299,455 results match your criteria Advances in Calculus of Variations[Journal]

Transplantation in the Age of Precision Medicine: The Emerging Field of Treg Therapy.

Semin Nephrol 2022 Jan;42(1):76-85

Center for Transplantation Sciences, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Solid organ transplantation has experienced incredible success over the past half century in rescuing patients with end-stage organ failure and bestowing them with a high quality of life. This success in large part is the result of advances in immunosuppression, however, these regimens come with significant costs including opportunistic infections, and in some cases, direct toxicity to the newly transplanted organs. Further advances are needed. Read More

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January 2022

Glomerular Diseases of the Kidney Allograft: Toward a Precision Medicine Approach.

Semin Nephrol 2022 Jan;42(1):29-43

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

The continual development of potent immunosuppressive regimens has led to a decreased incidence of acute rejection and improvement of short-term kidney allograft survival. In contrast to acute rejection, glomerular diseases of the kidney allograft are being encountered more frequently and are emerging as leading causes of late kidney allograft failure. Although data on the pathogeneses of glomerular diseases in the kidney allograft are sparse, cumulative evidence suggests that post-transplant glomerular diseases may be the result of inherited predispositions and immunologic triggers. Read More

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January 2022

Novel Biomarkers in Kidney Transplantation.

Semin Nephrol 2022 Jan;42(1):2-13

Transplant Research Center, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Rejection remains a major cause of renal allograft failure. Current diagnostic studies, interrogating the blood or urine, lack the sensitivity and specificity for early detection of rejection. Transplant kidney biopsy remains the gold standard, but is associated with morbidity. Read More

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January 2022

Teledermatology to reduce face-to-face appointments in general practice during the COVID-19 pandemic: a quality improvement project.

BMJ Open Qual 2022 May;11(2)

School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.

Teledermatology is an important subspecialty of telemedicine that continues to evolve with advances in telecommunication and mobile phone technology. A 19-week primary care quality improvement project collected baseline data and tested three change ideas, using the Model for Improvement method, with primary and secondary aims: to increase the weekly percentage of remote dermatological consultations with supporting images that were successfully concluded remotely to greater than 80% and to reduce the weekly percentage of dermatological face-to-face consultations to less than 50%. We hypothesised that by improving the quality of patient images and the confidence of reception staff in triaging skin complaints, there would be a decrease in the weekly number of face-to-face dermatological appointments, thereby decreasing the risk of COVID-19 transmission within the practice and community. Read More

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Responding to emerging oral healthcare needs with CARE: Design of the CARE curriculum model.

J Dent Educ 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Primary Care, High Point University Workman School of Dental Medicine, High Point, North Carolina, USA.

The release of the National Institutes of Health report, Oral Health in America: Advances and Challenges, in 2022 identified a pressing concern about oral healthcare and that "the job is far from finished." The High Point University Workman School of Dental Medicine utilized this report as inspiration to facilitate the design of the Clinician-Advocate-Researcher-Entrepreneur Curriculum. The aspiration was to create a novel curriculum and experiential model to prepare learners for the future of dental medicine, including addressing these public oral healthcare needs. Read More

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Addition of a Cognitive Task During Walking Alters Lower Body Muscle Activity.

Motor Control 2022 May 26:1-10. Epub 2022 May 26.

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB,Canada.

This study compared electromyography of five leg muscles during a single walking task (WALK) to a dual task (walking + cognitive task; COG) in 40 individuals (20 M and 20 F) using a wavelet analysis technique. It was hypothesized that muscle activation during the dual task would differ significantly from the walking task with respect to both timing (H1) and frequency (H2). The mean overall intensity for the COG trials was 4. Read More

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On the perspective of an aging population and its potential impact on drug attrition and pre-clinical cardiovascular safety assessment.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2022 May 23:107184. Epub 2022 May 23.

Sophion Bioscience A/S, Ballerup, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

There is no refuting that America's population is growing older: for the first time in US history, by 2034 older adults (defined as >65 years of age) are projected to outnumber children under the age of 18, representing approximately 70 million people or almost 25% of the population (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2010). Described as the "silver tsunami", this flood of older adults is driven by the baby boomers (people born after World War II, from 1946 to 1964): they are now reaching old age, living longer due to significant advances in healthcare coupled with a record low birth rate, resulting in a skewed elderly population demographic. Read More

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Advances in Modular Control of CAR-T Therapy with Adapter-Mediated CARs.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 May 23:114358. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, USA. Electronic address:

Protein engineering has contributed to successes in the field of T cell-based immunotherapy, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. CAR T cell therapy has become a pillar of cancer immunotherapy, demonstrating clinical effectiveness against B cell malignancies by targeting the B cell antigen CD19. Current gene editing techniques have limited safety controls over CAR T cell activity, which presents a hurdle for control of CAR T cells in patients. Read More

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Spatial indicator of priority areas for the implementation of agroforestry systems: An optimization strategy for agricultural landscapes restoration.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 23:156185. Epub 2022 May 23.

UNESP/FCAV - São Paulo State University, Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences, Access Way Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil; POLUS-Land Use Policy Group, Paulista State University (UNESP), Access Way Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil.

The ecological functions restoration in agricultural areas is a major challenge on a landscape scale. In the specific case of active restoration through Agroforestry Systems (AFS), the absence of a specific direction hinders ecological restoration processes, especially in regions that prefer intensive agriculture. Thus, this study aims to develop a Spatial Indicator of Priority Areas to guide Agroforestry Systems implementation in agricultural landscapes. Read More

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Recent advances in lignosulfonate filled hydrogel for flexible wearable electronics: A mini review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Shandong, 250353, China.

With the rapid development of flexible wearable devices, various polymer hydrogels have gained immense progress due to their adjustable mechanical properties, high conductivity, super sensitivity, good biocompatibility and adaptable wearability. Lignosulfonate (LS), generating from the sulfite pulping industry, was emerged as a promising filler in polymer hydrogels with great potential for multifunctional wearable electronics. Herein, we comprehensively review the latest research progress associated with LS-based hydrogels. Read More

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Leveraging the model-experiment loop: Examples from cellular slime mold chemotaxis.

Exp Cell Res 2022 May 23:113218. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Biological Design Center, Boston University, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Interplay between models and experimental data advances discovery and understanding in biology, particularly when models generate predictions that allow well-designed experiments to distinguish between alternative mechanisms. To illustrate how this feedback between models and experiments can lead to key insights into biological mechanisms, we explore three examples from cellular slime mold chemotaxis. These examples include studies that identified chemotaxis as the primary mechanism behind slime mold aggregation, discovered that cells likely measure chemoattractant gradients by sensing concentration differences across cell length, and tested the role of cell-associated chemoattractant degradation in shaping chemotactic fields. Read More

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Bilayer silk fibroin/sodium alginate scaffold promotes vascularization and advances inflammation stage in full-thickness wound.

Biofabrication 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Biomedical Material and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, CHINA.

An ideal wound dressing for full-thickness wound regeneration should offer desirable biocompatibility, adequate mechanical properties, barrier function, and cellular regulation. Here, a bilayer scaffold resembling the hierarchical structure of human skin was developed using silk fibroin and sodium alginate. The upper membrane was prepared through casting and functioned as the epidermis, whereas the lower porous scaffold was prepared by freeze-drying and mimicked extracellular matrix structures. Read More

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A comprehensive system review of pharmacological effects and relative mechanisms of Ginsenoside Re: Recent advances and future perspectives.

Phytomedicine 2022 May 13;102:154119. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350122, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Drug Target Discovery and Structural and Functional Research, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350122, China; Higher Educational Key Laboratory for Nano Biomedical Technology of Fujian Province, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350122, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ginsenoside Re (Re) belongs to protopanaxatriol saponins and exists in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, and other plants in the Araliaceae family. Re has recently become a research focus owing to its pharmacological activities and benefits to human bodies.

Purpose: To summarize recent findings regarding the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Re and highlight and predict the potential therapeutic effects and systematic mechanism of Re. Read More

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Resistance against anti-CD19 and anti-BCMA CAR T cells: Recent advances and coping strategies.

Transl Oncol 2022 May 23;22:101459. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Hematology, Mersin City Hospital, Mersin, Turkey. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy is a new treatment paradigm that has revolutionized the treatment of CD19-positive B cell malignancies and BCMA-positive plasma cell malignancies. The response rates are highly impressive in comparison to historical cohorts, but the responses are not durable. The most recent results from pivotal trials show that current CAR T cell products fail to demonstrate optimal long-term disease control. Read More

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Nitrite and nitrate reduction drive sediment microbial nitrogen cycling in a eutrophic lake.

Water Res 2022 May 19;220:118637. Epub 2022 May 19.

Environmental Microbiomics Research Center, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Ecology, Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

The anaerobic microbial nitrogen (N) removal in lake sediments is one of the most important processes driving the nitrogen cycling in lake ecosystems. However, the N removal and its underlying mechanisms regulated by denitrifying and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria in lake sediments remain poorly understood. With the field sediments collected from different areas of Lake Donghu (a shallow eutrophic lake), we examined the denitrifying and anammox bacterial communities by sequencing the nirS/K and hzsB genes, respectively. Read More

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Neurocircuit models of obsessive-compulsive disorder: limitations and future directions for research.

Braz J Psychiatry 2022 Mar-Abr;44(2):187-200

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric condition classically characterized by obsessions (recurrent, intrusive and unwanted thoughts) and compulsions (excessive, repetitive and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts). OCD is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and not all patients respond to first-line treatments. Several neurocircuit models of OCD have been proposed with the aim of providing a better understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the disorder. Read More

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December 2020

Supercomplex supercomplexes: Raison d'etre and functional significance of supramolecular organization in oxidative phosphorylation.

Sunil Nath

Biomol Concepts 2022 May 26;13(1):272-288. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India.

Following structural determination by recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy, it is now well established that the respiratory Complexes I-IV in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are organized into supercomplexes in the respirasome. Nonetheless, the reason for the existence of the OXPHOS supercomplexes and their functional role remains an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the existence of these supercomplex supercomplexes. Read More

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Evidence-Based Critical Care Education for Oncology Nurses.

Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2022 Jul-Aug 01;41(4):171-177

Background: Advances in medical care for oncology patients have heightened the complexity of this patient population, leading to an increased need for lifesaving, critical care. Yet, there is a lack of literature on education to prepare nurses to provide care to critically ill oncology patients.

Objectives: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate oncology nurses' mastery of basic and oncology-specific critical care knowledge after an evidence-based supplemental training intervention. Read More

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Measuring the tail: Methods for poly(A) tail profiling.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2022 May 26:e1737. Epub 2022 May 26.

Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

The 3'-end poly(A) tail is an important and potent feature of most mRNA molecules that affects mRNA fate and translation efficiency. Polyadenylation is a posttranscriptional process that occurs in the nucleus by canonical poly(A) polymerases (PAPs). In some specific instances, the poly(A) tail can also be extended in the cytoplasm by noncanonical poly(A) polymerases (ncPAPs). Read More

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Comprehensive Review on Different Analytical Techniques for HIV 1- Integrase Inhibitors: Raltegravir, Dolutegravir, Elvitegravir and Bictegravir.

Crit Rev Anal Chem 2022 May 26:1-15. Epub 2022 May 26.

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ghaziabad, UP, India.

The advent of HIV-Integrase inhibitors (IN) has marked a significant impact on the lives of HIV patients. Since the launch of the first anti retro-viral drug "Azidothymidine" to the recent advances of IN inhibitors, about 27.4 million people benefit by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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Microbiota and maintenance of skin barrier function.

Science 2022 May 26;376(6596):940-945. Epub 2022 May 26.

Departments of Dermatology and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Human skin forms a protective barrier against the external environment and is our first line of defense against toxic, solar, and pathogenic insults. Our skin also defines our outward appearance, protects our internal tissues and organs, acts as a sensory interface, and prevents dehydration. Crucial to the skin's barrier function is the colonizing microbiota, which provides protection against pathogens, tunes immune responses, and fortifies the epithelium. Read More

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Local barriers configure systemic communications between the host and microbiota.

Science 2022 May 26;376(6596):950-955. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Associations between the dynamic community of microbes (the microbiota) and the host they colonize appear to be vital for ensuring host health. Microbe-host communication is actively maintained across physiological barriers of various body sites and is mediated by a range of bidirectional secreted proteins and small molecules. So far, a range of "omics" methods have succeeded in revealing the multiplicity of associations between members of a microbiota and a wide range of host processes and diseases. Read More

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100th Anniversary of Macromolecular Science Viewpoint: Soft Materials for Microbial Bioelectronics.

ACS Macro Lett 2020 Nov 5;9(11):1590-1603. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States.

Bioelectronics brings together the fields of biology and microelectronics to create multifunctional devices with the potential to address longstanding technological challenges and change our way of life. Microbial electrochemical devices are a growing subset of bioelectronic devices that incorporate naturally occurring or synthetically engineered microbes into electronic devices and have broad applications including energy harvesting, chemical production, water remediation, and environmental and health monitoring. The goal of this Viewpoint is to highlight recent advances and ongoing challenges in the rapidly developing field of microbial bioelectronic devices, with an emphasis on materials challenges. Read More

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November 2020

Advances in chromone-based reactants in the ring opening and skeletal reconstruction reaction: access to skeletally diverse salicyloylbenzene/heterocycle derivatives.

Org Biomol Chem 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for the Exploitation of Homology Resources of Southwest Medicine and Food, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P. R. China.

Salicyloylbenzene/heterocycles are privileged scaffolds found in many natural products and bioactive molecules. Numerous useful approaches for the preparation of these privileged scaffolds have been developed in recent years. Among these approaches, chromone-based reactants have demonstrated their importance in the synthesis of these salicyloylbenzene/heterocycle scaffolds with structural complexity and potential biological appeal. Read More

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Synthetic Strategies to Enhance the Electrocatalytic Properties of Branched Metal Nanoparticles.

Acc Chem Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

ConspectusBranched metal nanoparticles have unique catalytic properties because of their high surface area with multiple branches arranged in an open 3D structure that can interact with reacting species and tailorable branch surfaces that can maximize the exposure of desired catalytically active crystal facets. These exceptional properties have led to the exploration of the roles of branch structural features ranging from the number and dimensions of branches at the larger scales to the atomic-scale arrangement of atoms on precise crystal facets. The fundamental significance of how larger-scale branch structural features and atomic-scale surface faceting influence and control the catalytic properties has been at the forefront of the design of branched nanoparticles for catalysis. Read More

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Biotechnology of banana (Musa spp.): multi-dimensional progress and prospect of in vitro-mediated system.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Crop Research Unit (Genetics and Plant Breeding), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, 741252, India.

Banana (Musa spp.), commonly known as 'Adam fig' and 'Fruit of wise man', is a commercial herbaceous tropical fruit, which governs its antiquity from ancient periods in the Indian and African subcontinent. All parts of the plant, i. Read More

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Overcoming challenges of translating deep learning models for Glioblastoma: the ZGBM consortium.

Br J Radiol 2022 May 26:20220206. Epub 2022 May 26.

Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To report imaging protocol and scheduling variance in routine care of glioblastoma patients in order to demonstrate challenges of integrating deep learning models in glioblastoma care pathways. Additionally, to understand the most common imaging studies and image contrasts to inform the development of potentially robust deep learning models.

Methods: MR imaging data were analysed from a random sample of 5 patients from the prospective cohort across five participating sites of the ZGBM consortium. Read More

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Tomato as a natural source of dyes in the food industry: A patent data analysis.

Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Nutrition School, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Foods that promote health benefits are being increasingly used. Innovative techniques, such as nanotechnology, have been used to improve functional properties, sensory characteristics, or the conservation of foods.

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the technological domain of patents for tomato products with or without nanotechnology and elucidate the technological advances associated with the recent use of tomatoes as a natural food dye in the food industry by exploring patent documents. Read More

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The impact of an educational tool in cervix image registration across three imaging modalities.

Br J Radiol 2022 May 26:20211402. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Accurate image registration is vital in cervical cancer where changes in both planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) can make decisions regarding image registration complicated. This work aims to determine the impact of a dedicated educational tool compared with experience gained in MR guided radiotherapy (MRgRT).

Methods: Ten therapeutic radiographers acted as observers and were split into two groups based on previous experience with MRgRT and Monaco treatment planning system. Read More

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The interventional radiology gender gap: Perspectives from the international IR training survey.

Br J Radiol 2022 May 26:20210726. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Guys & St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, London, United States.

Objectives: This study sought to examine international interventional radiology (IR) training standards and perceptions. This survey aims to identify gender-based barriers and inequities effecting uptake, retention and experience of trainees in IR.

Methods: An anonymous survey was created using Survey Monkey and distributed as a single-use web link via eight IR national and international societies around the world. Read More

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