38,281 results match your criteria Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Journal]


Myosin XIX.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:439-451

Department of Biology, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA.

The birth of widely available genomic databases at the turn of the millennium led to the identification of many previously unknown myosin genes and identification of novel classes of myosin, including MYO19. Further sequence analysis has revealed the unique evolutionary history of class XIX myosins. MYO19 is found in species ranging from vertebrates to some unicellular organisms, while it has been lost from some lineages containing traditional experimental model organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_20DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosin XVIII.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:421-438

The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Class XVIII myosins represent a branch of the myosin family tree characterized by the presence of large N- and C-terminal extensions flanking a generic myosin core. These myosins display the highest sequence similarity to conventional class II muscle myosins and are compatible with but not restricted to myosin-2 contractile structures. Instead, they fulfill their functions at diverse localities, such as lamella, actomyosin bundles, the Golgi apparatus, focal adhesions, the cell membrane, and within sarcomeres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_19DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosin XVI.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:405-419

Department of Biophysics, University of Pécs, Medical School, Pécs, Hungary.

Myosin XVI (Myo16), a vertebrate-specific motor protein, is a recently discovered member of the myosin superfamily. The detailed functionality regarding myosin XVI requires elucidating or clarification; however, it appears to portray an important role in neural development and in the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is expressed in the largest amount in neural tissues in the late embryonic-early postnatal period, specifically the time in which neuronal cell migration and dendritic elaboration coincide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_18DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosin X.

Authors:
Hiroshi Tokuo

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:391-403

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Myosin X (Myo10), an actin-based molecular motor, induces filopodia formation and controls cell migration in vitro. In the 25 years since Myo10 was first identified, it has been implicated in several different functions in different cell types including phagocytosis in macrophages, axon outgrowth in neurons, cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells, podosome formation in osteoclasts, spindle-pole positioning in meiosis and mitosis of cultured cells, migration of melanocytes and cranial neural crest cells, and invadopodia formation in cancer cells. Recently, the availability of Myo10-knockout (Myo10KO) mice has allowed for tremendous progress toward understanding the biological function of Myo10 in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_17DOI Listing
January 2020

Class IX Myosins: Motorized RhoGAP Signaling Molecules.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:381-389

Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Westfalian Wilhelms University Münster, Münster, Germany.

Class IX myosins are simultaneously motor and signaling molecules. In addition to myosin class-specific functions of the tail region, they feature unique motor properties. Within their motor region they contain a long insertion with a calmodulin- and a F-actin-binding site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_16DOI Listing
January 2020

Approaches to Identify and Characterise MYO6-Cargo Interactions.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:355-380

Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, The Keith Peters Building, Cambridge, UK.

Given the prevalence and importance of the actin cytoskeleton and the host of associated myosin motors, it comes as no surprise to find that they are linked to a plethora of cellular functions and pathologies. Although our understanding of the biophysical properties of myosin motors has been aided by the high levels of conservation in their motor domains and the extensive work on myosin in skeletal muscle contraction, our understanding of how the nonmuscle myosins participate in such a wide variety of cellular processes is less clear. It is now well established that the highly variable myosin tails are responsible for targeting these myosins to distinct cellular sites for specific functions, and although a number of adaptor proteins have been identified, our current understanding of the cellular processes involved is rather limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_15DOI Listing
January 2020

The Actomyosin Systems in Apicomplexa.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:331-354

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The phylum of Apicomplexa groups obligate intracellular parasites that exhibit unique classes of unconventional myosin motors. These parasites also encode a limited repertoire of actins, actin-like proteins, actin-binding proteins and nucleators of filamentous actin (F-actin) that display atypical properties. In the last decade, significant progress has been made to visualize F-actin and to unravel the functional contribution of actomyosin systems in the biology of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, the most genetically-tractable members of the phylum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_14DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosins and Hearing.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:317-330

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Hearing loss is both genetically and clinically heterogeneous, and pathogenic variants of over a hundred different genes are associated with this common neurosensory disorder. A relatively large number of these "deafness genes" encode myosin super family members. The evidence that pathogenic variants of human MYO3A, MYO6, MYO7A, MYO15A, MYH14 and MYH9 are associated with deafness ranges from moderate to definitive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_13DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosins and Disease.

