36,423 results match your criteria Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology [Journal]


Noninvasive Ventilation-Facilitated Bronchofiberoscopy in Patients with Respiratory Failure.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pneumology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Upper-Silesian Medical Center, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Respiratory failure is one of the most important risk factors for diagnostic bronchofiberoscopy (BF), whereas therapeutic bronchoscopies are typically performed in intubated patients. Only a few published studies analyzed the outcomes of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV)-facilitated BF. In this case series, we present our experiences with NIV-facilitated diagnostic and therapeutic BF performed in patients with respiratory failure that was associated with acute interstitial pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis exacerbation, foreign body aspiration, tracheal stenosis, pneumonia, and in a patient with a neuromuscular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_375DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Decellularized Adipose Tissue: Biochemical Composition, in vivo Analysis and Potential Clinical Applications.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Stem Cell Research & Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Decellularized tissues are gaining popularity as scaffolds for tissue engineering; they allow cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and are non-immunogenic. Adipose tissue is an abundant resource that can be decellularized and converted in to a bio-scaffold. Several methods have been developed for adipose tissue decellularization, typically starting with freeze thaw cycles, followed by washes with hypotonic/hypertonic sodium chloride solution, isopropanol, detergent (SDS, SDC and Triton X-100) and trypsin digestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_371DOI Listing

Direct Lineage Reprogramming in the CNS.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Direct lineage reprogramming is the conversion of one specialized cell type to another without the need for a pluripotent intermediate. To date, a wide variety of cell types have been successfully generated using direct reprogramming, both in vitro and in vivo. These newly converted cells have the potential to replace cells that are lost to disease and/or injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_374DOI Listing

Increased Risk of Lung Metastases in Patients with Giant Cell Bone Tumors: A Systematic Review.

Authors:
Josef Yayan

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.

Giant cell tumors of the bone are rare, usually benign, tumors consisting of large, multinucleated bone cells. Remarkably, these tumors are characterized by aggressive growth. They tend to recur frequently and, in rare cases, metastasize to the lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_372DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Clinical Application of AMPs.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:281-298

i3S, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described as one of the most promising compounds able to address one of the main health threats of the twenty-first century that is the continuous rise of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. However, despite the clear advantages of AMPs as a new class of antimicrobials, such as broad spectrum of activity, high selectivity, low toxicity and low propensity to induce resistance, only a small fraction of AMPs reported thus far have been able to successfully complete all phases of clinical trials and become accessible to patients. This is mainly related to the low bioavailability and still somewhat expensive production of AMP along with regulatory obstacles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_15DOI Listing
January 2019
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AMPs as Anti-biofilm Agents for Human Therapy and Prophylaxis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:257-279

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Microbial cells show a strong natural tendency to adhere to surfaces and to colonize them by forming complex communities called biofilms. In this growth mode, biofilm-forming cells encase themselves inside a dense matrix which efficiently protects them against antimicrobial agents and effectors of the immune system. Moreover, at the physiological level, biofilms contain a very heterogeneous cell population including metabolically inactive organisms and persisters, which are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_14
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_14DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Application of Synthetic Molecular Evolution to the Discovery of Antimicrobial Peptides.

Authors:
William C Wimley

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:241-255

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Despite long-standing promise and many known examples, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed, with few exceptions, to significantly impact human medicine. Impediments to the systemic activity of AMPs include proteolysis, host cell interactions, and serum protein binding, factors that are not often considered in the early stages of AMP development. Here we discuss how synthetic molecular evolution, iterative cycles of library design, and physiologically relevant screening can be used to evolve AMPs that do not have these impediments. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_13
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_13DOI Listing
January 2019
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Design of Antimicrobial Peptides: Progress Made with Human Cathelicidin LL-37.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:215-240

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

The incorporation of the innate immune system into humans is essential for survival and health due to the rapid replication of invading microbes and the delayed action of the adaptive immune system. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of human innate immunity. Over 100 such peptides have been identified in various human tissues. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_12DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Selectivity of Antimicrobial Peptides: A Complex Interplay of Multiple Equilibria.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:175-214

Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) attack bacterial membranes selectively, killing microbes at concentrations that cause no toxicity to the host cells. This selectivity is not due to interaction with specific receptors but is determined by the different lipid compositions of the membranes of the two cell types and by the peculiar physicochemical properties of AMPs, particularly their cationic and amphipathic character. However, the available data, including recent studies of peptide-cell association, indicate that this picture is excessively simplistic, because selectivity is modulated by a complex interplay of several interconnected phenomena. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_11DOI Listing
January 2019

Antimicrobial Host Defence Peptides: Immunomodulatory Functions and Translational Prospects.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:149-171

Manitoba Centre for Proteomics and Systems Biology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Cationic host defence peptides (CHDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides, exhibit a wide range of activities contributing to immune responses and resolution of infections. CHDPs are expressed across diverse species, are generally amphipathic with less than 50 amino acids in length, and differ significantly in sequence and structure. This chapter focuses on the role of these peptides in immunity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_10DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Anticancer Activities of Natural and Synthetic Peptides.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:131-147

Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Anticancer peptides (ACPs) are cationic amphipathic peptides that bind to and kill cancer cells either by a direct- or indirect-acting mechanism. ACPs provide a novel treatment strategy, and selected ACPs are currently in phase I clinical trials to examine their safety and overall benefit in cancer patients. Increasing the selectivity of ACPs is important so that these peptides kill cancer cells without harming normal cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_9DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Synthetic Anti-lipopolysaccharide Peptides (SALPs) as Effective Inhibitors of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs).

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:111-129

Brandenburg Antiinfektiva GmbH, c/o Forschungszentrum Borstel, Borstel, Germany.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are in the focus of scientific research since the 1990s. In most cases, the main aim was laid on the design of AMP to kill bacteria effectively, with particular emphasis on broadband action and independency on antibiotic resistance. However, so far no approved drug on the basis of AMP has entered the market. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_8DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Antimicrobial and Cell-Penetrating Peptides: How to Understand Two Distinct Functions Despite Similar Physicochemical Properties.

Authors:
Ines Neundorf

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:93-109

Department of Chemistry, Institute for Biochemistry, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides are both classes of membrane-active peptides sharing similar physicochemical properties. Both kinds of peptides have attracted much attention owing to their specific features. AMPs disrupt cell membranes of bacteria and display urgently needed antibiotic substances with alternative modes of action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_7DOI Listing
January 2019

Intracellular Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting the Protein Synthesis Machinery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:73-89

Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

While antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are well-known for their disruptive effects on bacterial membranes, the mechanism of many intracellular AMPs is still being elucidated. In the recent years, it has been demonstrated that the subclass of proline-rich AMPs (PrAMPs) can pass through the bacterial membrane and kill bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis. PrAMPs are a product of the innate immune system and are secreted in response to bacterial infection. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_6DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Anionic Lipid Clustering Model.

Authors:
Richard M Epand

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:65-71

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Many molecular features contribute to the antimicrobial activity of peptides. One aspect that contributes to the antimicrobial activity of a peptide, in many cases, results from the fact that many antimicrobial peptides are polycationic and the lipids on the surface of bacteria are often anionic. In certain cases this can result in the clustering of anionic lipids as a result of the binding of the cationic peptide to the surface of the bacterial membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_5DOI Listing
January 2019

The Mechanisms of Action of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Refined by Novel Concepts from Biophysical Investigations.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:33-64

Université de Strasbourg/CNRS, UMR7177, Institut de Chimie, Strasbourg, France.

Even 30 years after the discovery of magainins, biophysical and structural investigations on how these peptides interact with membranes can still bear surprises and add new interesting detail to how these peptides exert their antimicrobial action. Early on, using oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy, it was found that the amphipathic helices formed by magainins are active when being oriented parallel to the membrane surface. More recent investigations indicate that this in-planar alignment is also found when PGLa and magainin in combination exert synergistic pore-forming activities, where studies on the mechanism of synergistic interaction are ongoing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_4DOI Listing
January 2019

Elementary Processes and Mechanisms of Interactions of Antimicrobial Peptides with Membranes-Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicle Studies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:17-32

Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan.

