36,333 results match your criteria Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Journal]


Mold Sensitization in Asthmatic and Non-asthmatic Subjects Diagnosed with Extract-Based Versus Component-Based Allergens.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany.

Asthmatic patients are suspected of having a higher risk of mold sensitization. Thus, precise diagnosis of fungal sensitization is important. Mold allergen extracts are difficult to standardize, but component-resolved allergy diagnosis may be an alternative to replace extract-based tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_342DOI Listing
February 2019

Stem Cells from Human Extracted Deciduous Teeth Expanded in Foetal Bovine and Human Sera Express Different Paracrine Factors After Exposure to Freshly Prepared Human Serum.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Regenerative Dentistry Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The response of stem cells to paracrine factors within the host's body plays an important role in the regeneration process after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and paracrine factor profile of stem cells from human extracted deciduous teeth (SHED) pre-cultivated in media supplemented with either foetal bovine serum (FBS) or pooled human serum (pHS) in the presence of individual human sera (iHS).

Methods: SHED (n = 3) from passage 4 were expanded in FBS (FBS-SHED) or pHS (pHS-SHED) supplemented media until passage 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_299DOI Listing
February 2019

Systemic Sclerosis and Serum Content of Transforming Growth Factor.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Rheumatology and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by tissue fibrosis leading to interstitial lung disease. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been of interest as a potential diagnostic marker and also as a drug target in systemic sclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the serum content of TGF-β1 in patients with systemic sclerosis and to assess its potential role in tissue fibrosis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2019_341
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_341DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Vaccination Against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in the Light of Current Epidemic Threats: Unjustified Postponement.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Pediatrics with Clinical Assessment Unit, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.

A worrying increase in the number of measles cases has been noted recently in Poland, which may have to do with a decreasing proportion of children vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) in the second year of life (<95%). For many years, MMR vaccination in children has been associated with a fear of allergy to eggs. This study seeks to define the reason and justification for postponing MMR vaccination in a population of children referred to the outpatient specialist immunization clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_344DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Early Detection and Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Future Perspectives.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:295-317

Taunton and Somerset NHS Trust, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, Somerset, UK.

Alzheimer's disease affects approximately 6% of people over the age of 65 years. It is characterized as chronic degeneration of cortical neurons, with loss of memory, cognition and executive functions. As the disease progresses, it is accompanied by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in key areas of the brain, leading to a loss of neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, along with changes in the levels of essential neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and glutamate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_15DOI Listing
January 2019

Metabolomic Biomarkers in Mental Disorders: Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:271-293

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Psychiatric disorders are some of the most impairing human diseases. Among them, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are the most common. Both have complicated diagnostics due to their phenotypic, biological, and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and the underlying biological pathways, and molecular mechanisms are still not completely understood. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_14
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_14DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Role of the Gut Microbiome in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:253-269

Department of Genomics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder with elusive etiology and obscure pathophysiology. Cognitive inabilities, impaired communication, repetitive behavior pattern, and restricted social interaction and communication lead to a debilitating situation in autism. The pattern of co-occurrence of medical comorbidities is most intriguing in autism, compared to any other neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_13DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Proteomic Investigations of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Past Findings, Current Challenges, and Future Prospects.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:235-252

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Proteomics is a powerful tool to study biological systems and is potentially useful in identifying biomarkers for clinical screening and diagnosis, for monitoring treatment, and for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms in autism. Unlike numerous other experimental approaches employed in autism research, there have been few proteomic-based analyses. Herein, we discuss the findings of studies regarding autism that utilized a proteomic approach and review key considerations in sample acquisition, processing, and analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_12DOI Listing
January 2019

Advances in Biomarker Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:207-233

College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental condition that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout life. The epidemiology of ASD is continuously increasing all over the world with huge social and economical burdens. As the etiology of autism is not completely understood, there is still no medication available for the treatment of this disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_11DOI Listing
January 2019
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Proteomic Markers for Depression.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:191-206

Laboratory of Neuroproteomics, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, with molecular mechanisms not fully understood. A breakthrough could be reached with a panel of diagnostic biomarkers, which could be helpful to stratify patients and guide physicians to a better therapeutic choice, reducing the time between diagnostic and remission. This review brings the most recent works in proteomic biomarkers and highlights several potential proteins that could compose a panel of biomarkers to diagnostic and response to medication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_10DOI Listing
January 2019

MicroRNAs in Major Depressive Disorder.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:175-190

