechanisms of Selenium to Improve Heavy Metal Stress Tolerance in Plants.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China.

Selenium (Se) is a metalloid mineral nutrient for human and animal health. Plants are the main foodstuff source of the Se intake of humans. For plants, the addition of an appropriate amount of Se could promotes growth and development,and improves the tolerance to environmental stress, especially stress from some of heavy metals (HM) stress, such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). Read More

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Nanomaterial-Induced Extra-Pulmonary Health Effects - the Importance of Next Generation Physiologically Relevant In Vitro Test Systems for the Future of Nanotoxicology.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:259-273

Bangor University, School of Medical Sciences, Bangor, UK.

Manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) offer incredible scientific and societal benefits but their potential hazard to human health is not yet fully comprehended. In the last decade, a significant body of evidence indicates that certain NMs are capable of translocating from the primary exposure site (skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract) to a number of secondary organs which includes the liver. Moreover, recent advances in the field of nanomedicine has resulted in increasing direct intravenous injection of NMs with the liver being a particularly important organ with regards to potential toxic effects and accumulation of said materials. Read More

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January 2022

RNA in cancer immunotherapy: unlocking the potential of the immune system.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Recent advances in the manufacturing, modification, purification and cellular delivery of ribonucleic acid (RNA) have enabled the development of RNA-based therapeutics for a broad array of applications. The approval of two SARS-CoV-2-targeting mRNA-based vaccines has highlighted the advances of this technology. Offering rapid and straightforward manufacturing, clinical safety and versatility, this paves the way for RNA therapeutics to expand into cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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Outcomes of embryo vitrification at different developmental stages: Evaluation of 2412 warming cycles.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 May 13;101(19):e29233. Epub 2022 May 13.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China.

Introduction: Advances in cell culture media have led to a shift from cleavage stage embryo transfer to blastocyst stage transfer. Extended embryo culture to the blastocyst stage provides some theoretical advantages and disadvantages. There has been controversy. Read More

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Advances in Nanomaterial-Based Platforms to Combat COVID-19: Diagnostics, Preventions, Therapeutics, and Vaccine Developments.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Emergency Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York 10016, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2, a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that emerged less than two years ago but has caused nearly 6.1 million deaths to date. Recently developed variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have been shown to be more potent and expanded at a faster rate. Read More

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Advances in Bioactivity of MicroRNAs of Plant-Derived Exosome-Like Nanoparticles and Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, P. R. China.

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small noncoding RNA involved in physiological and pathological processes the regulation of gene expression. Naked miRNAs are unstable and liable to degradation by RNases. Exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) secreted by plants and extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in milk are abundant in miRNAs, which can be carried by ELNs and EVs to target cells to exert their bioactivities. Read More

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Plant Hormonomics: A Key Tool for Deep Physiological Phenotyping to Improve Crop Productivity.

Plant Cell Physiol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehirocho, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.

Agriculture is particularly vulnerable to climate change. To cope with the risks posed by climate-related stressors to agricultural production, global population growth, and changes in food preferences, it is imperative to develop new climate-smart crop varieties with increased yield and environmental resilience. Molecular genetics and genomic analyses have revealed that allelic variations in genes involved in phytohormone-mediated growth regulation have greatly improved productivity in major crops. Read More

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Probiotic NISSLE 1917 for inflammatory bowel disease applications.

Food Funct 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China.

NISSLE 1917 (EcN) is a Gram-negative strain with many prominent probiotic properties in the treatment of intestinal diseases such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular ulcerative colitis. EcN not only exhibits antagonistic effects on a variety of intestinal pathogenic bacteria, but also regulates the secretion of immune factors and enhances the ability of host immunity. In this review, the mechanisms of EcN in the remission of inflammatory bowel disease are proposed and recent advances on the functionalized EcN are compiled to provide novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of IBD. Read More

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[Targeted therapies and non-small cell carcinomas : novelties].

Rev Med Suisse 2022 May;18(782):970-975

Service d'oncologie médicale, Département d'oncologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois, 1011 Lausanne.

In recent years, new therapeutic strategies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been developed, stemming from a better understanding of oncogenic signaling pathways. The analysis of the alterations of genes involved in NSCLC oncogenesis is now an integral part of the diagnostic approach and opens the way to so-called "targeted" therapies. In this article, we will share the latest therapeutic advances by focusing on alterations of HER2, MET, EGFR and KRAS genes, for which new dedicated treatments have become available. Read More

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pH dependent reactivity of boehmite surfaces from first principles molecular dynamics.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

pH dependent interfacial chemistry depends upon the distribution and respective p values of different surface active sites. This is highly relevant to the chemistry of nanoparticle morphologies that expose faces with varying surface termination. Recent synthetic advances for nanoparticles of various minerals, including AlO(OH) (boehmite), present an excellent opportunity to compare and contrast predicted surface p on low Miller index planes so as to reinterpret reported interfacial properties (, point of zero charge - PZC) and reactivity. Read More

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Four decades of climatic fluctuations and fish recruitment stability across a marine-freshwater gradient.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Investigating the effects of climatic variability on biological diversity, productivity, and stability is key to understanding possible futures for ecosystems under accelerating climate change. A critical question is, how does climatic variability influence juvenile recruitment of different fish species and life histories that use estuaries as nursery habitats? Here we examined spatiotemporal abundance trends and environmental responses of 18 fish species that frequently spend the juvenile stage rearing in the San Francisco Estuary, CA, USA. First, we constructed multivariate autoregressive state-space models using age-0 fish abundance, freshwater flow (Flow), and sea surface temperature (SST) data collected over four decades. Read More

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Multifaceted regulation and functions of 53BP1 in NHEJ‑mediated DSB repair (Review).

Int J Mol Med 2022 Jul 18;50(1). Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Pharmacy, Women and Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147, P.R. China.

The repair of DNA double‑strand breaks (DSBs) is crucial for the preservation of genomic integrity and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Non‑homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) is the predominant repair mechanism for any type of DNA DSB during the majority of the cell cycle. NHEJ defects regulate tumor sensitivity to ionizing radiation and anti‑neoplastic agents, resulting in immunodeficiencies and developmental abnormalities in malignant cells. Read More

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Early intervention for very young children with or at high likelihood for autism spectrum disorder: An overview of reviews.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Aim: To identify which interventions are supported by evidence and the quality of that evidence in very young children with or at high likelihood for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve child outcomes.

Method: We conducted an overview of reviews to synthesize early intervention literature for very young children with or at high likelihood for ASD. Cochrane guidance on how to perform overviews of reviews was followed. Read More

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Epilepsy Milestones 2.0 - An Updated Framework for Assessing Epilepsy Fellowships and Fellows.

Epilepsia 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Objective: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited Epilepsy Fellowships like other ACGME accredited training programs use Milestones to establish learning objectives and to evaluate how well trainees are achieving these goals. The ACGME began developing the second iteration of the Milestones six years ago, which are now being adapted to all specialties. Here we describe the process by which Epilepsy Milestones 2. Read More

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Tsunami of immunotherapy reaches mesothelioma.

World J Clin Oncol 2022 Apr;13(4):267-275

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Quirónsalud Madrid, Pozuelo de Alcorcón 28223, Madrid, Spain.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common type of malignant mesothelioma. It is a rare tumor linked to asbestos exposure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Until very recently, patients with advanced or unresectable disease had limited treatment options, primarily based on doublet chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed. Read More

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