278,423 results match your criteria Advances in Enzyme Research


Discrete roles for Rad54 and Rdh54 during homologous recombination.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Jul 19;71:48-54. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Rad54 and Rdh54 are Snf2 DNA motor proteins that function during maintenance of genomic integrity. Though highly related, Rad54 and Rdh54 have different biochemical and genetic functions during maintenance of genomic integrity. Rad54 functions primarily during the homology search and strand invasion steps of homologous recombination, while Rdh54 appears to play a minor role in these processes. Read More

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The effect of harmonic training on speech perception in noise in hearing-impaired children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 17;149:110845. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

The Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, University of Toronto, Canada, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Canada.

Objective: Speech perception in noise is a highly challenging situation experienced by hearing-impaired children (HIC). Despite advances in hearing aid technologies, speech perception in noise still poses challenges. Pitch-based training improves pitch discrimination and speech perception and may facilitate concurrent sound segregation. Read More

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Review: The development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and intervention in neonatal ruminants.

Animal 2021 Jul 19;15(8):100316. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

The complex microbiome colonizing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants plays an important role in the development of the immune system, nutrient absorption and metabolism. Hence, understanding GIT microbiota colonization in neonatal ruminants has positive impacts on host health and productivity. Microbes rapidly colonize the GIT after birth and gradually develop into a complex microbial community, which allows the possibility of GIT microbiome manipulation to enhance newborn health and growth and perhaps induce lasting effects in adult ruminants. Read More

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Biomechanical strategies to reach a compromise between stiffness and flexibility in hind femora of desert locusts.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Institute of Zoology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany; Division of Mechanical Engineering and Design, School of Engineering, London South Bank University, London, UK.

Insect cuticle can reach a wide range of material properties, which is thought to be the result of adaptations to applied mechanical stresses. Biomechanical mechanisms behind these property variations remain largely unknown. To fill this gap, here we performed a comprehensive study by simultaneous investigation of the microstructure, sclerotization and the elasticity modulus of the specialized cuticle of the femora of desert locusts. Read More

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Recent advances and challenges in major depressive disorder.

Authors:
Yong-Ku Kim

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 20;111:110403. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan city, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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Emerging bioelectronics for brain organoid electrophysiology.

Authors:
Kazi Tasnim Jia Liu

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 19:167165. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Human brain organoids are generated from three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, which partially replicate the development and complexity of the human brain. Many methods have been used to characterize the structural and molecular phenotypes of human brain organoids. Further understanding the electrophysiological phenotypes of brain organoids requires advanced electrophysiological measurement technologies to achieve long-term stable 3D recording over the time course of the organoid development with single-cell, millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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Innovations in ex vivo Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) has revolutionized how optical imaging of biological specimens can be performed as this technique allows to produce 3D fluorescence images of entire samples with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In this manuscript, we aim to provide readers with an overview of the field of LSFM on ex vivo samples. Recent advances in LSFM architectures have made the technique widely accessible and have improved its acquisition speed and resolution, among other features. Read More

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A review of regulated self-organizing approaches for tissue regeneration.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210004, China. Electronic address:

Tissue and organ regeneration is the dynamic process by which a population of cells rearranges into a specific form with specific functions. Traditional tissue regeneration utilizes tissue grafting, cell implantation, and structured scaffolds to achieve clinical efficacy. However, tissue grafting methods face a shortage of donor tissue, while cell implantation may involve leakage of the implanted cells without a supportive 3D matrix. Read More

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Metal oxide and carbon nanomaterial based membranes for reverse osmosis and membrane distillation: A comparative review.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19:111716. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, South Korea. Electronic address:

Commercial membranes typically suffer from fouling and wetting during membrane distillation (MD). In contrast, reverse osmosis (RO) can be subject to the fouling issue if applied for highly saline feed solutions containing foulants (e.g. Read More

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The promise of precision medicine in autism.

Neuron 2021 Jul;109(14):2212-2215

Seaver Autism Center, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and etiologically diverse developmental condition characterized by diminished social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. Recent advances in ASD genetics pave the way for implementation of precision medicine in clinical management of autism. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pulmonary Diseases.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States;

Compromised alveolar development and pulmonary vascular remodeling are hallmarks of pediatric lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Although advances in surfactant therapy, corticosteroids, and anti-inflammatory drugs have improved clinical management of preterm infants, still those who suffer with severe vascular complications lack viable treatment options. Paucity of the alveolar capillary network in ACDMPV causes respiratory distress and leads to mortality in a vast majority of ACDMPV infants. Read More

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Updated understanding of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis: from virulence factors to commensals and clonal complexes.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Dermatology, 4301 West Markham, Slot 576, Little Rock, Arkansas, 72205, USA.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory dermatosis that has multiple contributing factors including genetic, immunologic, and environmental. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has long been associated with exacerbation of AD. SA produces many virulence factors that interact with the human skin and immune system. Read More

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Measuring Postprandial Metabolic Flexibility To Assess Metabolic Health and Disease.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Metabolic abnormalities substantially increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases, which are among the leading causes of mortality globally. Mitigating and preventing these adverse consequences remains challenging due to a limited understanding of metabolic health. Metabolic flexibility, a key tenet of metabolic health, encompasses the responsiveness of interrelated pathways to maintain energy homeostasis throughout daily physiologic challenges, such as the response to meal challenges. Read More

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USO1 isoforms differentially promote liver cancer progression by dysregulating the ER-Golgi network.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Physiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Alternative splicing of RNA transcripts plays an important role in cancer development and progression. Recent advances in RNA-seq technology have made it possible to identify alternately spliced events in various types of cancer; however, research on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still limited. Here, by performing RNA-Seq profiling of HCC transcripts at isoform level, we identified tumor-specific and molecular subtype-dependent expression of the USO1 isoforms, which we designated as a normal form USO1-N (XM_001290049) and a tumor form USO1-T (NM_003715). Read More

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Use of 3D Navigation Versus Traditional Fluoroscopy for Posterior Pelvic Ring Fixation.

Orthopedics 2021 Jul-Aug;44(4):229-234. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Unstable pelvic ring disruption is most commonly treated with closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation. Traditional methods involve screw placement under fluoroscopic imaging, but with recent technologic advances, intraoperative 3D navigation can now be used to help with the insertion of sacroiliac screws. Various cadaver studies have shown that placement of sacroiliac screws under 3D navigation is more accurate than placement under traditional fluoroscopic guidance. Read More

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Inducible Protein Degradation to Understand Genome Architecture.

Biochemistry 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Abigail Wexner Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43205, United States.

We review exciting recent advances in protein degradation, with a focus on chromatin structure. In our analysis of the literature, we highlight studies of kinetic control of protein stability for cohesin, condensin, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and pioneer transcription factors. With new connections emerging between chromatin remodeling and genome structure, we anticipate exciting developments at the intersection of these topics to be revealed in the coming years. Read More

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Electrotherapies for Glioblastoma.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 22:e2100978. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Electrical Engineering, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA, UK.

Non-thermal, intermediate frequency (100-500 kHz) electrotherapies present a unique therapeutic strategy to treat malignant neoplasms. Here, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) which induce reversible or irreversible electroporation (IRE) and tumour-treating fields (TTFs) are reviewed highlighting the foundations, advances, and considerations of each method when applied to glioblastoma (GBM). Several biological aspects of GBM that contribute to treatment complexity (heterogeneity, recurrence, resistance, and blood-brain barrier(BBB)) and electrophysiological traits which are suggested to promote glioma progression are described. Read More

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Investigational Treatments for Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Dermatology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, Taiwan.

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of rare inherited blistering skin disorders characterized by skin fragility following minor trauma, usually present since birth. EB can be categorized into four classical subtypes, EB simplex, junctional EB, dystrophic EB and Kindler EB, distinguished on clinical features, plane of blister formation in the skin, and molecular pathology. Treatment for EB is mostly supportive, focusing on wound care and patient symptoms such as itch or pain. Read More

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Advancements in Osteoporosis Imaging, Screening, and Study of Disease Etiology.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to inform researchers and clinicians with the most recent imaging techniques that are employed (1) to opportunistically screen for osteoporosis and (2) to provide a better understanding into the disease etiology of osteoporosis.

Recent Findings: Phantomless calibration techniques for computed tomography (CT) may pave the way for better opportunistic osteoporosis screening and the retroactive analysis of imaging data. Additionally, hardware advances are enabling new applications of dual-energy CT and cone-beam CT to the study of bone. Read More

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Newborn Screening in the Diagnosis of Primary Immunodeficiency.

Authors:
Lisa J Kobrynski

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Pediatrics Institute, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Newborn screening for severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is the first inborn error of immunity (IEI) to be detected through population screening. It also represents the first newborn screening test to utilize molecular testing on DNA from newborn dried blood spots. Newborn screening for SCID has provided opportunities to measure the population prevalence of this disorder and evaluate the effect of early interventions on the overall outcomes in affected infants. Read More

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Landscape of EBV-positive gastric cancer.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastrointestinal Tract Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1, Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer [EBV (+) GC] is associated with EBV infection and is one of the GC subtypes defined by the Cancer Genome Atlas. EBV (+) GC has several distinct genomic or epigenomic features and clinicopathological characteristics compared with other molecular subtypes of GC. Here, we summarize the unique features of EBV (+) GC including the clinical and histopathological features, and discuss associated genetic and epigenetic aberrations. Read More

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Assessment of pacemaker lead-related infective endocarditis with three-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jul 5;32:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Pacemaker endocarditis is rare and symptoms may be misleading. If missed, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Advances in multi-modality imaging in recent years have emphasised its role in clinical decision making. Read More

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Hidden costs of anticipated workload for individuals and partners: Exploring the role of daily fluctuations in workaholism.

J Occup Health Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University.

The present study advances a within-person approach to the study of workaholism in line with whole trait theory, arguing that individuals have general workaholic tendencies as well as daily fluctuations in workaholism. We tested this model using an experience sampling study of 121 U.S. Read More

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Correlated Motions in Structural Biology.

Biochemistry 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, 259 East Avenue, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

Correlated motions in proteins arising from the collective movements of residues have long been proposed to be fundamentally important to key properties of proteins, from allostery and catalysis to evolvability. Recent breakthroughs in structural biology have made it possible to capture proteins undergoing complex conformational changes, yet intrinsic correlated motions within a conformation remain one of the least understood facets of protein structure. For many decades, the analysis of total X-ray scattering held the promise of animating crystal structures with correlated motions. Read More

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Advanced Regenerative Medicine Strategies for Treatment of Perianal Fistula in Crohn's Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Regenerative medicine is an emerging therapeutic method that aims to reconstruct tissues and organs. This advanced therapeutic approach has demonstrated great potential in addressing the limitations of medical and surgical procedures for treating perineal fistula in patients with Crohn's disease. Recent developments in stem cell technology have led to a massive good manufacturing practices (GMPs) production of various stem cells, including mesenchymal and embryonic cells, along with induction of pluripotent stem cells to repair damaged tissues in the fistula. Read More

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Anesthesia for deep brain stimulation: an update.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly expanding surgical modality for the treatment of patients with movement disorders. Its ability to be adjusted, titrated, and optimized over time has given it a significant advantage over traditional more invasive surgical procedures. Therefore, the success and popularity of this procedure have led to the discovery of new indications and therapeutic targets as well as advances in surgical techniques. Read More

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Mesenchymal PLAG1 Tumor With PCMTD1-PLAG1 Fusion in an Infant: A New Type of "Plagoma".

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Roma, Italy; Department of Pathology, Ospedale Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy; Orthopedic Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; and Department of Pathology, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Abstract: In the past decade, there have been major advances in knowledge related to mesenchymal tumors, and new genetic alterations are being delineated. We report a mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm harboring a novel gene fusion in an infant. Histopathologically, the neoplasm shared some features with sclerosing perineurioma, but immunohistochemically, EMA was negative, whereas GLUT1, NK1-C3, and BCOR were positive. Read More

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Targeting cancer with antibody-drug conjugates: Promises and challenges.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1951427

Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a rapidly expanding class of biotherapeutics that utilize antibodies to selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to the tumor site. As of May 2021, the U.S. Read More

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Pathology and systemic therapy of non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an overview.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Clinic II, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Introduction: Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) represents a highly heterogenous group of kidney cancer entities. As most clinical trials predominantly include patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC), nccRCC treatment guidelines are mainly extrapolated from recommendations in ccRCC. Here, we review and elucidate current data on the pathologic classification and treatment of nccRCC. Read More

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Nutritional facts regarding commercially available gluten-free bread worldwide: Recent advances and future challenges.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Recently, there has been an increase in demand for gluten-free (GF) products due to the growing number of gluten-intolerant and healthy individuals choosing to follow a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread (GFB) is a staple food product; therefore, many recent studies have reported the nutritional properties of GFB. However, an overview of the current ingredients and nutritional labeling of GFB worldwide has not yet been provided. Read More

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