Authors:
Lynne M Coluccio

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:245-316

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Myosins constitute a superfamily of actin-based molecular motor proteins that mediates a variety of cellular activities including muscle contraction, cell migration, intracellular transport, the formation of membrane projections, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. The 12 myosin classes that are expressed in humans share sequence similarities especially in the N-terminal motor domain; however, their enzymatic activities, regulation, ability to dimerize, binding partners, and cellular functions differ. It is becoming increasingly apparent that defects in myosins are associated with diseases including cardiomyopathies, colitis, glomerulosclerosis, neurological defects, cancer, blindness, and deafness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_12DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosins in Cytokinesis.

Authors:
Thomas D Pollard

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:233-244

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Department of Cell Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Nearly five decades of research have established myosin as the main motor responsible for cytokinesis in organisms on the branch of the phylogenetic tree that includes amoebas, fungi and animals. This research has grown to be more mechanistic over the past decade, so we now have computer simulations of physically reasonable models that explain how myosins contribute to the assembly and constriction of contractile rings that pinch dividing cells into two daughter cells. Isoforms of myosin-II, from the same family as muscle myosins, are the main myosins for cytokinesis, but other myosins contribute to cytokinesis in fission yeast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_11DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosins in the Nucleus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:199-231

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Although originally characterized as a cytoplasmic protein, myosin of various classes also performs key functions in the nucleus. We review the data concerning the nuclear localization, mechanism of entry, and functional interactions of myosin I, II, V, VI, X, XVI, and XVIII. To date, the first-characterized "nuclear myosin I" (or, in the prevailing nomenclature, myosin IC isoform B) remains the best-studied nuclear myosin, although results are rapidly accumulating that illuminate the roles of other myosin classes, and an outline of a unified picture of myosin functions in the nucleus is beginning to emerge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_10DOI Listing
January 2020

How Actin Tracks Affect Myosin Motors.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:183-197

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Cellular organization through cytoskeletal trafficking is a process of fundamental importance. Highly specialized systems evolved that enable motors to identify and select the optimal tracks for motility. In this chapter, we examine the profound effect of actin filament networks on myosin motility patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_9DOI Listing
January 2020

How Myosin 5 Walks Deduced from Single-Molecule Biophysical Approaches.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:153-181

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, Cell and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Myosin 5a is a two-headed myosin that functions as a cargo transporter in cells. To accomplish this task it has evolved several unique structural and kinetic features that allow it to move processively as a single molecule along actin filaments. A plethora of biophysical techniques have been used to elucidate the detailed mechanism of its movement along actin filaments in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_8DOI Listing
January 2020

High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy to Study Myosin Motility.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:127-152

Nano Life Science Institute (WPI NanoLSI), Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is a unique tool that enables imaging of protein molecules during their functional activity at sub-100 ms temporal and submolecular spatial resolution. HS-AFM is suited for the study of highly dynamic proteins, including myosin motors. HS-AFM images of myosin V walking on actin filaments provide irrefutable evidence for the swinging lever arm motion propelling the molecule forward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Single-Molecule Biophysical Techniques to Study Actomyosin Force Transduction.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:85-126

Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory (PTCL), Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Inside the cellular environment, molecular motors can work in concert to conduct a variety of important physiological functions and processes that are vital for the survival of a cell. However, in order to decipher the mechanism of how these molecular motors work, single-molecule microscopy techniques have been popular methods to understand the molecular basis of the emerging ensemble behavior of these motor proteins.In this chapter, we discuss various single-molecule biophysical imaging techniques that have been used to expose the mechanics and kinetics of myosins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_6DOI Listing
January 2020

Small Molecule Effectors of Myosin Function.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:61-84

Hannover Medical School, Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Hannover, Germany.

Several small molecule effectors of myosin function that target the motor domains of myosin classes I, II, V, and VI have been identified. Four distinct binding sites in the myosin motor domain have been reported with unique properties and mechanisms of action. This chapter describes the structural basis and activities of known small molecule effectors that allosterically target the myosin motor domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_5DOI Listing
January 2020

The Structure of Acto-Myosin.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:41-59

Cryo Electron Microscopy, BioQuant, Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

After several decades studying different acto-myosin complexes at lower and intermediate resolution - limited by the electron microscope instrumentation available then - recent advances in imaging technology have been crucial for obtaining a number of excellent high-resolution 3D reconstructions from cryo electron microscopy. The resolution level reached now is about 3-4 Å, which allows unambiguous model building of filamentous actin on its own as well as that of actin filaments decorated with strongly bound myosin variants. The interface between actin and the myosin motor domain can now be described in detail, and the function of parts of the interface (such as, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Cargo Binding by Unconventional Myosins.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:21-40

Division of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Unconventional myosins are a large superfamily of actin-based molecular motors that use ATP as fuel to generate mechanical motions/forces. The distinct tails in different unconventional myosin subfamilies can recognize various cargoes including proteins and lipids. Thus, they can play diverse roles in many biological processes such as cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_3DOI Listing
January 2020

Myosin Structures.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:7-19

Institut Curie, CNRS, Paris Cedex 05, France.

Directed movements on actin filaments within the cell are powered by molecular motors of the myosin superfamily. On actin filaments, myosin motors convert the energy from ATP into force and movement. Myosin motors power such diverse cellular functions as cytokinesis, membrane trafficking, organelle movements, and cellular migration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Introduction.

Authors:
Lynne M Coluccio

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1239:1-6

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

This book, a collection of chapters written by some of the leading researchers in the field of molecular motors, highlights the current understanding of the structure, molecular mechanism, and cellular roles of members of the myosin superfamily. Here, I briefly review the discovery of the first myosin motor, skeletal muscle myosin-II, and preview the contents of subsequent chapters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_1DOI Listing
January 2020

The Epigenetic Regulation of Scleroderma and Its Clinical Application.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:375-403

Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) is a complex and highly heterogeneous multisystem rheumatic disease characterized by vascular abnormality, immunologic derangement, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To date, the etiology of this life-threatening disorder remains not fully clear. More and more studies show epigenetic modifications play a vital role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_13DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics in Multiple Sclerosis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:309-374

Department of Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an aggravating autoimmune disease that cripples young patients slowly with physical, sensory and cognitive deficits. The break of self-tolerance to neuronal antigens is the key to the pathogenesis of MS, with autoreactive T cells causing demyelination that subsequently leads to inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative events in the central nervous system. The exact etiology of MS remains elusive; however, the interplay of genetic and environmental factors contributes to disease development and progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_12DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:285-308

INSERM U1227, «Lymphocyte B et autoimmunité», Labex Igo "Immunotherapy Graft, Oncology", Réseau épigénétique du cancéropole Grand Ouest, Université de Brest, Brest, France.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune epithelitis with predominant female incidence, which is characterized by exocrine gland dysfunction. Incompletely understood, the etiology of SjS is multi-factorial and evidence is growing to consider that epigenetic factors are playing a crucial role in its development. Independent from DNA sequence mutations, epigenetics is described as inheritable and reversible processes that modify gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_11DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:259-283

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, 145 Middle Shandong Road, Shanghai, 200001, China.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with non-suppurative destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts. The interplay of genetics and environmental triggers contributes to the onset of the disease and subsequently results in cholestasis and progressive fibrosis. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genes influencing the susceptibility to PBC in HLA and non-HLA loci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_10DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of Epigenetics in Type 1 Diabetes.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:223-257

Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the interaction between genetic alterations and environmental factors. More than 60 susceptible genes or loci of T1D have been identified. Among them, HLA regions are reported to contribute about 50% of genetic susceptibility in Caucasians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_9DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics of Psoriasis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:209-221

Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease, involving the rapid proliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes and activation of T cells. It is generally accepted that the central pathogenesis of psoriasis is a T cell-dominant immune disorder affected by multiple factors including genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, innate and adaptive immune responses, etc. However, the exact etiology is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_8DOI Listing
January 2020

The Epigenetics of Lupus Erythematosus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:185-207

Department of Dermatology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a life-threatening autoimmune disease that is characterized by dysregulated dendritic cells, T and B cells, and abundant autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of lupus remains unclear. However, increasing evidence has shown that environment factors, genetic susceptibilities, and epigenetic regulation contribute to abnormalities in the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics and the Environment in Airway Disease: Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:153-181

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Asthma and rhinitis are complex, heterogeneous diseases characterized by chronic inflammation of the upper and lower airways. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of susceptible loci and candidate genes associated with the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), the risk-associated alleles account for only a very small percent of the genetic risk. In allergic airway and other complex diseases, it is thought that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding microRNAs, caused by complex interactions between the underlying genome and the environment may account for some of this "missing heritability" and may explain the high degree of plasticity in immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_6DOI Listing
January 2020

The Epigenetics of Food Allergy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:141-152

Department of Dermatology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Food allergy is a global health problem, particularly in developed countries. It is mainly mediated by Th2 cell and IgE produced by B cells. While the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy is quite straightforward, the factors that lead to the development of food allergies at any age in children and adults are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_5DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of Genetics, the Environment, and Epigenetics in Atopic Dermatitis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:107-140

Department of Dermatology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disease with a genetic background. The prevalence of AD has been increasing in many countries. AD patients often have manifestations of pruritus, generalized skin dryness, and eczematous lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetic Methods and Twin Studies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:95-104

Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Genomic predisposition fails to fully explain the onset of complex diseases, which is well illustrated by the largely incomplete concordance among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, are the link between environmental stimuli and disease onset on a permissive genetic background in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Autoimmune diseases now include almost 100 conditions and are estimated to cumulatively affect up to 5% of the world population with a healthcare expenditure superior to cancer worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_3DOI Listing
January 2020

The Development of Epigenetics in the Study of Disease Pathogenesis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:57-94

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, 73118, USA.

The study of epigenetics has its roots in the study of organism change over time and response to environmental change, although over the past several decades the definition has been formalized to include heritable alterations in gene expression that are not a result of alterations in underlying DNA sequence. In this chapter, we discuss first the history and milestones in the 100+ years of epigenetic study, including early discoveries of DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modification, and noncoding RNA. We then discuss how epigenetics has changed the way that we think of both health and disease, offering as examples studies examining the epigenetic contributions to aging, including the recent development of an epigenetic "clock", and explore how antiaging therapies may work through epigenetic modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetics in Health and Disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1253:3-55

Division of Pediatric Immunology and Allergy, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, FL, 33021, USA.

Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA (miRNA), can produce heritable phenotypic changes without a change in DNA sequence. Disruption of gene expression patterns which are governed by epigenetics can result in autoimmune diseases, cancers, and various other maladies. Mechanisms of epigenetics include DNA methylation (and demethylation), histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3449-2_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical Trials with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and CAR-T Cell Transplantation for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Stem Cell Institute, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

The idea of utilizing the human immune system to eradicate tumors has been successfully practiced for the past decades, as reported in multiple published studies. Among cancer types, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is considered the most lethal type, leading to the necessity of finding an effective treatment for this category of cancer. Building on the success of basic and preclinical studies, numerous clinical trials of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells or chimera antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for NSCLC therapy have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_522DOI Listing

Hopea odorata Extract Can Efficiently Kill Breast Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture More Than in Monolayer Cell Culture.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Introduction: The breast cancer cells with CD44CD24 phenotype are known to play an important role in tumorigenesis, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. Breast cancer cells with CD44CD24 phenotype are cultured in three-dimensional (3D) stereotype showing the recapitulation of tumors in vivo such as cell differentiation, heterogeneity, and microenvironment. Using this 3D model in anti-cancer compound research results in a more accurate reflection than conventional monolayer cell culture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_524DOI Listing

Isopanduratin A Isolated from Boesenbergia pandurata Reduces HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Proliferation in Both Monolayer and Three-Dimensional Cultures.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Introduction: Medicinal plants have been used for disease treatment throughout history, especially in parts of Asia. Vietnam is a tropical country which possesses forests with a wide diversity of plants, which have a long history of being used as alternative remedies for treatment of various diseases. In this study, we aimed to test the bioactivity of Boesenbergia pandurata (B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_523DOI Listing

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: A Review of Clinically Relevant Issues.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition. Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is still a poorly characterized entity. However, its prevalence may be higher than that of classical type 1 diabetes. Patients with LADA are often misclassified as type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_533DOI Listing

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading liver disease globally. NAFLD patients can have a progressive phenotype, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that could lead to cirrhosis, liver failure and cancer. There is a close bi-directional relationship between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); NAFLD increases the risk for T2DM and its complications whereas T2DM increases the severity of NAFLD and its complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_532DOI Listing

Factors Affecting Influenza Vaccination Rate in Adults with Asthma.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Asthma is considered one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, with an incidence of 5.4% in the Polish, adult population. Symptoms of the disease can be triggered or worsened by a variety of factors including viral infection such as influenza, affirming the necessity for prophylactic vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_519DOI Listing

Acute Lung Injury: Disease Modelling and the Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Lung Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Group, Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (IPPT), Universiti Sains Malaysia, SAINS@Bertam, Penang, Malaysia.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality that usually results in the development of multiple organ dysfunction. The complex pathophysiology of ALI seems to provide a wide range of targets that offer numerous therapeutic options. However, despite extensive studies of ALI pathophysiology and treatment, no effective pharmacotherapy is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_538DOI Listing

Cellular Dust as a Novel Hope for Regenerative Cancer Medicine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although stem cells have the most therapeutic potential, the advantages of regenerative medicine may be best provided using extracellular vesicles which also known in the past as "cellular dust." These microparticles are substances released by cells and play a pivotal role in pathophysiology of tumor progression and metastasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. Extracellular vesicles including exosomes and cell-derived microparticles supporting many physiological and disease processes which are relevant to immunology, hemostasis, thrombosis, neurobiology, cell signaling, angiogenesis, and cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_537DOI Listing

Stem Cell Culture Under Simulated Microgravity.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Bioengineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey.

Challenging environment of space causes several pivotal alterations in living systems, especially due to microgravity. The possibility of simulating microgravity by ground-based systems provides research opportunities that may lead to the understanding of in vitro biological effects of microgravity by eliminating the challenges inherent to spaceflight experiments. Stem cells are one of the most prominent cell types, due to their self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_539DOI Listing

Data Analysis of Infection Rates Among Exposed Healthcare Workers Could Reveal Effective Prophylactics Against SARS-CoV-2.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

The global crisis provoked by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the economic and social consequences associated to the essential policies applied to contain it, necessitates the expedited development of therapeutic solutions. It is a priority to produce data both rapidly and accurately in order to identify current therapies that can be repurposed to offer protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. As healthcare workers are both at high risk for infection and able to be readily diagnosed, they offer a potential wealth of data to be analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_540DOI Listing

Differential Immune Response of Lactobacillus plantarum 286 Against Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Conventional and Germ-Free Mice.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Instituto de Lactología Industrial (INLAIN, UNL-CONICET), Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.

We aimed at evaluating in vivo the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum 286 against Salmonella enterica serov. Typhimurium. Colonization capacity and antagonistic activity were determined in feces of gnotobiotic mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_544DOI Listing

Evaluation of Bacterial Biofilm Removal Properties of MEDSTER 2000 Cold Sterilant on Different Materials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

We studied the antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of MEDSTER 2000, a pH neutral biodegradable mixed acidic peroxide disinfectant belonging to the class IIb medical device which has been designed for decontamination and cold sterilization of hospital instruments. The broth microdilution method was used to define the antibacterial activity against planktonic form of both classified bacteria and antibiotic resistant strains of clinical source, whereas effectiveness toward their biofilm was determined on mature biofilm, grown both on plastic and stainless steel surfaces. The results showed that for the planktonic form the antibacterial activity of MEDSTER 2000 was already observed after 10 min at the lowest concentration (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2020_542DOI Listing

Hormone Therapy Effects on the Uterus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1242:145-177

Professor Emeritus, Department of Pathology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

The uterus and especially the endometrium are sensitive targets for steroid sex hormones, capable to modify structure and function with promptitude and versatility in order to secure reproductive functions. Hormone therapy is used to counteract deprivation, abnormal, and deleterious functions of "natural" hormones. It is widely prescribed, being used by millions of women all over the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38474-6_8DOI Listing
January 2020

Replacement Hormone Therapy for Gender Dysphoria and Congenital Sexual Anomalies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1242:121-143

New York Medical College, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

What is it about sexuality that makes it such a burning matter since the dawn of mankind? Much was lost of humankind heritage because of society's attitude toward sex and gender, but we've made progress. Medical knowledge progressed incredibly and so did social and cultural norms. In these days, on most places on the planet, there is acceptance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38474-6_7DOI Listing
January 2020

Hormone Therapy in Menopause.

Authors:
John Paciuc

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1242:89-120

Lenox Hill Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

As longevity expands, women are spending a third of their existence in menopause and beyond. The vast majority suffer from symptoms that negatively impact their quality of life. Systemic vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the classic cluster affecting 80% of peri- and post-menopausal women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38474-6_6DOI Listing
January 2020

Endometriosis and Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer (EAOC).

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1242:73-87

Department of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, NYU-Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA.

Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease that affects over 10% of women of reproductive age causing pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. Very recent genetic studies have suggested that endometriosis is a clonal disease in the epithelium and its development is independent of stroma, providing new insight into the genesis of endometriosis. The endometrioid tissue lining may also react by epithelial atypical hyperplasia and even neoplasia, in a manner somehow similar to that in the uterine cavity and under the same hormonal influences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38474-6_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Endometrial Carcinoma and its Precursors.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1242:59-72

Nezhat Surgery for Gynecology/Oncology, New York, NY, USA.

This chapter focuses on premalignant and malignant diseases of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. Women have a 1 in 40 lifetime risk of being diagnosed with endometrial cancer, the fourth most common malignancy among women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38474-6_4DOI Listing
January 2020