To elucidate the mechanisms of action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and to develop de novo designed peptides with activities similar to those of AMPs, it is essential to elucidate the detailed processes of AMP interactions with plasma membranes of bacterial and fungal cells and model membranes (lipid bilayers). In this mini-review, we summarize the present state of knowledge of the interactions of AMPs with lipid vesicles obtained using the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method. Currently, three modes of action of AMPs on GUVs have been defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_3DOI Listing
January 2019

Membrane Permeabilization Mechanisms.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:9-16

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

Many antimicrobial peptides are considered to kill microbes by permeabilizing cell membranes. This chapter summarizes the driving force of peptide binding to membranes; various mechanisms of lipid bilayer permeabilization including the barrel-stave, toroidal pore, and carpet models; and modes of permeabilization of bacterial and mammalian membranes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_2DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Antimicrobial Peptides of Multicellular Organisms: My Perspective.

Authors:
Michael Zasloff

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1117:3-6

MedStar Georgetown Transplant Institute, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms were first characterized in the 1980s by investigators who felt that known systems of immunity could not explain what they observed: the resistance to bacterial infection of a Cecropia moth pupa lacking antibodies or lymphocytes (cecropins (Steiner 1981)), the potent microbicidal activity of neutrophils from a rabbit (defensins (Selsted et al. 1985)), and the healing of a wound on the skin of the African clawed frog without infection in a non-sterile aquarium (magainins (Zasloff 1987)). Since then AMPs have been discovered in diverse species of fungi, plants, and animals (Seshadri Sundararajan et al. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_1DOI Listing
January 2019
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Subterranean Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Institute of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been recommended as an integral part of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Climate therapy in salt mine chambers has been found of benefit in chronic respiratory diseases. The study compares long-term effects of underground PR in the Wieliczka Salt Mine with that conducted on the surface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_354DOI Listing
April 2019
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Role of Tumor Specific niche in Colon Cancer Progression and Emerging Therapies by Targeting Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE) and Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam, Tamil Nadu, India.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer worldwide leading to escalating mortality rates and mainly includes hereditary, sporadic and colitis-associated cancer development. The escalated mortality rates is due to the limited treatment options as this form of cancer is usually not easy to diagnose in its early stages and are highly invasive leading to rapid metastasis of the malignant cells to the neighbouring tissue. In order to combat this limitation several chemotherapeutic regimens are now being combined with targeted therapies after the knowledge acquired on the inevitable effects of the tumor microenvironment on the colon cancer growth and progress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_355DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

On-Site MinION Sequencing.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:143-150

Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan.

DNA sequencing has reached an unprecedented level with the advent of Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION. The low equipment investment, ease of library preparation, small size, and powered only by a laptop computer enable the portability for on-site sequencing. MinION has had its role in clinical, biosecurity, and environmental fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_10DOI Listing
January 2019

Challenges of Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing with Solid-State Nanopores.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:131-142

Center for Technology Innovation - Healthcare, Research & Development Group, Hitachi Ltd., Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

A powerful DNA sequencing tool with high accuracy, long read length and high-throughput would be required more and more for decoding the complicated genetic code. Solid-state nanopore has attracted many researchers for its promising future as a next-generation DNA sequencing platform due to the processability, the robustness and the large-scale integratability. While the diverse materials have been widely explored for a solid-state nanopore, silicon nitride (SiN) is especially preferable from the viewpoint of mass production based on semiconductor fabrication process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_9DOI Listing
January 2019
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Informatics for PacBio Long Reads.

Authors:
Yuta Suzuki

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:119-129

Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

In this article, we review the development of a wide variety of bioinformatics software implementing state-of-the-art algorithms since the introduction of SMRT sequencing technology into the field. We focus on the three major categories of development: read mapping (aligning to reference genomes), de novo assembly, and detection of structural variants. The long SMRT reads benefit all the applications, but they are achievable only through considering the nature of the long reads technology properly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_8DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Bionano Genome Mapping: High-Throughput, Ultra-Long Molecule Genome Analysis System for Precision Genome Assembly and Haploid-Resolved Structural Variation Discovery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:97-118

Bionano Genomics, San Diego, CA, USA.

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has rapidly advanced genomic research with tremendously increased throughput and reduced cost, through reading the fragmented genome content in massively parallel fashion. We have been able to sequence and map genomes to reference sequences with relative ease compared to the past. However, this mapping can only be accurately accomplished in the single copy regions of the genome, leaving out most duplicated genes and structural variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_7DOI Listing
January 2019
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An Informative Approach to Single-Cell Sequencing Analysis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:81-96

Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.

Recent advances in sequencing technologies enable us to obtain genome, epigenome and transcriptome data in individual cells. In this review, we describe various platforms for single-cell sequencing analysis across multiple layers. We mainly introduce an automated single-cell RNA-seq platform, the Chromium Single Cell 3' RNA-seq system, and its technical features and compare it with other single-cell RNA-seq systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_6DOI Listing
January 2019

Quantitation of mRNA Transcripts and Proteins Using the BD Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:63-79

BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA.

In this review, we describe the BD Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System, a platform that allows high-throughput capture of nucleic acids from single cells using a simple cartridge workflow and a multitier barcoding system. The resulting captured information can be used to generate various types of next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries, including whole transcriptome analysis for discovery biology and targeted RNA analysis for high sensitivity transcript detection. The BD Rhapsody system can be used with emerging applications, such as BD™ AbSeq assays, to profile gene expression in both mRNA and protein level to provide ultra-high resolution analysis of single cells. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_5DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Nx1-Seq (Well Based Single-Cell Analysis System).

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:51-61

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.

Research on the hierarchical nature of cell differentiation and heterogeneity in tissues has been performed by isolating and identifying cells by the use of monoclonal antibodies, cell sorting, microdissection, and functional assays. However, it is difficult to analyze continuous changes in cell differentiation and the identification of cells for which cell markers are unclear. Furthermore, cell populations considered identical were shown to be diverse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_4DOI Listing
January 2019

Single-Cell DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq in Cancer Using the C1 System.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:27-50

Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.

Heterogeneous phenotypes of cancer cells enable them to adapt to various environments. The heterogeneity results from diversity of genome, transcriptome, and epigenome at a single-cell level. The C1 system can automatically perform single-cell capture and whole genome amplification (WGA) or whole transcription amplification (WTA) by MDA or Smart-Seq, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_3DOI Listing
January 2019

Integrated Fluidic Circuits for Single-Cell Omics and Multi-omics Applications.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:19-26

Fluidigm Corporation, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Single-cell genomics plays a crucial role in several aspects of biology, from developmental biology to mapping every cell in the human body through the Cell Atlas initiative. To meet these various applications, single-cell methods are rapidly evolving to increase throughput; improve sensitivity, quantification accuracy, and usability; and reduce nucleic-acid amplification bias and cost. In addition to improvement in single-cell methods, there is a huge interest in analyzing multiple analytes such as genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and protein from the same single cell. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_2DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Strategies for Converting RNA to Amplifiable cDNA for Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Methods.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1129:1-17

Laboratory for Bioinformatics Research, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

This review describes the features of molecular biology techniques for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), including methods developed in our laboratory. Existing scRNA-seq methods require the conversion of first-strand cDNA to amplifiable cDNA followed by whole-transcript amplification. There are three primary strategies for this conversion: poly-A tagging, template switching, and RNase H-DNA polymerase I-mediated second-strand cDNA synthesis for in vitro transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6037-4_1DOI Listing
January 2019

Homeobox Genes and Homeodomain Proteins: New Insights into Cardiac Development, Degeneration and Regeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of human death in the developing world. Extensive evidence indicates that various toxic environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle choices contribute to the risk, incidence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. Alterations in the genetic level of myocardium affects normal heart development and initiates pathological processes leading to various types of cardiac diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_349DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

The Pluripotent Microvascular Pericytes Are the Adult Stem Cells Even in the Testis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:235-267

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg Museum of Medical History, Hamburg, Germany.

The pericytes of the testis are part of the omnipresent population of pericytes in the vertebrate body and are the only true pluripotent adult stem cells able to produce structures typical for the tree primitive germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. They originate very early in the embryogenesis from the pluripotent epiblast. The pericytes become disseminated through the whole vertebrate organism by the growing and differentiating blood vessels where they remain in specialized periendothelial vascular niches as resting pluripotent adult stem cells for tissue generation, maintenance, repair, and regeneration. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_13
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_13DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Pericytes in the Umbilical Cord.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:211-233

CReATe Fertility Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The structural components of the umbilical cord, including two arteries and one vein, the stromal region/Wharton's jelly, and amniotic epithelial membrane, are well described at various time points of gestation. Over the last two decades, evidence has emerged that multipotent cells sharing properties of mesenchymal stromal cell and pericytes/mural cells can be isolated from multiple regions of the umbilical cord, including the perivascular region of the umbilical cord arteries and vein, Wharton's jelly, and subamnion. These cells have increasingly gained interest for their potential use in regenerative and immunomodulatory medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_12DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Pericytes in the Heart.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:187-210

Department of CardioMetabolic Disorders, Amgen Research and Discovery, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Mural cells known as pericytes envelop the endothelial layer of microvessels throughout the body and have been described to have tissue-specific functions. Cardiac pericytes are abundantly found in the heart, but they are relatively understudied. Currently, their importance is emerging in cardiovascular homeostasis and dysfunction due to their pleiotropism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_11DOI Listing
January 2019

Pericytes in the Periodontal Ligament.

Authors:
Motohiro Komaki

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:169-186

Department of Highly Advanced Stomatology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan.

Teeth are exposed to hundreds of oral bacteria and also challenged by the mastication forces; because teeth are situated in oral cavity, the entrance of the digestive tract, and penetrates through the oral epithelium. The periodontal ligament is a noncalcified tissue that possesses abundant blood vessels, which exist between tooth root and alveolar bone. The ligament is thought to play an important role in absorbing the impact of mastication, in the maintenance of periodontal homeostasis, and in periodontal wound healing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_10DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Pericytes in the Liver.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:153-167

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Liver pericytes, commonly named hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reside in the space between liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes. They display important roles in health and disease. HSCs ensure the storage of the majority of vitamin A in a healthy body, and they represent the major source of fibrotic tissue in liver disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_9DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Pericytes in the Placenta: Role in Placental Development and Homeostasis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:125-151

School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, Butantã, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The placenta is the most variable organ, in terms of structure, among the species. Besides it, all placental types have the same function: production of viable offspring, independent of pregnancy length, litter number, or invasion level. The angiogenesis is a central mechanism for placental functionality, due to proper maternal-fetal communication and exchanges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_8DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cochlear Capillary Pericytes.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:115-123

The Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital, Munich, Germany.

Capillary pericytes in the cochlea of mammals are-compared to pericytes in other tissues, like the CNS-relatively poorly researched. To begin with, there is still a considerable debate as to whether the very last precapillary arterioles should-due to their contractile properties-may be considered to be pericytes.However, cochlear capillary pericytes have shifted into the center of attention in the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_7DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pericytes in Bone Marrow.

Authors:
Yuya Kunisaki

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:101-114

Kyushu University Hospital, Center for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.

Bone marrow environments are composed of multiple cell types, most of which are thought to be derived from mesenchymal stem cells. In mouse bone marrow, stromal cells with CD45 Tie2 CD90 CD51 CD105 phenotype, Nestin-GFP, CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, PDGFRα Sca-1 or CD51 PDGFRα, and Prx-1-derived CD45 Ter119 PDGFRα Sca-1 populations select for MSC activity. There is evidence that these stromal cell populations display some significant overlap with each other and comprise important cellular constituents of the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_6DOI Listing
January 2019

Pericytes in the Gut.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:73-100

Angiogenesis in Liver Disease Research Group, IDIBAPS Biomedical Research Institute, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

This review chapter describes the current knowledge about the nature of pericytes in the gut, their interaction with endothelial cells in blood vessels, and their pathophysiological functions in the setting of chronic liver disease. In particular, it focuses on the role of these vascular cell types and related molecular signaling pathways in pathological angiogenesis associated with liver disease and in the establishment of the gut-vascular barrier and the potential implications in liver disease through the gut-liver axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_5DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pericytes in Skeletal Muscle.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:59-72

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process and involves the activation of many cellular and molecular pathways. Although satellite cells (SCs) are the major cell type responsible for muscle regeneration, pericytes show remarkable myogenic potential and various advantages as cell therapy in muscular disorders. This chapter first introduces the structure, marker expression, origin, and category of pericytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_4DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pericytes in the Lung.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:41-58

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

The lung has numerous roles, including gas exchange, immune surveillance, and barrier function. Being a highly vascularized organ, the lung receives dual blood supply from both the pulmonary and bronchial circulation. Therefore, pericytes likely play a prominent role in lung physiology given their localization in the perivascular niche. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_3DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pancreatic Pericytes in Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetes.

Authors:
Limor Landsman

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:27-40

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Glucose homeostasis relies on tightly regulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and its loss in diabetes is associated with the dysfunction of these cells. Beta-cells reside in the islets of Langerhans, which are highly vascularized by a dense capillary network comprised of endothelial cells and pericytes. While the requirement of the endothelium for the proper pancreatic function is well established, the role of pancreatic pericytes has only recently begun to unveil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_2DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pericytes in the Retina.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1122:1-26

Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Research Program for Experimental Ophthalmology and Glaucoma Research, Paracelsus Medical University/SALK, Salzburg, Austria.

Pericytes (PCs) are specialized cells located abluminal of endothelial cells (ECs) on capillaries, embedded within the same basement membrane. They are essential regulators of vascular development, remodeling, and blood-retina-barrier (BRB) tightness and are therefore important components to maintain tissue homeostasis. The perivascular localization and expression of contractile proteins suggest that PCs participate in capillary blood flow regulation and neurovascular coupling. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11093-2_1DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Blood at Onset of Chemotherapy Unfavorably Affects Survival in Primary Ovarian Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) belongs to the family of the plasminogen activator system. PAI-1 stimulates fibrinolysis and also promotes tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of blood plasma PAI-1 content in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who start the first-line chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_353DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Impact of Exercise on Inflammatory Mediators of Metabolic and Vascular Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1134:271-294

Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

The development of obesity is cornerstone in the etiology of metabolic and vascular insulin resistance and consequently exacerbates glycemic control. Exercise is an efficacious first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes that improves insulin action through, in part, reducing hormone mediated inflammation. Together, improving the coordination of skeletal muscle metabolism with vascular delivery of glucose will be required for optimizing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_15DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

ATAD3A on the Path to Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1134:259-269

The Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A (ATAD3A), a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, is involved in diverse cellular processes, including mitochondrial dynamics, cell death and cholesterol metabolism. Overexpression and/or mutation of the ATAD3A gene have been observed in different types of cancer, associated with cancer development and progression. The dysregulated ATAD3A acts as a broker of a mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum connection in cancer cells, and inhibition of this enzyme leads to tumor repression and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_14DOI Listing
January 2019

PFKP Signaling at a Glance: An Emerging Mediator of Cancer Cell Metabolism.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1134:243-258

Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), a rate-determining enzyme of glycolysis, is an allosteric enzyme that regulates the oxidation of glucose in cellular respiration. Glycolysis phosphofructokinase platelet (PFKP) is the platelet isoform and works as an important mediator of cell metabolism. Considering that PFKP is a crucial player in many steps of cancer initiation and metastasis, we reviewed the specificities and complexities of PFKP and its biological roles in human diseases, especially malignant tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_13DOI Listing
January 2019

The Role of Inflammation in the Development of GDM and the Use of Markers of Inflammation in GDM Screening.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1134:217-242

Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Services and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a hyperglycaemic state first recognised in pregnancy. GDM affects both mother and child. Women with GDM and their new-borns are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_12DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads