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    Respiratory Infections with Particular Emphasis on Influenza Virus Activity in Persons Over 14 Years of Age in the Epidemic Season 2016/2017 in Poland.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 20. Epub 2018 Jun 20.
    Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Influenza viruses cause respiratory infections every epidemic season regardless of the patient's age. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of respiratory viruses in the epidemic season 2016/2017 in Poland, with particular emphasis on influenza viruses among people aged over 14. There were 2982 clinical samples taken from patients from four age groups: 15-25, 26-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years tested under the Sentinel and non-Sentinel surveillance programs. Read More

    Stem Cell Therapy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Treatment Strategies and Future Perspectives.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is classified as an autoimmune disease which progressively results in the depletion of insulin-secreting β-cells. Consequently, the insulin secretion stops leading to hyperglycemic situations within the body. Under severe conditions, it also causes multi-organ diabetes-associated dysfunctionalities notably hypercoagulability, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and sometimes organ failures. Read More

    Vaccine Development for Epstein-Barr Virus.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:477-493
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunocompromised persons, as well as multiple sclerosis. A vaccine is currently unavailable. While monomeric EBV gp350 was shown in a phase 2 trial to reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis, but not the rate of EBV infection, newer formulations of gp350 including multimeric forms, viruslike particles, and nanoparticles may be more effective. Read More

    EBV in T-/NK-Cell Tumorigenesis.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:459-475
    Department of Virology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with B-cell proliferative disorders, also transforms T- or natural killer (NK)-lineage cells and has been connected with various T- or NK (T/NK)-cell malignancies, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma-nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Chronic active EBV (CAEBV) disease , which occurs most often in children and young adults in East Asia, is an EBV-associated T-/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Patients with CAEBV often progress to overt lymphoma or leukemia over a long-term clinical course. Read More

    Gastritis-Infection-Cancer Sequence of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Cancer.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:437-457
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is a representative EBV-infected epithelial neoplasm, which is now included as one of the four subtypes of The Cancer Genome Atlas molecular classification of gastric cancer. In this review, we portray a gastritis-infection-cancer sequence of EBVaGC. This virus-associated type of gastric cancer demonstrates clonal growth of EBV-infected epithelial cells within the mucosa of atrophic gastritis. Read More

    Animal Models of Human Gammaherpesvirus Infections.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:413-436
    Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Humans are the only natural host of both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and this strict host tropism has hampered the development of animal models of these human gammaherpesviruses. To overcome this difficulty and develop useful models for these viruses, three main approaches have been employed: first, experimental infection of laboratory animals [mainly new-world non-human primates (NHPs)] with EBV or KSHV; second, experimental infection of NHPs (mainly old-world NHPs) with EBV- or KSHV-related gammaherpesviruses inherent to respective NHPs; and third, experimental infection of humanized mice, i.e. Read More

    Encyclopedia of EBV-Encoded Lytic Genes: An Update.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:395-412
    Department of Virology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    In addition to latent genes, lytic genes of EBV must also be of extreme significance since propagation of the virus can be achieved only through execution of lytic cycle. Research on EBV lytic genes may thus prevent spreading of the virus and alleviate disorders, such as infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, which are highly associated with EBV lytic infection. Moreover, recent advancements have been demonstrating that at least several lytic genes are expressed to some extent even during latent state. Read More

    EBV-Encoded Latent Genes.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:377-394
    Division of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens. EBV infection is usually asymptomatic, and it establishes life-long latent infection. EBV latent infection sometimes causes various tumorigenic diseases, such as EBV-related lymphoproliferative diseases, Burkitt lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, NK/T-cell lymphomas, and epithelial carcinomas. Read More

    Pathological Features of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:357-376
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8, or HHV-8) was firstly discovered in Kaposi's sarcoma tissue derived from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. KSHV infection is associated with malignancies and certain inflammatory conditions. In addition to Kaposi's sarcoma, KSHV has been detected in primary effusion lymphoma, KSHV-associated lymphoma, and some cases of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Read More

    Signal Transduction Pathways Associated with KSHV-Related Tumors.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:321-355
    Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Signal transduction pathways play a key role in the regulation of cell growth, cell differentiation, cell survival, apoptosis, and immune responses. Bacterial and viral pathogens utilize the cell signal pathways by encoding their own proteins or noncoding RNAs to serve their survival and replication in infected cells. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is classified as a rhadinovirus in the γ-herpesvirus subfamily and was the eighth human herpesvirus to be discovered from Kaposi's sarcoma specimens. Read More

    KSHV Genome Replication and Maintenance in Latency.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:299-320
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also called human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is the eighth human herpesvirus found by Yuan Chang and Patrick Moore, 1992. It is a Rhadinovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus subfamily. As known for many gamma herpesviruses, KSHV is also well-correlated to several cancer formations such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. Read More

    Vaccine Development for Cytomegalovirus.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:271-296
    Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    The development of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine has become a top priority due to its potential cost-effectiveness and associated public health benefits. However, there are a number of challenges facing vaccine development including the following: (1) CMV has many mechanisms for evading immune responses , and natural immunity is not perfect, (2) the immune correlates for protection are unclear, (3) a narrow range of CMV hosts limits the value of animal models, and (4) the placenta is a specialized organ formed transiently and its immunological status changes with time. In spite of these limitations, several types of CMV vaccine candidate, including live-attenuated, DISC , subunit, DNA, vectored, and peptide vaccines, have been developed or are currently under development. Read More

    Betaherpesvirus Complications and Management During Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:251-270
    Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.
    Two of the four betaherpesviruses, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), play an important role in opportunistic infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. These viruses are ubiquitous in humans and can latently infect mononuclear lymphocytes, complicating the diagnosis of the diseases they cause. Although the detection of viral DNA in a patient's peripheral blood by real-time PCR is widely used for monitoring viral infection, it is insufficient for the diagnosis of virus-associated disease. Read More

    Structural Aspects of Betaherpesvirus-Encoded Proteins.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:227-249
    Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Betaherpesvirus possesses a large genome DNA with a lot of open reading frames, indicating abundance in the variety of viral protein factors. Because the complicated pathogenicity of herpesvirus reflects the combined functions of these factors, analyses of individual proteins are the fundamental steps to comprehensively understand about the viral life cycle and the pathogenicity. In this chapter, structural aspects of the betaherpesvirus-encoded proteins are introduced. Read More

    Chromosomal Integration by Human Herpesviruses 6A and 6B.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:209-226
    Division of Infectious and Immune Diseases, CHU de Québec Research Center, QC, Quebec, Canada.
    Upon infection and depending on the infected cell type, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) can replicate or enter a state of latency. HHV-6A and HHV-6B can integrate their genomes into host chromosomes as one way to establish latency. Viral integration takes place near the subtelomeric/telomeric junction of chromosomes. Read More

    Betaherpesvirus Virion Assembly and Egress.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:167-207
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, & Immunology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Virions are the vehicle for cell-to-cell and host-to-host transmission of viruses. Virions need to be assembled reliably and efficiently, be released from infected cells, survive in the extracellular environment during transmission, recognize and then trigger entry of appropriate target cells, and disassemble in an orderly manner during initiation of a new infection. The betaherpesvirus subfamily includes four human herpesviruses (human cytomegalovirus and human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7), as well as viruses that are the basis of important animal models of infection and immunity. Read More

    Glycoproteins of HHV-6A and HHV-6B.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:145-165
    Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Recently, human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) were classified into distinct species. Although these two viruses share many similarities, cell tropism is one of their striking differences, which is partially because of the difference in their entry machinery. Many glycoproteins of HHV-6A/B have been identified and analyzed in detail, especially in their functions during entry process into host cells. Read More

    Vaccine Development for Varicella-Zoster Virus.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:123-142
    Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the first and only human herpesvirus for which a licensed live attenuated vaccine, vOka, has been developed. vOka has highly safe and effective profiles; however, worldwide herd immunity against VZV has not yet been established and it is far from eradication. Despite the successful reduction in the burden of VZV-related illness by the introduction of the vaccine, some concerns about vOka critically prevent worldwide acceptance and establishment of herd immunity, and difficulties in addressing these criticisms often relate to its ill-defined mechanism of attenuation. Read More

    Antiviral Drugs Against Alphaherpesvirus.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:103-122
    Department of Virology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
    The discovery of acyclovir and penciclovir has led to the development of a successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus infection and varicella-zoster virus infection, and the orally available prodrugs, valacyclovir and famciclovir, have improved antiviral treatment compliance. Acyclovir and penciclovir are phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase and are incorporated into the DNA chain by viral DNA polymerase, resulting in chain termination. Helicase-primase plays an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands (replication fork) and is a new target of antiviral therapy. Read More

    Neurological Disorders Associated with Human Alphaherpesviruses.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:85-102
    Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is observed in approximately one-third of neonatal HSV infections . In recent years, single-gene inborn errors of innate immunity have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to HSV encephalitis . Temporal lobe abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging-the most sensitive imaging method for HSV encephalitis-are considered strong evidence for the disease. Read More

    Oncolytic Virotherapy by HSV.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:63-84
    Department of Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
    Oncolytic virotherapy is a kind of antitumor therapy using viruses with natural or engineered tumor-selective replication to intentionally infect and kill tumor cells. An early clinical trial has been performed in the 1950s using wild-type and non-engineered in vitro-passaged virus strains and vaccine strains (first generation oncolytic viruses). Because of the advances in biotechnology and virology, the field of virotherapy has rapidly evolved over the past two decades and innovative recombinant selectivity-enhanced viruses (second generation oncolytic viruses). Read More

    Us3 Protein Kinase Encoded by HSV: The Precise Function and Mechanism on Viral Life Cycle.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:45-62
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    All members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily encode a serine/threonine kinase, designated Us3, which is not conserved in the other subfamilies. Us3 is a significant virulence factor for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which is one of the best-characterized members of the Alphaherpesvirinae family. Accumulating evidence indicates that HSV-1 Us3 is a multifunctional protein that plays various roles in the viral life cycle by phosphorylating a number of viral and cellular substrates. Read More

    Virus Assembly and Egress of HSV.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:23-44
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    The assembly and egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a complicated multistage process that involves several different cellular compartments and the activity of many viral and cellular proteins. The process begins in the nucleus, with capsid assembly followed by genome packaging into the preformed capsids. The DNA-filled capsids (nucleocapsids) then exit the nucleus by a process of envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane followed by fusion with the outer nuclear membrane. Read More

    The Role of HSV Glycoproteins in Mediating Cell Entry.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:3-21
    Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    The successful entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into a cell is a complex process requiring the interaction of several surface viral glycoproteins with host cell receptors. These viral glycoproteins are currently thought to work sequentially to trigger fusogenic activity, but the process is complicated by the fact that each glycoprotein is known to interact with a range of target cell surface receptor molecules. The glycoproteins concerned are gB, gD, and gH/gL, with at least four host cell receptor molecules known to bind to gB and gD alone. Read More

    New Frontiers of Metallomics: Elemental and Species-Specific Analysis and Imaging of Single Cells.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:245-270
    Institute of Analytical Sciences and Physico-Chemistry for Environment and Materials (IPREM), UMR 5254, CNRS-UPPA, Pau, France.
    Single cells represent the basic building units of life, and thus their study is one the most important areas of research. However, classical analysis of biological cells eludes the investigation of cell-to-cell differences to obtain information about the intracellular distribution since it only provides information by averaging over a huge number of cells. For this reason, chemical analysis of single cells is an expanding area of research nowadays. Read More

    Advanced Nuclear and Related Techniques for Metallomics and Nanometallomics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:213-243
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and Laboratory for Metallomic and Nanometallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Metallomics, focusing on the global and systematic understanding of the metal uptake, trafficking, role, and excretion in biological systems, has attracted more and more attention. Metal-related nanomaterials, including metallic and metal-containing nanomaterials, have unique properties compared to their macroscale counterparts and therefore require special attention. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) behavior of metal-related nanomaterials in the biological systems is influenced by their physicochemical properties, the exposure route, and the microenvironment of the deposition site. Read More

    Chemical Speciation and Metallomics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:183-211
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Chemical speciation approaches is an inherent part of metallomics, once metals/metalloids and organic structures need to be currently evaluated for attaining metallomics studies. Then, this chapter focuses on the applications of the chemical speciation applied to the human health risk, food and human diet, drugs, forensic, nanoscience, and geological metallomics, also pointing out the advances in such area. Some aspects regarding sample preparation is commented along this chapter, and some strategies for maintaining the integrity of the metallomics information are also emphasized. Read More

    Bioimaging Metallomics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:139-181
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    This chapter focuses on bioimaging in metallomics, which involves metal and metalloids distribution in animal tissues. It starts with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry followed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, and electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The basic principles of these techniques and their application for qualitative and quantitative imaging of elements are presented. Read More

    The Use of Stable Isotopic Tracers in Metallomics Studies.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:111-137
    University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Oviedo, Spain.
    Mass spectrometry represents an essential technique in Metallomics studies. It permits the identification of metal-containing molecules as part of the metallome as well as their quantification at low concentration levels. The technique becomes even more powerful in combination with the use of isotopically enriched species. Read More

    Metallomics in Fish.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:101-110
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Bioscience, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Metallomics allows the integration of traditionally analytical studies with inorganic and biochemical studies. The study of metallomics in living organisms allows us to obtain information about how the metal ion is distributed and coordinated with proteins, the essentiality and/or toxicity, and the individual concentrations of metal species, thus contributing to elucidation of the physiological and functional aspects of these biomolecules. In this context, several lines of research have appeared in the literature with different terms and approaches. Read More

    Metallomics Study in Plants Exposed to Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium and Sulphur.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:67-100
    Reading Scientific Services Ltd, The Reading Science Centre, Reading, Berkshire, UK.
    This chapter is focussing on the interaction of arsenic, mercury and selenium with plans. Aspects of biotransformations are discussed, before the analytical methodologies are listed and critically appraised in the second part. A holistic view is given, starting from the soil environment and continuing to the plant roots and the translocations into the upper part of the plants. Read More

    Environmental Metallomics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:39-66
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva, Spain.
    Metallomics is the new paradigm about the metallobiomolecules related to living organisms, considering the interactions between toxic and essential metals, transport through biological fluids, passing across biological membranes and interfaces, synergic and antagonist actions among metal species, and alterations in metabolic pathways triggered by overexpression or inhibition of these metallobiomolecules. These challenging studies require the development of new analytical approaches in order to get suitable information of these species close to their native environment which has promoted the application of new tools based in mass spectrometry under the double focus of elemental (ICP-MS) and molecular (Qq-TOF-MS) mass spectrometry, generally arranged with chromatography in multidimensional platforms. The driving force for the design of these new analytical instrumental arrangements is the analyst imagination who adapts the new metallomic methodology to the new problems. Read More

    Metallomics Applied to the Study of Neurodegenerative and Mental Diseases.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:21-37
    Centro de Estudos da Saúde do Trabalho e Ecologia Humana (CESTEH), Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca (ENSP), FIOCRUZ, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Biochemical imbalances, provoked by aging or a secondary illness, might directly affect the brain, causing severe problems, such as loss of memory or alteration of behavior patterns. Brain disorders are usually classified as injuries (such as stroke, hematomas, and concussions), tumors, and neurodegenerative (such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) and mental (such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) diseases. As the pathophysiology of these illnesses is not completely established and multiple factors are involved, metallomics, a bioanalytical strategy that allows the detection of metal ions and metalloproteins in diverse biological matrices, is of extreme relevance in identifying which elements are affected by a disease and/or treatment. Read More

    Metallomics: The Science of Biometals and Biometalloids.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1055:1-20
    Metal Metabolism Group, Departments of Biochemistry and Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
    Metallomics, a discipline integrating sciences that address the biometals and biometalloids, provides new opportunities for discoveries. As part of a systems biology approach, it draws attention to the importance of many chemical elements in biochemistry. Traditionally, biochemistry has treated life as organic chemistry, separating it from inorganic chemistry, considered a field reserved for investigating the inanimate world. Read More

    Chemotherapy-Induced Takotsubo Syndrome.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    First Department of Cardiology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Cardiovascular complications are a significant problem in systemically treated cancer patients. One such complication is Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo syndrome. It is most frequently defined as a sudden and transient left or right ventricular systolic dysfunction; mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but without the associated changes in coronary arteries. Read More

    Comparison of Hematopoietic and Spermatogonial Stem Cell Niches from the Regenerative Medicine Aspect.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 8. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Recent advances require a dual evaluation of germ and somatic stem cell niches with a regenerative medicine perspective. For a better point of view of the niche concept, it is needed to compare the microenvironments of those niches in respect to several components. The cellular environment of spermatogonial stem cells' niche consists of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, vascular endothelial cells, epididymal fat cells, peritubular myoid cells while hematopoietic stem cells have mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, megacaryocytes, macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and adipocytes in their microenvironment. Read More

    Graphene Based Materials in Neural Tissue Regeneration.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 8. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Engineering Faculty, Biomedical Engineering Department, Ankara University, Tandogan/Ankara, Turkey.
    Due to its extraordinary features such as large surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties, graphene attracts great interest in various fields of biomedical sciences including biosensors, cancer therapy, diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The use of graphene-based materials has been of great interest for the design of scaffolds that can promote neural tissue regeneration. Recent studies published over the last few years clearly show that graphene and graphene based materials promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of various cells including embryonic stem cells (ESC), neural stem cells (NSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Read More

    The Great Harmony in Translational Medicine: Biomaterials and Stem Cells.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Regenerative Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Engineering Faculty, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey.
    Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. Read More

    Antibody Response to Trivalent Influenza Vaccine in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere in Elite Athletes.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Being frequent travelers, the elite athletes are advised to undergo an influenza vaccination. The aim of the study was to describe the antibody response to repeated trivalent, inactivated, split influenza vaccine, of different antigenic content, recommended for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, administered to sportsmen before the Olympic Games in Brasil in 2016. Fourteen athletes were included in the study. Read More

    Stem Cell and Obesity: Current State and Future Perspective.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Read More

    Definitive Erythropoiesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Molecular and Clinical Hematology Branch, National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes (NHLBI), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Derivation of functional and mature red blood cells (RBCs) with adult globin expression from renewable source such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is of importance from the clinical point of view. Definitive RBC generation can only be succeeded through production of true hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). There has been a great effort to obtain definitive engraftable HSCs from iPSCs but the results were mostly unsatisfactory due to low, short-term and linage-biased engraftment in mouse models. Read More

    Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells for Wound Healing.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Skin as the outer layer covers the body. Wounds can affect this vital organ negatively and disrupt its functions. Wound healing as a biological process is initiated immediately after an injury. Read More

    Tissue Engineered Skin Substitutes.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    The fundamental skin role is to supply a supportive barrier to protect body against harmful agents and injuries. Three layers of skin including epidermis, dermis and hypodermis form a sophisticated tissue composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly made of collagens and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as a scaffold, different cell types such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and functional cells embedded in the ECM. When the skin is injured, depends on its severity, the majority of mentioned components are recruited to wound regeneration. Read More

    Challenges in Bio-fabrication of Organoid Cultures.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA.
    Three-dimensional (3D) organoids have shown advantages in cell culture over traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture, and have great potential in various applications of tissue engineering. However, there are limitations in current organoid fabrication technologies, such as uncontrolled size, poor reproductively, and inadequate complexity of organoids. In this chapter, we present the existing techniques and discuss the major challenges for 3D organoid biofabrication. Read More

    Lesions Consistent with Tuberculous Spondylitis in Domestic and Wild Swine and Their Potential Use as a Model for Pott Disease in Humans.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia A. Mirri, Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Italy.
    During a routine abattoir inspection of pig carcasses and control activities of hunted wildlife in 2013, 118 large white pigs Sus scrofa domesticus, 474 Nebrodi black pigs and 135 wild boars Sus scrofa scrofa were submitted to anatomopathological examination to evaluate the presence of tuberculosis-like lesions. Localized and generalized granulomatous lesions were detected with a prevalence of about 25% in large white pigs, 13% in Nebrodi black pigs and 8.15% in wild boars. Read More

    Seroepidemiological Studies of Arboviruses in Africa.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1062:361-371
    Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
    The literature on sero-epidemiological studies of flaviviral infections in the African continent is quite scarce. Much of the viral epidemiology studies have been focussing on diseases such as HIV/AIDS because of their sheer magnitude and impact on the lives of people in the various affected countries. Increasingly disease outbreaks caused by arboviruses such as the recent cases of chikungunya virus, dengue virus and yellow fever virus have prompted renewed interest in studying these viruses. Read More

    The Use of Wolbachia by the World Mosquito Program to Interrupt Transmission of Aedes aegypti Transmitted Viruses.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1062:355-360
    Institute Vector Borne Disease, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    The biological control of mosquito transmission by the use of the naturally occurring insect-specific bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia has been successfully tested in small field trials. The approach has been translated successfully to larger field sites in Townsville, Australia and expanded to more than 10 countries through the Eliminate Dengue Program. The broader application of the program beyond limiting the transmission of dengue and including other Aedes aegypti borne mosquitoes has seen the program growing into a global not-for-profit initiative to be known as the World Mosquito Program. Read More

    An Industry Perspective on Dengue Drug Discovery and Development.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1062:333-353
    Janssen Research & Development, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Beerse, Belgium.
    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, representing a major unmet medical need and a growing public health concern. The disease imposes a heavy burden to the affected individuals, to the health care systems, and to the economies of endemic countries. Vector control is the most widespread tool to curb dengue epidemics, but has been insufficient. Read More

    Dengue Antiviral Development: A Continuing Journey.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1062:319-332
    Emergent BioSolutions Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Dengue fever is a leading cause of illness and mortality in the tropics and subtropics. There are no therapeutics currently available and a recently approved vaccine is not very efficacious demanding an urgent need to develop an effective antiviral. The path to successful dengue drug development depends on availability of relevant preclinical testing models and better understanding of dengue pathogenesis. Read More

    Countering Zika Virus: The USAMRIID Response.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1062:303-318
    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, MD, USA.
    The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) possesses an array of expertise in diverse capabilities for the characterization of emerging infectious diseases from the pathogen itself to human or animal infection models. The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was a challenge and an opportunity to put these capabilities to work as a cohesive unit to quickly respond to a rapidly developing threat. Next-generation sequencing was used to characterize virus stocks and to understand the introduction and spread of ZIKV in the United States. Read More

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