298,891 results match your criteria Advances in Differential Equations[Journal]

Clinical relevance of biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma: critical revision and future directions.

Gut 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome 'Foro Italico', Rome, Italy

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumour arising from the biliary system. In Europe, this tumour frequently presents as a sporadic cancer in patients without defined risk factors and is usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a consequent poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification of biomarkers represents an utmost need for patients with CCA. Read More

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Ultrasound triggered organic mechanoluminescence materials.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 May 14:114343. Epub 2022 May 14.

Biomedical Engineering Cockrell School of Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712. Electronic address:

Ultrasound induced organic mechanoluminescence materials have become one of the focal topics in wireless light sources since they exhibit high spatiotemporal resolution, biocompatibility and excellent tissue penetration depth. These properties promote great potential in ultrahigh sensitive bioimaging with no background noise and noninvasive nanodevices. Recent advances in chemistry, nanotechnology and biomedical research are revolutionizing ultrasound induced organic mechanoluminescence. Read More

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Light-triggered Photodynamic Nanomedicines for Overcoming Localized Therapeutic Efficacy in Cancer Treatment.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 May 14:114344. Epub 2022 May 14.

KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea; Medicinal Materials Research Center, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Photodynamic nanomedicines have significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of photosensitizers (PSs) by overcoming critical limitations of PSs such as poor water solubility and low tumor accumulation. Furthermore, functional photodynamic nanomedicines have enabled overcoming oxygen depletion during photodynamic therapy (PDT) and tissue light penetration limitation by supplying oxygen or upconverting light in targeted tumor tissues, resulting in providing the potential to overcome biological therapeutic barriers of PDT. Nevertheless, their localized therapeutic effects still remain a huddle for the effective treatment of metastatic- or recurrent tumors. Read More

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Development of an endogenously myc-tagged TARDBP (TDP-43) zebrafish model using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and homology directed repair.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2022 May 14:110756. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, , Faculty of Medicine, McGill University. Electronic address:

Many of the modern advances in cellular biology have been made by the expression of engineered constructs with epitope tags for subsequent biochemical investigations. While the utility of epitope tags has permitted insights in cellular and animal models, these are often expressed using traditional transgenic approaches. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and homology directed repair we recombine a single myc epitope sequence following the start codon of the zebrafish ortholog of TARDBP (TDP-43). Read More

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Large scale similarity search across digital reconstructions of neural morphology.

Neurosci Res 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Center for Neural Informatics, Structures, & Plasticity and Bioengineering Department, George Mason University, Mail Stop 2A1, 4400 University Dr, Fairfax, VA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Most functions of the nervous system depend on neuronal and glial morphology. Continuous advances in microscopic imaging and tracing software have provided an increasingly abundant availability of 3D reconstructions of arborizing dendrites, axons, and processes, allowing their detailed study. However, efficient, large-scale methods to rank neural morphologies by similarity to an archetype are still lacking. Read More

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Developmental biology is poised to discover altogether new principles in biology in the 21st century.

Dev Biol 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kansas City, MO, United States. Electronic address:

In the 20th century, developmental biology spearheaded a revolution in our understanding of complex biological problems. Its success rests in great part on a truly unique approach that has recruited a diversity of systems and research organisms rather than focusing on isolated cells or molecules, while also employing a wide variety of technological and intellectual approaches. But what will developmental biology contribute to this century? Advances in technology and instrumentation are presently moving at neck-breaking speed and herald the advent of an age of technological wonders in which previously inaccessible biology is now tangibly within our grasps. Read More

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Intravesical combination therapies for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Recent advances and future directions.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 May 14:175024. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University College London, UK. Electronic address:

Bladder cancer is the 10th most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide with 5-year survival rate around 70%. The current first-line treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumours followed by intravesical Mycobacterium Bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy. However, tumor recurrence rate is still high ranging from 31% to 78% within five years. Read More

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Ketamine increases fronto-posterior functional connectivity during meta-perceptual confidence ratings.

Behav Brain Res 2022 May 14:113925. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Bonn, Kaiser-Karl-Ring 9, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of metacognition indicate a constituent role of glutamate for the integrity of metamnestic processes. However, the extent to which previous results can be generalized across functional domains to characterize the relationship between glutamate and metacognition remains unclear. Here, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, preregistered fMRI study, we tested the effects of a psychotomimetic dose (target plasma concentration 100ng/mL) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine on metacognition in a perceptual decision-making framework. Read More

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Experimental drug treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma: Clinical trial failures 2015 to 2021.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide with limited systemic therapy options. Since the approval of sorafenib in 2008, no systemic therapy has provided a sustained/robust/survival benefit for patients with advanced HCC until recently. Many initially promising therapies have been trialed, but survival outcomes remained stagnant. Read More

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Approaches and materials for endocytosis-independent intracellular delivery of proteins.

Biomaterials 2022 May 7;286:121567. Epub 2022 May 7.

School of Medical Devices, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, China. Electronic address:

The intracellular delivery of proteins is of great significance. For diseases such as cancer, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases, many important pharmacological targets are located inside cells. For genetic engineering and cell engineering, various functional proteins need to be delivered into cells for gene editing or cell state regulation. Read More

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Curcumae rhizoma and its major constituents against hepatobiliary disease: Pharmacotherapeutic properties and potential clinical applications.

Phytomedicine 2022 Mar 31;102:154090. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China; School of Pharmacy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China; Key Laboratory of Elemene Class Anti-Cancer Chinese Medicines; Engineering Laboratory of Development and Application of Traditional Chinese Medicines; Collaborative Innovation Center of Traditional Chinese Medicines of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatobiliary disease currently serves as an urgent health issue in public due to health-modulating factors such as extension of life expectancy, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and over-nutrition. A definite treatment remains lacking owing to different stages of the disease itself and its intricate pathogenesis. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been gradually popularized in clinic with the satisfactory efficacy and good safety. Read More

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Thalamic neuromodulation for epilepsy: A clinical perspective.

Epilepsy Res 2022 May 11;183:106942. Epub 2022 May 11.

Texas Institute for Restorative Neurotechnologies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School at UT Health Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Memorial Hermann Hospital, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Thalamic neuromodulation can be an effective therapeutic option for select patients with medically refractory epilepsy. However, successful outcome depends on several factors, beginning with appropriate patient and thalamic target selection. Among thalamic targets, the anterior (ANT) and centromedian (CeM) nuclei have the greatest clinical evidence for efficacy. Read More

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Advances in membrane mimetics and mass spectrometry for understanding membrane structure and function.

Leonhard H Urner

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2022 May 14;69:102157. Epub 2022 May 14.

TU Dortmund University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Otto-Hahn-Straße 6, 44227 Dortmund, Germany. Electronic address:

Membrane proteins and lipids play roles in regulating biological functions of cells. However, the analysis of interactions between membrane proteins and lipids in biological membranes remains challenging. Native membranes typically contain heterogenous lipid mixtures and low amounts of membrane proteins. Read More

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Energy-Efficient III-V Tunnel FET-Based Synaptic Device with Enhanced Charge Trapping Ability Utilizing Both Hot Hole and Hot Electron Injections for Analog Neuromorphic Computing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) 5, 14-gil, Hwarang-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, South Korea.

A charge trap device based on field-effect transistors (FET) is a promising candidate for artificial synapses because of its high reliability and mature fabrication technology. However, conventional MOSFET-based charge trap synapses require a strong stimulus for synaptic update because of their inefficient hot-carrier injection into the charge trapping layer, consequently causing a slow speed operation and large power consumption. Here, we propose a highly efficient charge trap synapse using III-V materials-based tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). Read More

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A Window of Opportunity to Overcome Therapeutic Failure in Neuro-Oncology.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2022 Apr;42:1-8

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurologic Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain neoplasm and it remains one of the most difficult-to-treat human cancers despite decades of discovery and translational and clinical research. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics and epigenetics of gliomas in general; yet, there remains an urgent need to develop novel agents that will improve the survival of patients with this deadly disease. What sets glioblastoma apart from all other cancers is that it develops and spreads within an organ that renders tumor cells inaccessible to most systemically administered agents because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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The texture of plant protein-based meat analogs by high moisture extrusion: A review.

J Texture Stud 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Meat analogs produced by high moisture extrusion (HME) are considered to be one of the products that have great potential for replacing real meat. The key issue as a meat analog is whether the texture can meet the standards of real meat. Nowadays, there have been some advances in the textural characterization of meat analogs, which are discussed in detail in this review. Read More

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Review on piezoelectric actuators based on high performance piezoelectric materials.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2022 May 17;PP. Epub 2022 May 17.

Piezoelectric actuators is a kind of actuation devices that acts through inverse piezoelectric effect. Due to advantages of high precision, low power consumption, compact size and flexible structure design, they have a wide range of applications in optics, robotics, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Piezoelectric materials are the core materials for piezoelectric actuators. Read More

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Autophagy and Apoptosis in Acute CNS injuries: from Mechanism to Treatment.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Jinan University, 47885, physiology, Guangzhou, China;

Significance: Autophagy and apoptosis are two important cellular mechanisms behind brain injuries, which are severe clinical situations with increasing incidences worldwide. To search for more and better treatments for brain injuries, it is essential to deepen the understanding of autophagy, apoptosis, and their interactions in brain injuries. This paper first analyzes how autophagy and apoptosis participate in the pathogenetic processes of brain injuries respectively and mutually, then summarizes some promising treatments targeting autophagy and apoptosis to show the potential clinical applications in personalized medicine and precision medicine in the future. Read More

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The state of the art for artificial intelligence in lung digital pathology.

J Pathol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Lung diseases carry a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The advent of digital pathology (DP) and an increase in computational power have led to the development of artificial intelligence (AI) based tools that can assist pathologists and pulmonologists in improving clinical workflow and patient management. While previous works have explored the advances in computational approaches for breast, prostate, and head and neck cancers, there has been a growing interest in applying these technologies to lung diseases as well. Read More

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Elevated Diffusivity of White Matter Microstructure that is Independently Associated with Long-Term Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study.

J Neurotrauma 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

University of California, San Francisco, Radiology, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, San Francisco, California, United States, 94143;

DTI literature on single-center studies contains conflicting results regarding acute effects of mTBI on WM microstructure and their prognostic significance. This larger-scale multicenter DTI study aimed to determine how acute mTBI affects WM microstructure over time and how early WM changes affect long-term outcome. From TRACK-TBI, a cohort study at eleven US level 1 trauma centers, a total of 391 acute mTBI patients ages 17-60 years were included and studied at two weeks and six months postinjury. Read More

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Perceptions of risks and benefits of participating in HIV cure-related research among diverse young adults living with HIV in the United States: qualitative research findings.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

UNC-Chapel Hill, 2331, Public Health Leadership Program, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States;

In the United States, young adults have the highest rates of new HIV infections, and are less likely to be aware of their infection, be engaged in care, or achieve HIV viral suppression. As biomedical HIV research increasingly focuses on achieving long-term suppression without antiretroviral therapy (ART) and finding an HIV cure, little is known about perceptions of young adults living with HIV (YLWH) regarding HIV cure research. We recruited a diverse sample of 20 YLWH (18-29 years old) to participate in individual semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore knowledge and perceptions of HIV cure research, and motivations and barriers to participation. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence Based on Machine Learning in Pharmacovigilance: A Scoping Review.

Drug Saf 2022 May 17;45(5):477-491. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Artificial intelligence based on machine learning has made large advancements in many fields of science and medicine but its impact on pharmacovigilance is yet unclear.

Objective: The present study conducted a scoping review of the use of artificial intelligence based on machine learning to understand how it is used for pharmacovigilance tasks, characterize differences with other fields, and identify opportunities to improve pharmacovigilance through the use of machine learning.

Design: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore databases were searched to identify articles pertaining to the use of machine learning in pharmacovigilance published from the year 2000 to September 2021. Read More

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Radiomic Analysis: Study Design, Statistical Analysis, and Other Bias Mitigation Strategies.

Radiology 2022 May 17:211597. Epub 2022 May 17.

From the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 485 Lexington Ave, 2nd Floor, New York, NY, NY 10017 (C.S.M.); Cancer Digital Intelligence Program, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada (M.L.W.); The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md (M.A.J.); ERT, Pittsburgh, Pa (B.F.K.); and School of Computing, Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada (A.L.S.).

Rapid advances in automated methods for extracting large numbers of quantitative features from medical images have led to tremendous growth of publications reporting on radiomic analyses. Translation of these research studies into clinical practice can be hindered by biases introduced during the design, analysis, or reporting of the studies. Herein, the authors review biases, sources of variability, and pitfalls that frequently arise in radiomic research, with an emphasis on study design and statistical analysis considerations. Read More

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'Fit for surgery': The relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and postoperative outcomes.

Exp Physiol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, UK.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? To explore the relationships and physiological mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery. What advances does it highlight? Elevated CRF reduces postoperative morbidity/mortality, thus highlighting the importance of CRF as an independent risk factor. The vascular protection afforded by exercise prehabilitation can further improve surgical risk stratification and postoperative outcomes. Read More

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Regulation and function of elF2B in neurological and metabolic disorders.

Biosci Rep 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B, eIF2B is a guanine nucleotide exchange, factor with a central role in coordinating the initiation of translation.  During stress and disease, the activity of eIF2B is inhibited via the phosphorylation of its substrate eIF2 (p-eIF2α).  A number of different kinases respond to various stresses leading to the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 and collectively this regulation is known as the Integrated Stress Response, ISR. Read More

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An updated review on properties, nanodelivery systems, and analytical methods for the determination of 5-fluorouracil in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara, SP, 14800-903, Brazil.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite drug used for over 70 years as first-line chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, such as head, neck, breast and colorectal cancer. 5-FU acts mainly by inhibiting thymidylate synthase, thereby interfering with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication or by 5-FU incorporating into DNA, causing damage to the sequence of nucleotides. Being analogous to uracil, 5-FU enters cells using the same transport mechanism, where a is converted into active metabolites such as fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP), fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP), and fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate (FdUTP). Read More

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Recent advances in dual-target-activated fluorescent probes for biosensing and bioimaging.

Chem Asian J 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Hunan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 410082, Changsha, CHINA.

Fluorescent probes have been powerful tools for visualizing and quantifying multiple dynamic processes in living cells. However, the currently developed probes are often constructed by conjugation a fluorophore with a recognition moiety and given signal-output after triggering with one singly target interest. Compared with the single-target-activated fluorescent probes mentioned above, the dual-target-activated ones, triggering with one target under stimulus (such as photoirradiation, microenvironment) or another targets, have the advantages of advoiding nonspecific activation and "false positive" results in complicated environments. Read More

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The association between cardiac involvement and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

ESC Heart Fail 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Aims: Despite advances in contemporary cardiopulmonary therapies, cardiomyopathy remains the leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Also, the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with DMD and cardiomyopathy is unknown. This study investigated long-term clinical outcomes and their associated factors in patients with late-stage DMD. Read More

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2021 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: Mass Spec of Proteins, Extracellular Vesicles, CRISPR, Chiral Assays, Oligos; Nanomedicines Bioanalysis; ICH M10 Section 7.1; Non-Liquid & Rare Matrices; Regulatory Inputs ( - Recommendations on Endogenous Compounds, Small Molecules, Complex Methods, Regulated Mass Spec of Large Molecules, Small Molecule, PoC &  - Regulatory Agencies' Inputs on Bioanalysis, Biomarkers, Immunogenicity, Gene & Cell Therapy and Vaccine).

Bioanalysis 2022 May 17;14(9):505-580. Epub 2022 May 17.

Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA.

The 15th edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (15th WRIB) was held on 27 September to 1 October 2021. Even with a last-minute move from in-person to virtual, an overwhelmingly high number of nearly 900 professionals representing pharma and biotech companies, contract research organizations (CROs), and multiple regulatory agencies still eagerly convened to actively discuss the most current topics of interest in bioanalysis. The 15th WRIB included 3 Main Workshops and 7 Specialized Workshops that together spanned 1 week in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccines. Read More

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2021 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: TAb/NAb, Viral Vector CDx, Shedding Assays; CRISPR/Cas9 & CAR-T Immunogenicity; PCR & Vaccine Assay Performance; ADA Assay Comparability & Cut Point Appropriateness ( - Recommendations on Gene Therapy, Cell Therapy, Vaccine Assays; Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics and Novel Modalities; Integrated Summary of Immunogenicity Harmonization).

Bioanalysis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

US FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The 15th edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (15th WRIB) was held on 27 September to 1 October 2021. Even with a last-minute move from in-person to virtual, an overwhelmingly high number of nearly 900 professionals representing pharma and biotech companies, contract research organizations (CROs), and multiple regulatory agencies still eagerly convened to actively discuss the most current topics of interest in bioanalysis. The 15th WRIB included 3 Main Workshops and 7 Specialized Workshops that together spanned 1 week in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccines. Read More

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