Translational Psychiatry Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Houston, TX, USA.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe and chronic psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence in the population. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms has significantly increased over the years, available treatments still present several limitations and are not effective to all MDD patients. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been suggested to play key roles in MDD pathogenesis and treatment, including the effects of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_9DOI Listing
January 2019

Interactome Studies of Psychiatric Disorders.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:163-173

Proteomics and Biomarkers, Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

High comorbidity and complexity have precluded reliable diagnostic assessment and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Impaired molecular interactions may be relevant for underlying mechanisms of psychiatric disorders but by and large remain unknown. With the help of a number of publicly available databases and various technological tools, recent research has filled the paucity of information by generating a novel dataset of psychiatric interactomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_8DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Role of Biomarkers in Psychiatry.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:135-162

Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Psychiatric illnesses are cognitive and behavioral disorders of the brain. At present, psychiatric diagnosis is based on DSM-5 criteria. Even if endophenotype specificity for psychiatric disorders is discussed, it is difficult to study and identify psychiatric biomarkers to support diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_7DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:117-134

Centre Ressource de Réhabilitation Psychosociale et Remédiation Cognitive, Lyon, France.

Persons suffering from schizophrenia present cognitive impairments that have a major functional impact on their lives. Particularly, executive functions and episodic memory are consistently found to be impaired. Neuroimaging allows the investigation of affected areas of the brain associated with these impairments and, moreover, the detection of brain functioning improvements after cognitive remediation interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_6DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Genetic Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease: Emerging Roles of Microglia in Disease Pathomechanisms.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:83-116

Laboratory of Neuropathology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The accumulation of aggregated amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is deeply involved in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mutations in APP and presenilins play major roles in Aβ pathology in rare autosomal-dominant forms of AD, whereas pathomechanisms of sporadic AD, accounting for the majority of cases, remain unknown. In this chapter, we review current knowledge on genetic risk factors of AD, clarified by recent advances in genome analysis technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_5DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Lymphocytes, Platelets, Erythrocytes, and Exosomes as Possible Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Diagnosis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:71-82

Laboratory of Ischemic and Neurodegenerative Brain Research, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

In the aging world population, Alzheimer's disease accounts for more than 70% of all cases of dementia and is the sixth leading cause of death. The neurodegenerative processes of this disorder can begin 10-20 years before the clinical symptoms develop. Postmortem brain autopsy of Alzheimer's disease cases reveals characteristic hallmarks like extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and synaptic and neuronal disintegration with severe brain atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_4DOI Listing
January 2019
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Mitochondrial Involvement in Mental Disorders: Energy Metabolism and Genetic and Environmental Factors.

Authors:
Keiko Iwata

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:63-70

Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, Italy.

Mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior, and relationships with others. Multiple risk factors incorporating genetic and environmental susceptibility are associated with development of these disorders. Mitochondria have a central role in the energy metabolism, and the literature suggests energy metabolism abnormalities are widespread in the brains of subjects with MDD, BPD, and SZ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_3DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Role of Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease Drug Development.

Authors:
Jeffrey Cummings

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:29-61

Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Biomarkers have a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. Biomarkers can assist in diagnosis, demonstrate target engagement, support disease modification, and monitor for safety. The amyloid (A), tau (T), neurodegeneration (N) Research Framework emphasizes brain imaging and CSF measures relevant to disease diagnosis and staging and can be applied to drug development and clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_2DOI Listing
January 2019

The Potential of 'Omics to Link Lipid Metabolism and Genetic and Comorbidity Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease in African Americans.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1118:1-28

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, who are more likely to have AD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and Asian Americans. Racial disparities in AD are multifactorial, with potential contributing factors including genetics, comorbidities, diet and lifestyle, education, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. Interestingly, comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease also impact AAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05542-4_1DOI Listing
January 2019
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Sleep Disorders and Adherence to Inhalation Therapy in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Sleep disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are associated with greater disease severity, more frequent exacerbations, greater use of emergency health care, and higher mortality. They may contribute to worsening of COPD course by reducing patients' adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of sleep in COPD patients and to assess the relationship between impaired sleep and adherence to inhalation therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_345DOI Listing
February 2019
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A Novel Virtue in Stem Cell Research: Exosomes and Their Role in Differentiation.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

In the past decade a number of different stem cell types have entered the clinical applications increasingly as a therapeutic option, due to their tissue maintenance capacity at the site where they localize. Although it was initially thought that conferral of resilience to damaged tissue largely depends on the stem cells themselves through orchestration of signaling among the local epithelial and immune systems at the injury site, recent findings point out that the remarkable regenerative capacity of stem cells is rather due to their nanovesicular products that emerge as the new active players of tissue repair processes. Among these extracellular vesicles exosomes generated particularly by stem cells have been receiving a substantial interest both in the fields of stem cell biology and extracellular vesicles. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2019_339
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_339DOI Listing
February 2019
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Sialidase Attenuates Epidermal Growth Factor Response and Abolishes Antiproliferative Effects of Erlotinib in A549Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Erlotinib is a widely used, reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), targeting pro-proliferative signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The drug is approved for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. Extracellular glycans can affect EGFR expression, dimerization, phosphorylation, and EGF binding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_329DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Stem Cells for the Oromaxillofacial Area: Could they be a promising source for regeneration in dentistry?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Oromaxillofacial tissues (OMT) are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. Such a composite material is a huge source for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained with ease from extracted teeth, teeth structures and socket blood, flapped gingiva tissue, and mandibular/maxillar bone marrow. They offer a biological answer for restoring damaged dental tissues such as the regeneration of alveolar bone, prevention of pulp tissue defects, and dental structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_327DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Online Health Technologies and Mobile Devices: Attitudes, Needs, and Future.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Family Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Advances in mobile technology constitute a promising and evolving trend that enables better access to health care especially for the elderly, disabled, and chronically ill. It overcomes geographical, temporal, and organizational barriers at low and affordable costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the needs and expectations of Polish citizens and their attitudes toward mobile health (mHealth) services using mobile phones and communication devices in medical care and also to evaluate the sociodemographic factors affecting such behavioral processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_335DOI Listing
February 2019

CRISPR/Cas9 for Sickle Cell Disease: Applications, Future Possibilities, and Challenges.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited monogenic disorder resulting in serious mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although the disease was characterized more than a century ago, there are only two FDA approved medications to lessen disease severity, and a definitive cure available to all patients with SCD is lacking. Rapid and substantial progress in genome editing approaches have proven valuable as a curative option given plausibility to either correct the underlying mutation in patient-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), induce fetal hemoglobin expression to circumvent sickling of red blood cells (RBCs), or create corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) among other approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_331DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Decellularization Concept in Regenerative Medicine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Medical Biology, Bahçeşehir University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Decellularized organs and tissues are effectively utilized in a diversity of regenerative medicine purposes, and the decellularization approaches employed differ as broadly as the tissues/organs of concern. Biological scaffold substances formed by extracellular matrix (ECM) are mostly produced with methods that include decellularization of tissues. Conservation of the multifaceted arrangement and three-dimensional (3D) construction of the ECM is very wanted but it is documented that almost every approach of decellularization cause disturbance of the organization and possible forfeiture of surface organization and conformation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_338DOI Listing
February 2019

Hand-Foot Syndrome and Progression-Free Survival in Patients Treated with Sunitinib for Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Uro-Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland.

Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) typically receive systemic treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Side effects include the hand-foot syndrome (HFS), tiredness, nausea, decreased appetite, diarrhea, myelosuppression, and hypertension. This study seeks to define the relationship between the incidence of HFS after the first cycle of treatment with sunitinib as the first-line treatment for mRCC (50 mg/day, 6-week schedule: 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off) and progression-free survival. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_328
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_328DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Fructose Consumption and Lipid Metabolism in Obese Children and Adolescents.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Endocrinology, Warsaw Medical University Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Inappropriate dietary habits influence the development of excessive body weight. The role of added sugars, including fructose, notably is significant in this process. It is estimated that fructose intake has increased many times over the past two centuries. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_330
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_330DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Protein-Bound Solute Clearance During Hemodialysis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Dialysis, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (p-CS) are protein-bound solutes that accumulate in the blood serum in chronic kidney disease and have a detrimental effect on the kidney and other organs' function. This study seeks to define the effectiveness of IS and p-CS clearance after single dialysis sessions and after 8-week-long cycles of hemodialysis using the following different dialysis modalities in succession: low-flux hemodialysis (lfHD), high-flux hemodialysis (hfHD), and post-dilution hemodiafiltration (HDF). We also investigated to what extent IS and p-CS serum content would associate with some other biochemical indices in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2019_336
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_336DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Mandibular Advancement Devices in Patients with Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Prosthodontics, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder resulting from the repetitive narrowing and collapse of the upper respiratory tract. The results of previous epidemiological studies confirm a significant impact of OSA on the health situation around the world. Untreated OSA is associated with many adverse health effects, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and daytime sleepiness. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2019_334
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_334DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Phagocytosis and Autophagy in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Urban Dust: Possible Role of LC3-Associated Phagocytosis and Canonical Autophagy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) increases mortality and morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of standardized urban dust (UD) on phagocytosis and autophagy in a monocyte-macrophage cell line (THP-1 cells). The cells were grown for 24 h in the medium supplemented with 200 μg·mL coarse carbon black (CB) or UD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_323DOI Listing
January 2019

Clostridium difficile Colitis Prevention and Treatment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. This spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus is becoming responsible for an increasing number of infections worldwide, both in community and in hospital settings, whose severity can vary widely from an asymptomatic infection to a lethal disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_322
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_322DOI Listing
January 2019
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Morphometric Analysis of the Lumbar Vertebrae Concerning the Optimal Screw Selection for Transpedicular Stabilization.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Second Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Transpedicular stabilization is a frequently used spinal surgery for fractures, degenerative changes, or neoplastic processes. Improper screw fixation may cause substantial vascular or neurological complications. This study seeks to define detailed morphometric measurements of the pedicle (height, width, and surface area) in the aspects of screw length and girth selection and the trajectory of its implantation, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_324DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Necrotizing Enterocolitis and the Preterm Infant Microbiome.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Bacterial colonization patterns in preterm infants differ from those of their term counterparts due to maternal microbial diversity, delivery mode, feeding methods, antibiotic use, and exposure to commensal microbiota and pathogens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Early gut microbiome dysbiosis predisposes neonates to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating intestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality. Though mechanisms of NEC pathogenesis are not fully understood, the microbiome is a promising therapy target for prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_313DOI Listing
January 2019
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Shaping Microbiota During the First 1000 Days of Life.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

The data obtained in prior studies suggest that early microbial exposition begins prior to conception and gestation. Given that the host-microbe interaction is shaped by the immune system response, it is important to understand the key immune system-microbiota relationship during the period from conception to the first years of life. The present work summarizes the available evidence concerning early microbiota exposure within the male and the female reproductive tracts at the point of conception and during gestation, focusing on the potential impact on infant development during the first 1000 days of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_312DOI Listing
January 2019

Targeting Food Allergy with Probiotics.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Translational Medical Science, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

The dramatic increase in food allergy prevalence and severity globally is demanding effective strategies. Food allergy derives from a defect in immune tolerance mechanisms. Immune tolerance is modulated by gut microbiota composition and function, and gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with the development of food allergy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_316DOI Listing
January 2019

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation for Accessory Respiratory Muscles Training in Patients After Ischemic Stroke.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

This study focused on how pulmonary function is affected by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) of accessory respiratory muscles in the chronic post-stroke phase. The study involved patients who had had ischemic stroke 6 months or more before the PNF treatment investigated. The objective was to define the effect of PNF on bioelectrical resting and maximum activity of the accessory muscles. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_325DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Influence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Quality of Life and Exercise Capacity in Lung Transplant Recipients.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany.

The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) after lung transplantation (LTX) is high. It is well-established that SDB is associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but the impact of SDB on exercise capacity is less clear. In this study we investigated HRQoL and exercise capacity in LTX recipients with or without SDB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_332DOI Listing
January 2019
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Can Postbiotics Represent a New Strategy for NEC?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

Increasing evidence indicates that many of the health beneficial effects associated with the establishment of a symbiotic gut microbiota are driven by bacterial metabolic by-products.The term "postbiotics" indicates any soluble factor resulting from the metabolic activity of a live bacteria or any released molecule capable of providing health benefits through a direct or indirect mechanism.Alterations in preterm gut colonization associated with the intestinal barrier immaturity and the increased reactivity of the intestinal mucosa to colonizing bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_314
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_314DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Preventing and Treating Colic.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Ospedale Pediatrico Giovanni XXIII, "Aldo Moro" University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Colic is a common and distressing functional gastrointestinal disorder during infancy. It is a behavioral phenomenon in infants aged 1-4 months involving prolonged inconsolable crying and agitated status with multifactorial etiology. Colic can be considered as a benign, self-limited process because the baby normally grows and feeds even with transient irritable mood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_315DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Cholesterol-Dependent Gating Effects on Ion Channels.

Authors:
Qiu-Xing Jiang

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:167-190

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Biomembranes separate a live cell from its environment and keep it in an off-equilibrium, steady state. They contain both phospholipids and nonphospholipids, depending on whether there are phosphate groups in the headgroup regions. Cholesterol (CHOL) is one type of nonphospholipids, and one of the most abundant lipid molecules in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_8DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Cholesterol.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:155-166

Department of Chemistry and Laboratory of Integrated Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has evolved as a significant tool to map biomolecules in situ without tags. This chapter describes advancements in mass spectrometry imaging technology and applications focused on mapping cholesterol. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), and desorption electrospray (DESI) modes are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_7DOI Listing
January 2019
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Effect of Cholesterol on the Dipole Potential of Lipid Membranes.

Authors:
Ronald J Clarke

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:135-154

University of Sydney, School of Chemistry, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The membrane dipole potential, ψ , is an electrical potential difference with a value typically in the range 150-350 mV (positive in the membrane interior) which is located in the lipid headgroup region of the membrane, between the linkage of the hydrocarbon chains to the phospholipid glycerol backbone and the adjacent aqueous solution. At its physiological level in animal plasma membranes (up to 50 mol%), cholesterol makes a significant contribution to ψ of approximately 65 mV; the rest arising from other lipid components of the membrane, in particular phospholipids. Via its effect on ψ , cholesterol may modulate the activity of membrane proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_6DOI Listing
January 2019
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Cholesterol Effects on the Physical Properties of Lipid Membranes Viewed by Solid-state NMR Spectroscopy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:99-133

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

In this chapter, we review the physical properties of lipid/cholesterol mixtures involving studies of model membranes using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The approach allows one to quantify the average membrane structure, fluctuations, and elastic deformation upon cholesterol interaction. Emphasis is placed on understanding the membrane structural deformation and emergent fluctuations at an atomistic level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_5DOI Listing
January 2019
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Chiral Specificity of Cholesterol Orientation Within Cholesterol Binding Sites in Inwardly Rectifying K Channels.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:77-95

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Cholesterol is an integral component of cellular membranes and has been shown to be an important functional regulator for many different ion channels, including inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation represents a critical field of study. Broadly speaking, cholesterol can mediate ion channel function either directly by binding to specific sites or indirectly by altering surrounding membrane properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_4DOI Listing
January 2019
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Regulation of BK Channel Activity by Cholesterol and Its Derivatives.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:53-75

The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Cholesterol (CLR) is an essential structural lipid in the plasma membrane of animal cells. In addition, CLR has been widely recognized as a critical modulator of protein function, including ion channels. Voltage- and Ca-gated K (BK) channels control a wide variety of physiological processes, including cell excitability, smooth muscle contractility, sensory perception, neurotransmitter release, and hormone secretion. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_3DOI Listing
January 2019
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A Critical Analysis of Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Membrane Cholesterol Sensitivity of GPCRs.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:21-52

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and a diverse family of proteins involved in signal transduction across biological membranes. GPCRs mediate a wide range of physiological processes and have emerged as major targets for the development of novel drug candidates in all clinical areas. Since GPCRs are integral membrane proteins, regulation of their organization, dynamics, and function by membrane lipids, in particular membrane cholesterol, has emerged as an exciting area of research. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_2DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Chirality Effect on Cholesterol Modulation of Protein Function.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1115:3-19

Thomas Jefferson University, College of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Cholesterol is a key steroidal, lipid biomolecule found abundantly in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. It is an important structural component of cellular membranes and regulates membrane fluidity and permeability. Cholesterol is also essential for normal functioning of key proteins including ion-channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), membrane bound steroid receptors, and receptor kinases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04278-3_1DOI Listing
January 2019
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Acute Infectious Diarrhea.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences - Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Acute infectious diarrhea (AID) is one of the most common diseases in pediatric age with relevant burden both in high- and in low-income countries.Thanks to their direct action on enterocyte functions and indirect actions on mucosal and systemic immune system and intestinal microenvironment, probiotics are an ideal intervention to manage AID in childhood. However, their efficacy is strictly related to strains and indications, and practitioners should take this information into account in clinical practice. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_320DOI Listing
January 2019
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F-type Lectin Domains: Provenance, Prevalence, Properties, Peculiarities, and Potential.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1112:345-363

Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.

F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread albeit selectively distributed lectins with an L-fucose-binding sequence motif and an F-type lectin fold. Several F-type lectins from fishes have been extensively studied, and structural information is available for F-type lectin domains from fish and bacterial proteins. F-type lectins have been demonstrated to be involved in self-/nonself-recognition and therefore have an important role in pathogen defense in many metazoan animals. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3065-0_24
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3065-0_24DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads